CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9211
id ddss9211
authors Gilleard, J. and Olatidoye, O.
year 1993
title Graphical interfacing to a conceptual model for estimating the cost of residential construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper presents a method for determining elemental square foot costs and cost significance for residential construction. Using AutoCAD's icon menu and dialogue box' facilities, a non-expert may graphically select (i) residential configuration; (ii) construction quality level; (iii) geographical location; (iv) square foot area; and finally, (v) add-ons, e.g. porches and decks, basement, heating and cooling equipment, garages and carports etc. in order to determine on-site builder's costs. Subsequent AutoLisp routines facilitate data transfer to a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet where an elemental cost breakdown for the project may be determined. Finally, using Lotus 1-2-3 macros, computed data is transferred back to AutoCAD, where all cost significant items are graphically highlighted.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9214
id ddss9214
authors Friedman, A.
year 1993
title A decision-making process for choice of a flexible internal partition option in multi-unit housing using decision theory techniques
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Recent demographic changes have increased the heterogeneity of user groups in the North American housing market. Smaller households (e.g. elderly, single parent) have non-traditional spatial requirements that cannot be accommodated within the conventional house layout. This has created renewed interest in Demountable/Flexible internal partition systems. However, the process by which designers decide which project or user groups are most suited for the use of these systems is quite often complex, non-linear, uncertain and dynamic, since the decisions involve natural processes and human values that are apparently random. The anonymity of users when mass housing projects are conceptualized, and the uncertainty as to the alternative to be selected by the user, given his/her constantly changing needs, are some contributing factors to this effect. Decision Theory techniques, not commonly used by architects, can facilitate the decision-making process through a systematic evaluation of alternatives by means of quantitative methods in order to reduce uncertainty in probabilistic events or in cases when data is insufficient. The author used Decision Theory in the selection of flexible partition systems. The study involved a multi-unit, privately initiated housing project in Montreal, Canada, where real site conditions and costs were used. In this paper, the author outlines the fundamentals of Decision Theory and demonstrates the use of Expected Monetary Value and Weighted Objective Analysis methods and their outcomes in the design of a Montreal housing project. The study showed that Decision Theory can be used as an effective tool in housing design once the designer knows how to collect basic data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2c7b
authors Stenvert, Ronald
year 1993
title The Vector-drawing as a Means to Unravel Architectural Communication in the Past
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Unlike in painting, in architecture one single person never controls the whole process between conception and realization of a building. Ideas of what the building will eventually look like, have to be conveyed from patron to the actual builders, by way of drawings. Generally the architect is the key-figure in this process of communication of visual ideas. Nowadays many architects design their new buildings by using computers and Computer-Aided (Architectural) Design programs like AutoCad and VersaCAD. Just like traditional drawings, all these computer drawings are in fact vector-drawings; a collection of geometrical primitives like lines, circle segments etc. identified by the coordinates of their end points. Vector-based computer programs can not only be used to design the future, but also as a means to unravel the architectural communication in the past. However, using the computer as an analyzing tool for a better comprehension of the past is not as simple as it seems. Historical data from the past are governed by unique features of date and place. The complexity of the past combined with the straightforwardness of the computer requires a pragmatic and basic approach in which the computer acts as a catalytic agent, enabling the scholar to arrive manually at his own - computer-assisted - conclusions. From this it turns out that only a limited number of projects of a morphological kind are suited to contribute to new knowledge, acquired by the close-reading of the information gained by way of meaningful abstraction. An important problem in this respect is how to obtain the right kind of architectural information. All four major elements of the building process - architect, design, drawing and realization - have their own different and gradually shifting interpretations in the past. This goes especially for the run-of-the-mill architecture which makes up the larger part of the historical urban environment. Starting with the architect, one has to realize that only a very limited part of mainstream architecture was designed by architects. In almost all other cases the role of the patron and the actual builder exceeds that of the architect, even to the extent that they designed buildings themselves. The position of design and drawing as means of communication also changed in the past. Until the middle of the nineteenth century drawings were not the chief means of communication between architects and builders, who got the gist of the design from a model, or, encountering problems, simply asked the architect or supervisor. From the nineteenth century onwards the use of drawings became more common, but almost never represented the building entirely "as built". In 1991 I published my Ph.D. thesis: Constructing the past: computerassisted architectural-historical research: the application of image-processing using the computer and Computer-Aided Design for the study of the urban environment, illustrated by the use of treatises in seventeenth-century architecture (Utrecht 1991). Here, a reconstruction of this historical communication process will be presented on the basis of a project studying the use of the Classical orders as prescribed in various architectural treatises, compared to the use of the orders in a specific group of still existing buildings in The Netherlands dating from the late sixteenth and entire seventeenth century. Comparisons were made by using vector-drawings. Both the illustrations in the the treatises and actual buildings were "translated" into computer-drawings and then analyzed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:03

_id c32f
authors Grant, Mike
year 1993
title Issue - Interactive Software Systems for the Urban Environment
source CAAD Futures 93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 557-564
summary The research reported here sought to examine the prospect for linking data sets which are currently isolated within specific departments or held externally by utility companies or businesses each of whom are likely to benefit from pooling resources. These data sets are potentially capable of being merged into one comprehensive system with the prospect that the sum of the parts would be worth considerably more than their individual worth suggests.
keywords Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Urban Management Visualization, Geographical Information Systems
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/11/23 18:40

_id 87d2
authors Serrano, J.G., Coll, J., Melero, J.C. and Burry, Mark
year 1993
title The Need to Step Beyond Conventional Architectural Software
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The Sagrada Familia Church has appointed two groups of consultants to assist the translation of Gaudi's 1:10 scaled models of the nave into coherent information from which to build. One team has been undertaking the static analysis of the nave roof vault structure and the other the study of the complexities of Gaudi's composition in order to provide full-scale production templates and models for the walls. Both teams had begun using the same basic CAD package and both have had to move onto high-end and very expensive solid-modelling software normally used by mechanical engineers and vehicle designers. Both groups are collaborating together with different accents despite an improbable geographical separation. The original problem, one of intersecting ruled-surfaces accurately to reflect the geometries of the surviving fragments of the original models, has led to surprising possibilities which were not anticipated at the outset. Currently the potential of parametric variation and associative geometries are being investigated as a mirror for some of the intuitive design process and finite element analysis is being considered as a means of interactively analysing the structural implications for each study. The software being used also has a powerful ray-tracing module; rather than being simply a tool to produce eye-catching 'realistic' renderings it has proved to be invaluable in allowing the computer user to understand the spatial complexities of the components being studied. This paper discusses the merits of an architecture so demanding (despite having been designed at the beginning of this century) that it requires the most costly equipment in today's market and it will consider the proposition that in ordinary circumstances, an architecture too complex to be described using basic CAD tools is an architecture beyond our reach. The interdisciplinary nature of the diverse and powerful modules within the software referred to will be used to contest this proposition using the presence of both teams in schools of architecture as evidence.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:40

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_1.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 86dc
authors Aouad, G., and Price, A.D.F.
year 1993
title An integrated system to aid the planning of concrete structures: introducing the system
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT1(2), pp.1-14
summary This paper reports on the development at Loughborough University of a CAD-based integrated model to aid the planning of in-situ concrete structures. The system development started after a review of the planning models currently available and after a detailed questionnaire survey undertaken amongst the top UK and US contractors on the current status of planning techniques and information technology. The main aim of this system is to automate the planning process of in-situ concrete structures using data generated by CAD systems. So far, the integration of a CAD system (AutoCAD 10) and a computerized scheduling system (Artemis 2000) has been achieved on a typical IBM-PC. This enables the generation of network plans using AutoCAD which are then automatically transferred to the Artemis system for time and cost analyses.Traditionally, construction planners are faced with many conventional drawings and documents which are used to re-extract information relevant to their planning processes. Such an approach can be very inefficient as it involves data double-handling and is often error prone. In addition, current computerized construction planning applications are little more than the automation of manual formulations of plans. For example, data are fed into the planning system and computations are performed using either CPM (Critical Path Method) or PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique). However, data relating to the planning process such as activity lists, resources requirements and durations are not automatically generated within the system. It would thus seem logical to devise a CAD-based integrated planning model which accepts data in its electronic format and involves some integration of the traditional planning approach. This paper introduces the proposed CAD-based integrated planning model and describes its different components. In addition, it discusses the system functional specifications and summarizes the main benefits and limitations of such a model.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 411e
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1993
title Designing is Information and Emotion
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary It could be stated that designing is a procedure of working out the problems. The point of that procedure is to transform the input data (information about what is demanded) into the system documentation (thing) accomplishing the task. While designing we would like to reach our goal in a certain (reliable) way.
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0c88
authors Bedell, John R. and Kohler, Niklaus
year 1993
title A Hierarchical Model for Building Applications
source CAAD Futures 93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 423-435
summary Advanced computer-aided architectural applications must model buildings as multi-level compositions supporting distinct points of view. Hierarchies of encapsulated, autonomous elements can be derived from ISO-STEP's General AEC Reference Model and configured for various applications. For analysis of life-cycle costs, we define a Pyramid of evaluable production steps leading to the final building; for optimization of renovation task schedules, a topological model of access paths and traffic flow. These separate viewpoints can be embedded in a single unifying structure permitting the communication and propagation of changes among its specialized aspects.
keywords Design Model, Decision Support System, Object-Oriented Data Model, Building Product Model, STEP-GARM
series CAAD Futures
email Niklaus.Kohler@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4dd6
authors Bhavnani, S.K., Garrett, J. and Shaw, D.S.
year 1993
title Leading Indicators of CAD Experience
source CAAD Futures 93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 313-334
summary Current interfaces and help facilities of CAD systems are not designed to respond to a user's performance. To develop such adaptive environments, a better understanding of the indicators of CAD experience is required. This paper discusses the results of studying behavior patterns of different types and levels of CAD users for a specific drawing task. The results show that the type and experience of the CAD user has a clear correlation to the pattern of commands used, the time taken, and the quality of drawing produced. By using the experimental data to train a neural network, the paper demonstrates a connectionist approach for experience assessment. This information, it is proposed, can provide input to an adaptive interface which generates unobtrusive interception to improve the performance of a CAD user. Future experiments to explore the issues of generality and interception are presented.
keywords CAD user Modeling, Adaptive Interface, Neural Networks
series CAAD Futures
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9209
id ddss9209
authors De Gelder, J.T. and Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title Knowledge and data modelling in cad/cam applications
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Modelling knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications is complex because different goals and contexts have to be taken into account. This complexity makes particular demands upon representation formalisms. Today many modelling tools are based on record structures. By analyzing the requirements for a product model of a portal structure in steel, this paper shows that in many situations record structures are not well suited as a representation formalism for storing knowledge and data in CAD/CAM applications. This is illustrated by performing a knowledge-level analysis of the knowledge and data generated in the design and manufacturing process of a portal structure in steel.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4203
authors Fraser, Michael
year 1993
title Boundary Representation in Practice
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 173-185
summary There is an essential contradiction between the making of buildings or built environments in a threedimensional modeler and the graphic control of this process. Three-dimensional modeling is a constructive activity, in which solids are assembled as they would be in an actual structure; it benefits the designer. Presentation and documentation, on the other hand, are prescriptive activities that direct some of the construction and all the visualization and criticism of the proposal; they benefit the user and builder.

A building while being designed can be visualized and criticized from its solid model, and the model can take a variety of forms depending on its part): computer-based, drawn in orthographic or perspective projection, constructed of cardboard or wood, or described narratively by means of text, programmatic data, performance model or animation. However, practicing architecture is the process of recording and communicating the decision making process and the contractual obligations that result. In actual practice, in contrast to the designer directed ideal, more participants are brought in sooner at the beginning of a project and with more publicity, which in turn means keeping more, not fewer, records. As the profession evolves, records of the string of design decisions will become more automated, more carefully structured and more retrievable. More buildings will be "tracked" and exposed to review in this way because public environmental sensitivity will improve. The communication between a single designer and his own thoughts will become less and less important.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:39

_id ca14
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1993
title Generative Modelling and Electronic Lego
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper shows work exemplifying the further extent of computer capabilities in the field of design. The work stems from a belief that for computers to be used effectively within the architectural profession their utility must stretch far beyond the process of description of geometric data, but be incorporated in the fundamental roots of design: that of conceptual design. Computers can be used to access the knowledge we have and then formulate this knowledge into a working language of design. Computers can be used to generate space and form in accordance with any relationship the designer may choose to set. This allows them to be used from the very conception of design. It is only by working from the very beginning, the very basis of the design of a building that we can fully develop the integration of computers in the construction industry. The work undertaken sets out primarily to explore one of the ways computers could be used in the field of architectural design. In recognition that an important byproduct of any design search is the enhanced understanding of the problem itself, the work was directed towards a particular project. This allowed each stage of thought to be to be considered as it arose and subsequently incorporated into the design model. The work does not attempt to automise the design process but simply tries to explore some of the opportunities offered by computers and see if they can be easily incorporated into the design process offering design solutions that may not otherwise have been considered. The exploration resulted in a simple design process model that incorporates the more accessible and useful aspects of computer technology.
keywords Generative Modelling, Rule Based Form, Random Factors, Shape Grammars
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id cd6f
authors Gero, John S. and Yani, Min
year 1993
title Discovering Emergent Shapes Using a Data-Driven Symbolic Model
source CAAD Futures 93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 3-17
summary This paper presents a model for discovering emergent shapes based on the concept of shape hiding and data-driven search. It is founded on representing polyline bounded shapes using infinite maximal lines, an extension of the concept of maximal lines. A process model of shape emergence is presented and a number of examples given which demonstrate the utility of both the representation and the model.
keywords Shape, Emergence, Symbolic Model, Data-Driven Search
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 578d
authors Helpenstein, H. (Ed.)
year 1993
title CAD geometry data exchange using STEP
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag
summary With increasing demand for data exchange in computer integrated manufacturing, a neutral connection between dissimilar systems is needed. After a few national and European attempts, a worldwide standardization of product data has been developed. Standard ISO 10303 (STEP - STandard for Exchange of Product data) produced in its first version those parts that are relevant for CAD geometrical data. A European consortium of 14 CAD vendors and users was supported by the ESPRIT programme to influence the emerging standard and implement early applications for it. Over the years 1989-1992, project CADEX (CAD geometry data EXchange) worked out application protocols as a contribution to STEP; developed a software toolkit that reads, writes, and manipulates STEP data; and, based on this toolkit, implemented data exchange processors for ten different CAD and FEA systems. This book reports the work done in project CADEX and describes all its results in detail.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c5bb
authors Hirschberg, U., Meister, M. and Neumann, F.
year 1993
title Processing of Geographic Data for CAAD-supported Analysis and Design of Urban Development Areas
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The interdisciplinary research project aims at the development of a hard- and software environment to support the representation, analysis, manipulation and design of urban development areas for architects and city planners. It was started in 1990 and involves three groups at the ETH Zurich: Architecture/Urban design - Processing of Geographic Data/Photogrammetry -Computer Sciences/CAAD. The first part of this paper will give an introduction to the goals and implications of the project by comparing it with a similar project one of the authors took part in as a student. Then the paper gives a brief description of the work of the three groups involved, an overview of the methods they employed and the results that were achieved. The main focus will be on the work of the CAAD group . Finally some conclusions are drawn and problems are discussed. The future work includes the testing of the tool by students during the winter term 1993/94.

series eCAADe
email hirschberg@tugraz.at
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id c05c
authors Hovestadt, Ludger
year 1993
title A4 Digital Building: Extensive Computer Support for Building Design, Construction, and Management
source CAAD Futures 93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 405-421
summary The integrated design, construction, and management of buildings are described as being of unlimited complexity. The data structures required to support these tasks cannot be predefined and have- to be worked out during the design process. An instrument that integrates weakly and strongly structured data is necessary. A4 proposes - as a minimal structuring mechanism - the position of information in a dataspace. It offers diverse additional and optional structuring mechanisms. Examples from different domains show the particular strengths of the A4 integration model.
keywords Architecture, Intelligent Building, CAD, Multi-Media, Hypermedia, Active Objects, Virtual Reality, Multi-User, Expert System, Case-Based Reasoning, Communication, Data-Mining
series CAAD Futures
email hovestadt@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 09b4
authors Ismail, Ashraf and McCartney, Kevin
year 1993
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Site-Development Briefs and Related Planning Regulations
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; characteristics evaluated will include building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. In addition to the common graphical output; i.c. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, it will generate textual analysis in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis of proposed development. The tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out with architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of data for environmental statements. Second, field observation and participation will be carried out to observe decision-makers behaviour during assessment of building design proposals. A prototype is currently under development and will be tested against the expectations of the tool designer, Ashraf Ismail, and a team of professionals to be involved in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the study findings will be documented in the research thesis to be presented in June 1995.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:01

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