CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 242

_id 96a9
authors Mullet, Kevin and Sano, Darrell
year 1993
title Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces Tutorials
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings 1993 p. 230
summary Objective: This tutorial is designed to increase the participant's awareness of visual and aesthetic issues and provide practical techniques (not guidelines) for achieving elegant user interfaces, information displays, and data visualisations. The emphasis is on avoiding a number of mistakes seen repeatedly in commercial products. Content: This tutorial will focus on the core competencies or "tricks of the trade" that all visual designers internalise as part of their basic training. The tutorial is organised not along the traditional graphic design specialisations, such as typography or colour, but according to the design goals and familiar problems of real-world product development. Specific content areas will include elegance and simplicity; scale, contrast and proportion; organisation and visual structure; module and programme; image and representation; and style. The communication-oriented design aesthetic seen in graphic design, industrial design, and architecture can be applied very successfully to graphical user interfaces, data displays, and multimedia. Design rules provided will be illustrated with extensive visual examples drawn from the international design communities as well as from the HCI domain.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id c995
authors Smets, G., Gaver, W.W., Overbeeke, C. and Stappers, P.
year 1993
title Designing in Virtual Reality: Perception-Action Coupling and Form Semantics Short Papers (Talks): Visual Languages and Virtual Reality
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings 1993 pp. 11-12
summary In this paper, we describe work on a CAD package we are developing for use in virtual reality. Although this research is only preliminary, it demonstrates some advantages of designing in virtual reality. We describe these advantages in terms of ecological approach to perception, focusing on two of the implications of this approach: the role of perception-action coupling in producing true direct manipulation, and the desirability of providing perceptual information about the affordances of objects in the design environment.
keywords Virtual Reality; Ecological Approaches
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id c372
authors Calvert, T., Bruderlin, A., Mah, S., Schiphorst, T. and Welman, C.
year 1993
title The Evolution of an Interface for Choreographers Evolving Design
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1993 pp. 115-122
summary This paper describes the evolution of the interface to Life Forms, a compositional tool for the creation of dance choreography, and highlights some of the important lessons we have learned during a six year design and implementation period. The lessons learned can be grouped into two categories: 1) Process, and 2) Architecture of the Interface. Our goal in developing a tool for choreography has been to provide computer-based creative design support for the conception and development of dance. The evolution was driven by feedback from the choreographers and users who were members of the development team, combined with our knowledge of current thinking on design and composition. Although the interface evolved in a relatively unconstrained way, the resulting system has many of the features that theoretical discussion in human interface design has projected as necessary. The Life Forms interface has evolved incrementally with one major discontinuity where adoption of a new compositional primitive required a completely new version. The choreography and composition of a dance is a complex synthesis task which has much in common with design. Thus, the lessons learned here are applicable to the development of interfaces to such applications as computer aided design.
keywords Composition; Design; User Interface; Dance; Complexity; Choreography; Human Animation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id 6c55
authors Dosti, P., Linzer, H. Martens, B. and Voigt, A.
year 1993
title Multimedia for Environmental Simulation - Framework of Research
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Nature as complete entity having existed before us, having produced us, of which we are a part of and which reaches far beyond us and our knowledge stands both for productivity and product, for stones, earth, water, air, plants, animals, human beings, for energy as such. On account of his activity and his intellectual powers and faculties the human being represents the center of this interrelation comprising his vital space, being perceived by him either consciously or unconsciously, the structure and formation of which he changes, which in turn, however, significantly codetermines his behavior and also his development. Spatial effect analysis and spatial impact analysis take the cross- linked interrelations of nature into account and thus the correlated diverse interactions by means of integral representation, determine the direct and indirect as well as the immediate and mediate decisions as to space and furnish us with decision-conclusions by means of modifications. Based on the all-in-all outlook encompassing nature- mankind-space spatial impact also means in particular compatibility within systems giving due regard to the factor time. The following topics are treated within the framework of research: (1.) Elaboration of a methodical framework regarding research and development in the field of multimedia-implementation for environmental planning. (2.) Preparative work concerning implementation areas of multimedia focussing on urban & regional planning and architecture. (3.) Planning process and planning levels,furthermore in the fields of information and decision process and accompanying verification. (4.) Optimizing interaction of multimedia and environmental simulation. (5.) Definition of research- and development-requirements as far as subject-specific and EDP-technical aspects are concerned. (6.) Structurizing of projects regarding realization of framework of research.

series eCAADe
email linzer@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at, b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.tuwien.ac.at/
last changed 2001/02/11 17:55

_id ddss9214
id ddss9214
authors Friedman, A.
year 1993
title A decision-making process for choice of a flexible internal partition option in multi-unit housing using decision theory techniques
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Recent demographic changes have increased the heterogeneity of user groups in the North American housing market. Smaller households (e.g. elderly, single parent) have non-traditional spatial requirements that cannot be accommodated within the conventional house layout. This has created renewed interest in Demountable/Flexible internal partition systems. However, the process by which designers decide which project or user groups are most suited for the use of these systems is quite often complex, non-linear, uncertain and dynamic, since the decisions involve natural processes and human values that are apparently random. The anonymity of users when mass housing projects are conceptualized, and the uncertainty as to the alternative to be selected by the user, given his/her constantly changing needs, are some contributing factors to this effect. Decision Theory techniques, not commonly used by architects, can facilitate the decision-making process through a systematic evaluation of alternatives by means of quantitative methods in order to reduce uncertainty in probabilistic events or in cases when data is insufficient. The author used Decision Theory in the selection of flexible partition systems. The study involved a multi-unit, privately initiated housing project in Montreal, Canada, where real site conditions and costs were used. In this paper, the author outlines the fundamentals of Decision Theory and demonstrates the use of Expected Monetary Value and Weighted Objective Analysis methods and their outcomes in the design of a Montreal housing project. The study showed that Decision Theory can be used as an effective tool in housing design once the designer knows how to collect basic data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ab3c
authors Kramer, G.
year 1996
title Mapping a Single Data Stream to Multiple Auditory Variables: A Subjective Approach to Creating a Compelling Design
source Proceedings of the Third International Conferenceon Auditory Display, Santa FO Institute
summary Representing a single data variable changing in time via sonification, or using that data to control a sound in some way appears to be a simple problem but actually involves a significant degree of subjectivity. This paper is a response to my own focus on specific sonification tasks (Kramer 1990, 1993) (Fitch & Kramer, 1994), on broad theoretical concerns in auditory display (Kramer 1994a, 1994b, 1995), and on the representation of high-dimensional data sets (Kramer 1991a & Kramer & Ellison, 1991b). The design focus of this paper is partly a response to the others who, like myself, have primarily employed single fundamental acoustic variables such as pitch or loudness to represent single data streams. These simple representations have framed three challenges: Behavioral and Cognitive Science-Can sonifications created with complex sounds changing simultaneously in several dimensions facilitate the formation of a stronger internal auditory image, or audiation, than would be produced by simpler sonifications? Human Factors and Applications-Would such a stronger internal image of the data prove to be more useful from the standpoint of conveying information? Technology and Design-How might these richer displays be constructed? This final question serves as a starting point for this paper. After years of cautious sonification research I wanted to explore the creation of more interesting and compelling representations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 98bd
authors Pea, R.
year 1993
title Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education
source Distributed Cognitions, edited by G. Salomon. New York, NY: CambridgeUniversity Press
summary v Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts... v Intelligence may also be distributed for use in designed artifacts as diverse as physical tools, representations such as diagrams, and computer-user interfaces to complex tasks. v Leont'ev 1978 for activity theory that argues forcibly for the centrality of people-in-action, activity systems, as units of analysis for deepening our understanding of thinking. v Intelligence is distributed: the resources that shape and enable activity are distributed across people, environments, and situations. v Intelligence is accomplished rather than possessed. v Affordance refers to the perceived and actual properties of a thing, primarily those functional properties that determine how the thing could possibly be used. v Norman 1988 on design and psychology - the psychology of everyday things" v We deploy effort-saving strategies in recognition of their cognitive economy and diminished opportunity for error. v The affordances of artifacts may be more or less difficult to convey to novice users of these artifacts in the activities to which they contribute distributed intelligence. v Starts with Norman's seven stages of action Forming a goal; an intention Task desire - clear goal and intention - an action and a means Mapping desire - unable to map goal back to action Circumstantial desire - no specific goal or intention - opportunistic approach to potential new goal Habitual desire - familiar course of action - rapidly cycle all seven stages of action v Differentiates inscriptional systems from representational or symbol systems because inscriptional systems are completely external, while representational or symbol systems have been used in cognitive science as mental constructs. v The situated properties of everyday cognition are highly inventive in exploiting features of the physical and social situation as resources for performing a task, thereby avoiding the need for mental symbol manipulations unless they are required by that task. v Explicit recognition of the intelligence represented and representable in design, specifically in designed artifacts that play important roles in human activities. v Once intelligence is designed into the affordances properties of artifacts, it both guides and constrains the likely contributions of that artifact to distributed intelligence in activity. v Culturally valued designs for distributed intelligence will change over time, especially as new technology becomes associated with a task domain. v If we treat distributed intelligence in action as the scientific unit of analysis for research and theory on learning and reasoning... What is distributed? What constraints govern the dynamics of such distributions in different time scales? Through what reconfigurations of distributed intelligence might the performance of an activity system improve over time? v Intelligence is manifest in activity and distributed in nature. v Intelligent activities ...in the real world... are often collaborative, depend on resources beyond an individual's long-term memory, and require the use of information-handling tools... v Wartofsky 1979 - the artifact is to cultural evolution what the gene is to biological evolution - the vehicle of information across generations. v Systems of activity - involving persons, environment, tools - become the locus of developmental investigation. v Disagrees with Salomon et al.'s entity-oriented approach - a language of containers holding things. v Human cognition aspires to efficiency in distributing intelligence - across individuals, environment, external symbolic representations, tools, and artifacts - as a means of coping with the complexity of activities we often cal "mental." "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 30c9
authors Tilley, A. and Henry Dreyfuss Associates
year 1993
title The Measure of Man and Woman: Human Factors in Design
source Whitney Library of Design, New York
summary To work successfully, designers must understand the various body shapes and physical abilities of the population for which they design. The Measure of Man and Woman is an updated and expanded version of the landmark human factors book first published in 1959. It brings together a wealth of crucial information to help designers create products and environments that better accommodate human needs.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c7c1
authors Glennie, William L.
year 1993
title The Future of CAAD Education
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The field of Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) is composed of two main threads of development, Academic and Professional, and can be described in three decades, which correspond roughly with three generations of computer systems. This paper presents a brief description of the entire period of school- and practice-based research and development on the applications of computers in Architectural design, and shows how these efforts have and have not been relevant to students' future experiences. Educators must take a fresh look at their current courses and research programs to make sure that they are relevant in the rapidly changing world of professional practice. With limited human and financial resources at most institutions, it is critical to make the best possible choices for the immediate and long-term benefit of today's students. While it is not appropriate for Schools of Architecture to operate strictly at the behest of the profession, we must prepare our students for the world in which they will practice. Therefore, I believe that it is important for the faculty at each School to consider the following questions: (-) Are our students prepared to enter realistic positions as soon as they graduate? (-) Do they have the background necessary to use computers effectively in the future? (-) Do our research efforts have results that designers are likely to use today or any time soon to make better buildings or to make buildings better?

series eCAADe
email glennie@rpi.edu
last changed 1998/08/24 08:24

_id 2979
authors Henry, D. and Furness, T.A.
year 1993
title Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments: Evaluating an Architectural Application
source IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1993, Seattle
summary Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Gteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id bdc5
authors Lehane, A., Wright, D. and Lambourne, E.
year 1993
title Parallel Modeling: Addressing the Issues of Creative Designing in CAD Environments II. Special Applications
source Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993 v.1 pp. 249-254
summary We postulate that Industrial Designers, in general, solve a given problem by generating a series of proposed solutions to that problem, each proposal, in theory, helps the designer to converge on the ideal solution. Any number of solutions may be under continuous development at any one time and any previous solutions should always be available for appraisal and viewing. The single modeling environment provided in traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems does not support this practice. Thus, CAD systems are primarily used to address the final phases of the design process, such as analysis, visualisation and detailing. This is surely not utilising the full potential of such a powerful design tool. In an attempt to develop a less restrictive working practice for CAD users, we consider a parallel modeling approach. This solution allows the simultaneous development, design and review of a number of computer based solutions.
keywords Paper Based Design Process; Parallel Modeling; Computer Based Design Process; Sets; Industrial Design; Set Theory; Directed Acyclic Graph; Seed
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 4a5f
authors Liu, Yu-Tung
year 1993
title Recognizing Emergent Subshapes in Design Problem Solving: A Connectionist Investigation
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 131-139
summary Human problem-solving behavior has been modelled as a search through the space as defined as problem states, within which earlier states move to subsequent ones by applying rules in the human mind until the goal state is found. This cognitive model of problem-solving has been broadly accepted and has become dominant in both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence (AI). In the field of computeraided architectural design (CAAD), search models are also widely used for solving design problems, although various foci of design knowledge are differently represented by shape grammars, graphs, and knowledge-based systems using predicate logic for different purports.

In design search, design evolves from one state to another by exhaustively or heuristically applying proper rules. Each rule application involves, first, pattern-matching the antecedent of a rule to the current state and, second, transforming the matched portion of that state into the consequence of the rule. However pattern-matching techniques of current CAAD systems are still limited. In current CAAD systems, only those two squares can be dealt with by patternmatching for further development. However, a human designer can effortlessly recognize not only those two but other emergent subshapes, for example a smaller square in the middle where the two squares overlap and two L-shapes in the corners. Therefore a human designer can thoroughly deliberate all these alternatives before making a decision. In other words, human designer is capable of restructuring shapes in terms of emergent subshapes in any step of designing.

series ACADIA
email aleppo@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8db9
authors Liu, Yu-Tung
year 1993
title A Connectionist Approach to Shape Recognition and Transformation
source CAAD Futures 93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 19-36
summary In human design processes, many drawings of shapes remain incomplete or are executed inaccurately. Cognitively, a designer is able to discern these anomalous shapes, whereas current CAAD systems fail to recognize them properly so that CAAD systems are unable to match left-hand-side conditions of shape rules. More unfortunately, as a result, current CAAD systems fail to retrieve right-hand-side actions. In this paper, multi-layered neural networks are constructed to solve the recognition and transformation of ill-processed shapes in the light of recent advances of connectionism in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence.
keywords Shape Recognition, Shape Transformation, Connectionist Models, PDP Models, Content-Addressable Memory, Neural Networks
series CAAD Futures
email aleppo@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c1b6
authors Ries, R.
year 1999
title Computational Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Building Designs
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary Concem for the environmental implications of human activities is becoming increasingly important to society. The concept of current development that does not compromise future generations! abilities to meet their needs is a goal for many communities and individuals (WCED 1987). These concerns require the evaluation and assessment of the potential environmental impact of human activities so that informed choices can be made. Building construction and operation activities are of significant importance in view of a) national and intemational economies, 6) resource consumption, c) human occupancy, and d) environmental impact. For example, in the United States the built environment represents an extensive investment, both as an annual expenditure and as an aggregate investment. In the mid-l980s, up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings had indoor air quality related complaints. Buildings also consume approximately 35% of the primary energy in the U.S. every year, resulting in the release of 482 million metric tons of carbon in 1993. I Methods developed to assess the environmental impact of buildings and development patterns can and have taken multiple strategies. The most straightforward and simple methods use single factors, such as energy use or the mass of pollutant emissions as indicators of environmental performance. Other methods use categorization and weighting strategies. These gauge the effects of the emissions typically based on research studies and use a weighting or effect formulation to normalize, compare, and group emissions so that a scalar value can be assigned to a single or a set of emissions. These methods do not consider the characteristics of the context where the emissions occur.
series thesis:MSc
email rr43@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9217
id ddss9217
authors Kim, Y.S. and Brawne, M.
year 1993
title An approach to evaluating exhibition spaces in art galleries
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary There are certain building types in which movement of people is the most significant evaluation factor. Among these are art galleries and museums. Unlike other building types, which are often explicated by investigating the relationship between people and people, and between people and the built environment, art galleries and museums are a building type in which the social relationship between people hardly exists and peoples movement through space, that is, the functional relationship between people and space, is one of the most significant factors for their description. The typical museum experience is through direct, sequential, and visual contact with static objects on display as the visitor moves. Therefore, the movement pattern of the visitors must exert a significant influence on achieving the specific goal of a museum. There is a critical need for predicting the consequences of particular spatial configurations with respect to visitors movement. In this sense, it is the intention of this paper to find out the relationship between the spatial configuration of exhibition space and the visitors' movement pattern.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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