CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4203
authors Fraser, Michael
year 1993
title Boundary Representation in Practice
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 173-185
summary There is an essential contradiction between the making of buildings or built environments in a threedimensional modeler and the graphic control of this process. Three-dimensional modeling is a constructive activity, in which solids are assembled as they would be in an actual structure; it benefits the designer. Presentation and documentation, on the other hand, are prescriptive activities that direct some of the construction and all the visualization and criticism of the proposal; they benefit the user and builder.

A building while being designed can be visualized and criticized from its solid model, and the model can take a variety of forms depending on its part): computer-based, drawn in orthographic or perspective projection, constructed of cardboard or wood, or described narratively by means of text, programmatic data, performance model or animation. However, practicing architecture is the process of recording and communicating the decision making process and the contractual obligations that result. In actual practice, in contrast to the designer directed ideal, more participants are brought in sooner at the beginning of a project and with more publicity, which in turn means keeping more, not fewer, records. As the profession evolves, records of the string of design decisions will become more automated, more carefully structured and more retrievable. More buildings will be "tracked" and exposed to review in this way because public environmental sensitivity will improve. The communication between a single designer and his own thoughts will become less and less important.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:39

_id 2ff9
id 2ff9
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1993
title Knowledge-based Stair Design
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 163-171
summary The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modeling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.

This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/12/20 04:40

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0b24
authors Chilton, J.C., Wester, T. and Yu, J.
year 1993
title Exploring Structural Morphology Using CAD
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Often in the design process the student's imagination is restricted by their inability to visualise, model or accurately sketch ideas for innovative structural systems. By using CAD as a design tool it is possible to explore the morphology of complex structures and to be able to produce perspective drawings of them with relative ease. Within AutoCAD there is a small library of standard three-dimensional objects and surfaces that can be called upon to generate more complex forms. However, to further facilitate the architectural design process, an extended library of innovative structural forms would allow the professional designer, or student, greater design freedom and any increase in the palette of structural forms available should stimulate creativity. As practical examples, the paper describes how students have been encouraged to experiment with the use of structures which can only be physically modelled with difficulty and which are also difficult to represent on the two- dimensional surface of the drawing board unless the geometry has previously been determined by the methods described. These are (i) Reciprocal Frame three-dimensional beam grillage structures and (ii) plate domes created from lattice structures by point-to- plane duality. The problem, of representation of these structures has been overcome, in the first case, by generating AutoLISP procedures to draw the complex three-dimensional geometrical form automatically in AutoCAD and, in the second case, by the development of the computer program CADual.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:08

_id ddss9209
id ddss9209
authors De Gelder, J.T. and Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title Knowledge and data modelling in cad/cam applications
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Modelling knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications is complex because different goals and contexts have to be taken into account. This complexity makes particular demands upon representation formalisms. Today many modelling tools are based on record structures. By analyzing the requirements for a product model of a portal structure in steel, this paper shows that in many situations record structures are not well suited as a representation formalism for storing knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications. This is illustrated by performing a knowledge-level analysis of the knowledge and data generated in the design and manufacturing process of a portal structure in steel.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6c55
authors Dosti, P., Linzer, H. Martens, B. and Voigt, A.
year 1993
title Multimedia for Environmental Simulation - Framework of Research
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Nature as complete entity having existed before us, having produced us, of which we are a part of and which reaches far beyond us and our knowledge stands both for productivity and product, for stones, earth, water, air, plants, animals, human beings, for energy as such. On account of his activity and his intellectual powers and faculties the human being represents the center of this interrelation comprising his vital space, being perceived by him either consciously or unconsciously, the structure and formation of which he changes, which in turn, however, significantly codetermines his behavior and also his development. Spatial effect analysis and spatial impact analysis take the cross- linked interrelations of nature into account and thus the correlated diverse interactions by means of integral representation, determine the direct and indirect as well as the immediate and mediate decisions as to space and furnish us with decision-conclusions by means of modifications. Based on the all-in-all outlook encompassing nature- mankind-space spatial impact also means in particular compatibility within systems giving due regard to the factor time. The following topics are treated within the framework of research: (1.) Elaboration of a methodical framework regarding research and development in the field of multimedia-implementation for environmental planning. (2.) Preparative work concerning implementation areas of multimedia focussing on urban & regional planning and architecture. (3.) Planning process and planning levels,furthermore in the fields of information and decision process and accompanying verification. (4.) Optimizing interaction of multimedia and environmental simulation. (5.) Definition of research- and development-requirements as far as subject-specific and EDP-technical aspects are concerned. (6.) Structurizing of projects regarding realization of framework of research.

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/02/11 17:55

_id e3d3
authors Gudna , François and Zreik, Khaldoun
year 1993
title Analogy, Exploration and Generalization: Three Activities for Knowledge-Based Architectural Design Systems
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 255-272
summary We propose in this article a system architecture based on reasoning through analogy with past cases or situations. Starting with a project and a sketch provided by the user, the system locates analogous situations in the past and uses these to improve a problem's description. A sufficiently improved description will in turn activate a constraint-satisfaction mechanism. Previous situations are stored in a memory bank of objects that match the description of past problems to the generic descriptions of past solutions. Three mechanisms can be distinguished within the system: an analogy mechanism collects hypotheses about the variables and constraints to be satisfied in past situations, an exploratory mechanism searches through the solution space, a generalizing mechanism looks at experiences and memorizes only what is needed to collect hypotheses.
keywords Knowledge-Based System, Case-Based Reasoning, Constraints Satisfaction, Explanation-Based Learning, Object-Oriented Representation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id e00f
authors Harfmann, A.C., Majkowski, B. and Chen, S.S.
year 1993
title A Component-Based Approach to Building Product Representation and Design Development
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 437-452
summary This paper presents the development of the component-based approach for building product representation and suggests its appropriateness for incorporation at any stage in the design process. The efforts focus on resolving the conflicts that arise when the common denominator of component level representation in utilized throughout the process of designing a building.
keywords Component-Based Modeling, Component Modeling; Product Models; Building Models, Object-Oriented Modelling, Relational Databases
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2608
authors Hartman, Jan B.
year 1993
title Application of Endoscopy in Road–Design
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 109-116
summary Within the Dutch Ministry of Transport a special Division on Transport and Traffic Research is occupied with all aspects concerning mobility and traffic safety on a national level. Research and advice on the quality of the road–infrastructure is one of the main topics. For road–design a set of very detailed guidelines have been developed. Construction and reconstruction of parts of the high–way–network are tested against these guidelines. In this matter the actual road–user takes a central place. In the design–phase of a project on road-infrastructure contributions of a number of experts are taken into account. Expert–opinions on elements of the road–design result in a overall road–design. The road–scene of the overall–design is tested against visual requirements for safe driving, from a drivers point of view. Goal is to give advice on improvement of the visual quality of the road design. Research in this field is now carried out by Grontmij Consulting Engineers, mainly under authority of the Ministry of Transport. Key–word is Improvement of Quality. Who is going to notice? Who will benefit from it? Of course it is a comforting thought for road–owners and designers to know they won’t have to be ashamed for what they have come up with. Primary goal is that ‘We the people’ are provided with a high–standard road infrastructure. The road–scene research section studies the quality of the visual information as presented to the roadusers. We try to create visual circumstances in which drivers will be able to perform their driving task is a proper way. When the visual representation in the brain differs from reality, you have a serious problem. A traffic safety problem, with casualties and fatalities. A burden for society, financially and emotionally.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c5bb
authors Hirschberg, U., Meister, M. and Neumann, F.
year 1993
title Processing of Geographic Data for CAAD-supported Analysis and Design of Urban Development Areas
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The interdisciplinary research project aims at the development of a hard- and software environment to support the representation, analysis, manipulation and design of urban development areas for architects and city planners. It was started in 1990 and involves three groups at the ETH Zurich: Architecture/Urban design - Processing of Geographic Data/Photogrammetry -Computer Sciences/CAAD. The first part of this paper will give an introduction to the goals and implications of the project by comparing it with a similar project one of the authors took part in as a student. Then the paper gives a brief description of the work of the three groups involved, an overview of the methods they employed and the results that were achieved. The main focus will be on the work of the CAAD group . Finally some conclusions are drawn and problems are discussed. The future work includes the testing of the tool by students during the winter term 1993/94.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Göteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ab3c
authors Kramer, G.
year 1996
title Mapping a Single Data Stream to Multiple Auditory Variables: A Subjective Approach to Creating a Compelling Design
source Proceedings of the Third International Conferenceon Auditory Display, Santa FO Institute
summary Representing a single data variable changing in time via sonification, or using that data to control a sound in some way appears to be a simple problem but actually involves a significant degree of subjectivity. This paper is a response to my own focus on specific sonification tasks (Kramer 1990, 1993) (Fitch & Kramer, 1994), on broad theoretical concerns in auditory display (Kramer 1994a, 1994b, 1995), and on the representation of high-dimensional data sets (Kramer 1991a & Kramer & Ellison, 1991b). The design focus of this paper is partly a response to the others who, like myself, have primarily employed single fundamental acoustic variables such as pitch or loudness to represent single data streams. These simple representations have framed three challenges: Behavioral and Cognitive Science-Can sonifications created with complex sounds changing simultaneously in several dimensions facilitate the formation of a stronger internal auditory image, or audiation, than would be produced by simpler sonifications? Human Factors and Applications-Would such a stronger internal image of the data prove to be more useful from the standpoint of conveying information? Technology and Design-How might these richer displays be constructed? This final question serves as a starting point for this paper. After years of cautious sonification research I wanted to explore the creation of more interesting and compelling representations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2004_256
id 2004_256
authors Lai, Ih-Cheng
year 2004
title Interactive Patterns for Associating Ideas during Brainstorming
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 256-261
summary Idea association is an important behavior to generate diverse ideas during brainstorming. Through three linking principles (similarity, contrast and contiguity), idea association involves a dynamic linking process between ideas and design cases. Based on the knowledge representation issue-concept-form proposed by Oxman (1993), three interactive patterns between ideas and design cases are investigated. Finally, some computational mechanisms for supporting the linkage of idea association are discussed.
keywords Idea Association, Linking, Case Representation, Case Based Reasoning, Brainstorming
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id c9cf
authors Logan, B. and Smithers, T.
year 1993
title Creativity and design as exploration
source J.S. Gero and M. L. Maher (eds), Modelling Creativity and Knowledge-Based Creative Design, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 139-175
summary This paper considers the problem of creative design, and in particular the role of a priori knowledge or "prototypes" in the design process. A design problem is characterised as one in which both the objectives and the means available for achieving these objectives are (of necessity) initially only poorly defined. Some observations concerning the nature of design process based on this characterisation are presented, and a model of the design process as a knowledge-based exploration task described. The role of prototypes in organising this knowledge is examined, and the widely accepted view that prototypes can form the principle source of knowledge for creativity in design is challenged. In a final section we outline the structural principles of a representation scheme which aims to overcome of these difficulties and describe a design support system which uses this scheme to support the design process.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id af46
authors Lue, Q.
year 1993
title Computer aided descriptive geometry
source Vienna University of Technology
summary The main aim of this thesis is the creation of a software package for descriptive geometry. Why there is a need for such a descriptive geometry software? In descriptive geometry the ability of space perception is trained by solving spatial problems graphically with the use of a few constructions: Hence the solution of each problem consists of two parts: 1) 3D-part: After analyzing the spatial problem it is cleared how to proceed step by step in space. 2) 2D-part: Due to the basic rules of descriptive geometry for each step of the solving strategy the corresponding 2D-construction has to be carried out graphically. By use of CAD-DG the 2nd part can be replaced again by a 3D-part: Each step is solved using the basic routines offered in the menu. That means that each step is solved analytically but instead of any output of numbers the solution is immediately displayed in the main views on the screen. Therefore the user neither needs to apply formulas of analytic geometry nor has to take care of any coordinates. He still works directly with geometric objects in a graphic representation
keywords Descriptive Geometry; Computer Graphics; Education; Interactive Graphic Software Package; Programming Technique; Educational Software
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a944
authors Maher, M.L., Gero, J.S. and Saad, M.
year 1993
title Synchronous Support and Emergence in Collaborative CAAD
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 455-470
summary Design is rarely an activity that is commenced and completed by an individual The more common design environment is one in which teams of designers work together towards a final solution. In this paper we consider issues involved in the development of computer-based design environments in which teams of design professionals can collaborate, focusing on the need for visual and underlying representations which can support multiple interpretations. We consider the environment as providing a shared workspace which facilitates both communication and progression of design ideas, concepts, and drawings. In the environment presented here, the shared workspace has two foci: the workspace that designers see and interact with, and the workspace that provides an underlying computer-based representation for persistent memory. The emphasis is on providing representations that support emergence that occurs during collaboration.
keywords Collaborative Design, Team Design, Multi-User Synchronous CAAD, Shared Representation, Shared Workspace, Emergence
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 8402
authors Martens, Bob (Ed.)
year 1995
title The Future of Endoscopy
source [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4] Vienna (Austria), 30 August - 1 September 1995, 144p.
summary The first EAEA-Conference took place at Tampere University of Technology (Finland, 1993) serving as an meeting point for specialists of endoscopy in architecture and displayed an approach to the potentials of endoscopy. The Vienna Conference in 1995 continued this direction and tried furthermore to serve as a platform for non-advanced users. EAEA '95 Vienna aimed at a critical investigation of today's endoscopic culture. The Aspern-Workshop represented the highlight of this conference. Prior to the conference nine universities had submitted endoscopic and computer-assisted space simulations for this urban expansion area north of the Vienna Danube. The outcome was not to be regarded as a “noble competition” between the various institutions participating, but rather to sound out the actual potential of various simulation techniques and their combinations for future use. The conference proceedings contain the papers presented at the meeting by 23 experts from 15 universities. The papers cover such areas as the technical features of endoscopy and environmental simulation, theories supporting the use of endoscopy, practical applications, and discussions on the future of endoscopy and environmental simulation in comparison with other means of architectural representation.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 4c52
authors Meyer, Steven and Fenves, Steven J.
year 1993
title Adjacency Structures as Mappings Between Function and Structure in Discrete Static Systems
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 175-193
summary We present a graph-based method for mapping between functional requirements and physical structure in discrete static systems. Through forward or backward chaining, this method may be used in a generative mode to suggest instances Of system structure satisfying the desired functionality, or in a parsing mode to uncover the behavior and function of a given system. The graph may be composed from a geometric model, but the method is independent of any specific geometric modelling representation. We focus on the domain of structural systems in buildings to describe this method.
keywords Computer-Aided Structural Design, Geometric Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 96a9
authors Mullet, Kevin and Sano, Darrell
year 1993
title Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces Tutorials
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings 1993 p. 230
summary Objective: This tutorial is designed to increase the participant's awareness of visual and aesthetic issues and provide practical techniques (not guidelines) for achieving elegant user interfaces, information displays, and data visualisations. The emphasis is on avoiding a number of mistakes seen repeatedly in commercial products. Content: This tutorial will focus on the core competencies or "tricks of the trade" that all visual designers internalise as part of their basic training. The tutorial is organised not along the traditional graphic design specialisations, such as typography or colour, but according to the design goals and familiar problems of real-world product development. Specific content areas will include elegance and simplicity; scale, contrast and proportion; organisation and visual structure; module and programme; image and representation; and style. The communication-oriented design aesthetic seen in graphic design, industrial design, and architecture can be applied very successfully to graphical user interfaces, data displays, and multimedia. Design rules provided will be illustrated with extensive visual examples drawn from the international design communities as well as from the HCI domain.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

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