CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 7fe0
authors Castleman, Kenneth R.
year 1993
title Digital image processing
source California Institute of Technologie
summary Digital image processing has experienced explosive growth over the past two decades. Public awareness has increased by way of video games, digital video special effects used in the entertainement industry, as well as articles in the mainstream press. However, the most significant impact of digital image processing in the 90s will be in the area of applications of real world problems. To help readers keep pace, author Kenneth R. Castleman concentrates on those techniques that have proven most useful in practice. Part I presents several important concepts that can be developed without detailed mathematical analysis for a basic understanding. Part II addresses techniques that rely more on mathematics and eaborates analytically on certain concepts introduced in Part I. Part III covers specific application aread that are particularly in industry, science, and medicine. Contents: Preface; Images and Digital Processing; Digitizing Images; Digital Image Display; Image Processing Software; The Gray Level Histogram; Point Operations; Algebraic Operations; Geometric Operations; Filter Design; Wavelet Transformations; Image Restorations; Image Compression; Three Dimensional Image Processing; Appendices; Index.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2a5e
authors Does, J. van der and Giró, H.
year 1997
title Design communication and image processing
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [Proceedings of the 3rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 90-407-1669-2]
summary In the proceedings of the first EAEA conference, 1993, I mentioned our first study focused on refining endoscopic video images of a detailed architectural model and drawings. The study was based on work with 900 subjects, of which 200 were professional architects. It has led to a number of technical improvements. In the second study we compared computer-aided design techniques with two techniques from the first study, endoscopic video recordings and coloured and black and white elevations and perspective drawings. Four different groups of 50 subjects took part in this research. We found that computer images are invariably judged to be of moderate value, while drawings yielded consistently high scores. Endoscopic video recordings of the scale model received high scores as far as emotional response is concerned, and moderate scores when the participants were questioned on the actual content of the recordings.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
email H.H.Giro@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/media/eaea/eaea97.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 5df5
authors Fournier, A., Gunawan, A. and Romanzin, C.
year 1993
title Common Illumination between Real and Computer Generated Scenes
source Proceedings Graphics Interface '93, pp. 254-262, 1993
summary The ability to merge a real video image (RVI) with a computer- generated image (CGI) enhances the usefulness of both. To go beyond "cut and paste" and chroma-keying, and merge the two images successfully, one must solve the problems of common viewing parameters, common visibility and common illumination. The result can be dubbed Computer Augmented Reality (CAR). We present in this paper techniques for approximating the common global illumination for RVIs and CGIs, assuming some elements of the scene geometry of the real world and common viewing parameters are known. Since the real image is a projection of the exact solution for the global illumination in the real world (done by nature), we approximate the global illumination of the merged image by making the RVI part of the solution to the common global illumination computation. The objects in the real scene are replaced by few boxes covering them; the image intensity of the RVI is used as the initial surface radiosity of the visible part of the boxes; the surface reflectance of the boxes is approximated by subtracting an estimate of the illuminant intensity based on the concept of ambient light; finally global illumination using a classic radiosity computation is used to render the surface of the CGIs with respect to their new environment and for calculating the amount of image intensity correction needed for surfaces of the real image. An example animation testing these techniques has been produced. Most of the geometric problems have been solved in a relatively ad hoc manner. The viewing parameters were extracted by interactive matching of the synthetic scene with the RVIs. The visibility is determined by the relative position of the "blocks" representing the real objects and the computer generated objects, and a moving computer generated light has been inserted. The results of the merging are encouraging, and would be effective for many applications.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 96a9
authors Mullet, Kevin and Sano, Darrell
year 1993
title Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces Tutorials
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings 1993 p. 230
summary Objective: This tutorial is designed to increase the participant's awareness of visual and aesthetic issues and provide practical techniques (not guidelines) for achieving elegant user interfaces, information displays, and data visualisations. The emphasis is on avoiding a number of mistakes seen repeatedly in commercial products. Content: This tutorial will focus on the core competencies or "tricks of the trade" that all visual designers internalise as part of their basic training. The tutorial is organised not along the traditional graphic design specialisations, such as typography or colour, but according to the design goals and familiar problems of real-world product development. Specific content areas will include elegance and simplicity; scale, contrast and proportion; organisation and visual structure; module and programme; image and representation; and style. The communication-oriented design aesthetic seen in graphic design, industrial design, and architecture can be applied very successfully to graphical user interfaces, data displays, and multimedia. Design rules provided will be illustrated with extensive visual examples drawn from the international design communities as well as from the HCI domain.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of ”human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models”. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id cfd2
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 1993
title Visualizing with Digital Tools - Endoscopy Versus Computer Modeling
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 161-166
summary This approach sees traditional video endoscopy and computer-based modeling techniques as two methods whose combination gives advantages for both. Endoscopy and computer based tools are not alternative nor rival techniques. New digital visualization possibilities are available within the context of CAD- systems. High-end and more expensive visualization has gained influence from commercial advertizing and also from entertainment industry. Traditional endoscope video has longer historical background and it’s roots are in model photography, model-based simulations and video techniques. The main focus of this paper is to describe Tampere architectural department’s computer based visualization facilities briefly with two cases studies. Our status and resources in traditional simulation have been rather good since mid 70’s, and now when also the basic digital facilities (word processing & CAD) exist, it will be our next challenge to deepen and develop the variety of available simulation methods, equipment – and naturally knowledge in combining them.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
email penttila@mittaviiva.fi
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 850a
authors Wexelblat, A. (Ed.)
year 1993
title Virtual Reality - Applications and Explorations
source Academic Press Professional
summary Virtual and Artificial Reality have become in the last few years one of the major new hype words. Subsequently there has been a plethora of glossy books and droll conference proceedings describing various systems and hardware implementation problems. As has always been discovered in computer science the major effort is in designing and building the software applications. Alan's aim has been to ignore the hardware side and concentrate on the far larger and almost impossible problem of what to do with it. This book is a collection of ten essays trying to look slightly into the future and define actual uses for Virtual Reality kits rather than showing off expensive hardware. This has resulted in a series of topics, each defines a different interface problem between the user and machine which may have some solution by using Virtual Reality. Even though the topics vary, at times drastically, Alan has managed to use editorial selection very well intertwining them into a reasonably coherent whole. The scope is too large for any single book to cover in any detail and as is inevitable important topics for example military and medicine have been excluded. Topics chosen range from traditional computer information database visualisation to planetary exploration to the Virtual Reality version of the music video and literacy in cyberspace.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id d6a3
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1993
title The Changing Image of the City
source University of Utrecht
summary The image and structure of a town are constantly subject to a dynamic process of change and continuity. Visual material, such as photographs, historical maps, town plans, drawings and prints, show us the impact of these changes on the image of a town. The main point of departure of this study stems from the question of how this process of change and continuity is visually detectable in a town or city. The fact that the ideas about the appearance of a city (gradually) change, can be read from the often subtle changes in the townscape. Though in many cases we have a general knowledge of the choices made in urban management, the most difficult problem is to detect the underlying decisions. This raises the question to what extent these changes and also the continuities are the result of deliberate choices in urban management and to what extent they are autonomous developments in the townscape resistant to interventions. Using different kinds of visual information as a basis, computer visualization techniques are used in the present study to examine some cartographic maps and to reconstruct the urban development in the twentieth century of the town of Heusden three-dimensionally in significant phases. The resulting visualization provides us with a tool for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban transformation processes, typologies and morphological changes and continuities.
keywords 3D City Modeling
series thesis:PhD
email patricia.alkhoven@kb.nl
more http://www.library.uu.nl/digiarchief/dip/diss/01754573/hfdheus.htm
last changed 2003/05/15 19:36

_id ae19
authors Armstrong, Richard
year 1993
title On The Technical Features Of The Endoscope - OES Modelscope as a Case in Point
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 153-156
summary The Olympus Optical Company of Japan was formed in 1919, with the introduction of the first generation single lens reflects camera, and soon after with the first microscope. Since that time, the organisation has developed and is now split into three main divisions: manufacturing and supplying cameras, microscopes and endoscopes. Other smaller specialist divisions exist suppling such products as dictaphones. Perhaps, rather surprisingly, the endoscope division is the largest part of the organisation. Through a world-wide organisation of four main business centers, Olympus Industrial, the name given to the industrial endoscope division, provides service and support to its customers. Each of the main business centers operates through agents and distributors. There are many different industries which gain the benefits of saved time and money provided by using endoscopes. To meet the needs of so many varied industries, there is a need to have a wide range of equipment. This includes light sources, to provide illumination, rigid borescopes, flexible fiberscopes, if views around corners are needed, and the new technology videoscopes. These instruments use the latest CCD technology with a small chip situated in the distal end of the scope, instead of fiberoptic image bundles used in fiberscopes.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id eaea2005_000
id eaea2005_000
authors Dechène, Sigrun und Manfred Walz (Eds.)
year 2006
title Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space
source Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4, 260 p.
summary Simulating the development and the image of architecture and urban design means to show how the environment of the future and the living conditions could develop. At the same time it is part of our task to explain our work to local people and to the public and to passion skills in methods, instruments and knowledge in planning to the next generation of architects, planners and last but not least to discuss and to renew them once more for ourselves. Our aim was also to reflect what we have done since starting the look through the key-hole of endoscopy. Meanwhile this look has been completed since the beginnings in 1993 much more by computer and monitor. It is not the question to take the endoscope or the computer as a methodical and instrumental approach. Nowadays we normally decide to take the endoscope and the computer. In preparing the conference and the workshop we thought that this should now also be the moment not only to inform each other and the participants on methods, tools and best practices in simulating and designing the environment but also to focus on the social and human consequences of perception, movement and use the present urban spaces and the urban space in future. So we proposed the theme “MOTION, E-MOTION and URBAN SPACE” and we invited a scientific expert in experimental psychology to give us some serious reflections and one or another hint on our research themes and methods. The contributions and discussions in the conference showed that the proposal has not only been accepted but has also been completed and enriched especially concerning the theme urban space, it’s processes of usage and it‘s atmosphere. Also in the themes of endoscopy and the research on modelling urban spaces and architecture, meanwhile nearly “traditional” ones, remarkable results were presented and discussed. A very important point of contributions and the following discussions was how to present our subjects to the interested public and to improve our own internal exchange. An object could be to enforce the research tasks in researching together even more.
series EAEA
email dechene@fh-dortmund.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 2d1f
authors Kavakli, Manolya and Bayazit, Nigan
year 1993
title An Experiment on the Image Schemata
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The main objective of this paper is to explain the process of knowledge acquisition utilising the method for the decomposition of the components of a system to extract design rules. The furnished drawing of a dwelling is considered as the language of a designer. These drawings contain the semantic knowledge that can be called general architectural know-how. This paper bases on the decomposition of the syntax of a room image. The syntax of a room image consists of walls, windows, circulation zones and furniture such as beds, wardrobes, commodes, dressing tables, etc. The syntax of a room image has some linkages. The designer put the syntax together with the joints of circulation zones as a grammar to match. The existing relations between the objects in a design can be called grammar. An experiment is applied to three classes of a CAAD course organised by the Turkish Chamber of Architects. The living room is given already furnished in the experiment and the rest of a dwelling is expected to be furnished. In the first phase, the experiment is applied on two different classes in different times. It is interesting that the same grammar is used by 6 of 8 couple of designers for 3 different types (A, B and D) of bedrooms. Only one of the bedrooms of C type) has different design styles in spite of looking much like each other. In the second phase, for the third class of 6 groups, plan is modified slightly. In this case all of the 6 couples of designers use the same grammar for 2 alternatives of D type bedroom for parents. An original method is applied in the elicitation of the knowledge in this experiment. The properties of the objects and their links are represented by a semantic network graph. This paper also presents the grammar of the furnished rooms and shows the density of preferences. Design rules are extracted from these drawings of a furnished dwelling by searching for similarities in the plans designed by different designers. The designers have some specifications about the grammar of furnishing and an image schema of the proposed room in their minds, depending on their education and experiences. During the design of a room, designers look for differences and the similarities existing in the syntax of the proposed room image and the image of furnished room on the screen. If these images match with each other, the designers satisfy with the result This paper investigates the image schemata of the designers by evaluating their drawings. Some design rules are represented by means of image schemata. Matching the joints of circulation zones, the designers put the syntax of different image schemata together and they can illustrate different alternatives, restricted by the translation of these image schemata.

series eCAADe
email bayazit@sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr
last changed 1998/08/24 08:49

_id a12b
authors Kokosalakis, J., Farrow, J. and Spalton, N.
year 1993
title Introducing 2D Draughting and 3D CAD Modelling into the Information and Library Studies Curriculum in Response to Increasingly Complex Design Requirements of Information Resources
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper describes enhancements to the Information and Library Studies curriculum at the Liverpool John Moores University. In the design process for buildings and space utilised for learning resources informed client involvement is seen as important by the information professional. A new module has been introduced with the aim of providing students with the knowledge and skills to communicate effectively with building design professionals. It is apparent that CAD has a place in this teaching. The programme of study is outlined, including a discussion of significant, relevant examples produced by the CAAD staff of the School of the Built Environment. The teaching methods were drawn from experience in the well established curricula and delivery of CAAD to the architecture and environmental planning students using School of the Built Environment Macintosh hardware and software. From the Aldham Robarts Learning Resource Centre, (presently nearing completion) examples will be shown of animated models, design, organisational and staffing solutions to new technological demands. These include transfer of the Austin - Smith: Lord Intergraph/MicroStation 3D model to Zoom, animation with Electric Image and Theseus and assisting library staff to use ArchiCAD to design and consider shelf planning arrangements for negotiation with the architects. There are interesting lessons to be learned about the advantages of CAD for future client control.

keywords Information Professional, CAAD, Learning Resource Centre, Open Learning, Information and Library Studies, Curriculum.
series eCAADe
email BLTJKOKO@livjm.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 08:43

_id ab3c
authors Kramer, G.
year 1996
title Mapping a Single Data Stream to Multiple Auditory Variables: A Subjective Approach to Creating a Compelling Design
source Proceedings of the Third International Conferenceon Auditory Display, Santa FO Institute
summary Representing a single data variable changing in time via sonification, or using that data to control a sound in some way appears to be a simple problem but actually involves a significant degree of subjectivity. This paper is a response to my own focus on specific sonification tasks (Kramer 1990, 1993) (Fitch & Kramer, 1994), on broad theoretical concerns in auditory display (Kramer 1994a, 1994b, 1995), and on the representation of high-dimensional data sets (Kramer 1991a & Kramer & Ellison, 1991b). The design focus of this paper is partly a response to the others who, like myself, have primarily employed single fundamental acoustic variables such as pitch or loudness to represent single data streams. These simple representations have framed three challenges: Behavioral and Cognitive Science-Can sonifications created with complex sounds changing simultaneously in several dimensions facilitate the formation of a stronger internal auditory image, or audiation, than would be produced by simpler sonifications? Human Factors and Applications-Would such a stronger internal image of the data prove to be more useful from the standpoint of conveying information? Technology and Design-How might these richer displays be constructed? This final question serves as a starting point for this paper. After years of cautious sonification research I wanted to explore the creation of more interesting and compelling representations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 1b41
authors McCartney, J., Hinds, B., Zhang, J. and Hamilton, W.
year 1993
title Dedicated CAD for Apparel Design III. Case Studies
source Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993 v.1 p.410-415
summary The work described here represents an attempt to devise CAD techniques appropriate to the apparel industry. An integrated approach is outlined which provides a greater justification for CAD, other than the ability to produce a single image of a design concept. In addition, high level tools are described which enable 3D design specifications to be evolved without exhaustive dimensional input.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a4f8
authors Monedero, Javier
year 1993
title Renderings. Some Technical and Non Technical Questions Raised by the Use of Computers in the Visual Analysis of Architecture
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary It should be expected, in a Congress, that participants bring with them, not only ideas, but also results or, at least, stimulating images. In the Laboratory of Architectural Graphic Techniques at the ETS of Barcelona, we have spent some time generating images directly related with architecture, based on the work of both students and professors. These images have been produced with academic purposes, but also in relation with some works carried out with City Institutions interested in the study of the evaluation of environment visual impact and the role that computers may play in this area. In our previous Congress, in Barcelona, we showed some of these images, obtained by direct digital processing of bitmaps. In another Congress, later, we showed some other images, obtained by rendering, with simple local models (Phong models) and some tricks that helped to make them more realistic. Although I do agree with the old chinese saying that a good image is worth a thousand words, in this case, I have thought more convenient to present a paper that may be read quietly by those interested in these subjects, that might be useful just as it gathers references known by many but grouped in a particular order, and that pretends, respectfully, to criticize the actual situation. This can explain why we consider that the results we have obtained should be improved by new and better techniques and why we think that this dissatisfaction should be shared by others who do not seem to feel the same as we do. The aim of this contribution is, therefore, to reflect on the actual situation and the ways there seem to be open for us to follow.

series eCAADe
email monedero@ega1.upc.es
last changed 1998/08/24 09:02

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2c7b
authors Stenvert, Ronald
year 1993
title The Vector-drawing as a Means to Unravel Architectural Communication in the Past
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Unlike in painting, in architecture one single person never controls the whole process between conception and realization of a building. Ideas of what the building will eventually look like, have to be conveyed from patron to the actual builders, by way of drawings. Generally the architect is the key-figure in this process of communication of visual ideas. Nowadays many architects design their new buildings by using computers and Computer-Aided (Architectural) Design programs like AutoCad and VersaCAD. Just like traditional drawings, all these computer drawings are in fact vector-drawings; a collection of geometrical primitives like lines, circle segments etc. identified by the coordinates of their end points. Vector-based computer programs can not only be used to design the future, but also as a means to unravel the architectural communication in the past. However, using the computer as an analyzing tool for a better comprehension of the past is not as simple as it seems. Historical data from the past are governed by unique features of date and place. The complexity of the past combined with the straightforwardness of the computer requires a pragmatic and basic approach in which the computer acts as a catalytic agent, enabling the scholar to arrive manually at his own - computer-assisted - conclusions. From this it turns out that only a limited number of projects of a morphological kind are suited to contribute to new knowledge, acquired by the close-reading of the information gained by way of meaningful abstraction. An important problem in this respect is how to obtain the right kind of architectural information. All four major elements of the building process - architect, design, drawing and realization - have their own different and gradually shifting interpretations in the past. This goes especially for the run-of-the-mill architecture which makes up the larger part of the historical urban environment. Starting with the architect, one has to realize that only a very limited part of mainstream architecture was designed by architects. In almost all other cases the role of the patron and the actual builder exceeds that of the architect, even to the extent that they designed buildings themselves. The position of design and drawing as means of communication also changed in the past. Until the middle of the nineteenth century drawings were not the chief means of communication between architects and builders, who got the gist of the design from a model, or, encountering problems, simply asked the architect or supervisor. From the nineteenth century onwards the use of drawings became more common, but almost never represented the building entirely "as built". In 1991 I published my Ph.D. thesis: Constructing the past: computerassisted architectural-historical research: the application of image-processing using the computer and Computer-Aided Design for the study of the urban environment, illustrated by the use of treatises in seventeenth-century architecture (Utrecht 1991). Here, a reconstruction of this historical communication process will be presented on the basis of a project studying the use of the Classical orders as prescribed in various architectural treatises, compared to the use of the orders in a specific group of still existing buildings in The Netherlands dating from the late sixteenth and entire seventeenth century. Comparisons were made by using vector-drawings. Both the illustrations in the the treatises and actual buildings were "translated" into computer-drawings and then analyzed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:03

_id 291d
id 291d
authors Van Bakergem, Davis W. and Obata, Gen
year 1993
title MAKING THE PROBLEM VISIBLE: PROJECT SPECIFIC INFORMATION IN COLLABORATIVE DESIGN
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 471-480
summary This paper describes our current work in the development of an interactive, collaborative design space. It attempts to anticipate a future in which complex design Problems are undertaken by an interdisciplinary, collaborative group of contributors working within an electronic, networked environment. These networked working groups are made possible by the expanded use of high-speed digital networks and are expected to continue to grow within the design profession Using the design of an academic building as a case study, several new tools and techniques were used to develop an information place superimposed over the three-dimensional digital model of the site and proposed building. These tools allow the user to create a collection of data including site documentation and analysis; propose interventions; and access the data through three-dimensional icons in the modeL Several new techniques related to collecting and accessing information within the collaborative space are discussed.
keywords Collaboration, Hypermedia, Information Visualizer, Virtual Workspace, Image Collections
series CAAD Futures
type normal paper
last changed 2004/04/10 04:43

_id 6637
authors Ward, D., Brown, A.G.P. and Horton, F.F.
year 1994
title A Design Assistant for Environmental Optimisation of Buildings
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 247
summary The dual function of the Environmental Design Assistant which we have developed is to act firstly as a teaching aid and secondly as a design aid. In terms of it's role as a design assistant it is similar in nature to the application described by Papamichael, K, in Novitski, B. J. (1993). However, the work described here forms part of an overall strategy to develop a user friendly design assistant across the spectrum of Architectural design disciplines: this is one particular strand of the project. One aim embodied in the development of the environmental design assistant has been the pragmatic one of the production and refining of a tool to perform environmental assessments of buildings in accordance with the British recommendations made in BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Energy Assessment Method). In this respect the assistant allows for the consequences of design decisions to be readily assessed and then for those decisions to be modified. The Assistant has undergone a series of refinements to make it more user-friendly, efficient and appropriate as an Architectural design aid; and this has been the second aim of the project. The project has acted as a vehicle for the application of design principles applied to the presentation, information structuring and navigation associated with Hypermedia and Multimedia products. We are applying the kind of good design principles which have been summarised well by Schulmeister, R. (1994). These principles include Ariadne's Thread (paths for navigation), Lost in Hyperspace (backward navigation), More-than-browsing (interaction) and Tutoring (providing feedback to the user). Adoption of such principles is, we believe, essential in order to realise the potential of Hypermedia tools. The principal development tool for the work has been SuperCard. This has been used in conjunction with a range of other software including ArchiCad and Intellidraw and a range of image grabbing devices.

series eCAADe
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 8fd8
authors Watt, Alan
year 1993
title 3D Computer graphics
source Addison-Wesley, pp, 1-13
summary The third edition of Alan Watt's 3D Computer Graphics, a bible of computer graphics, includes a CD-ROM full of examples and updated information on graphics and rendering algorithms. The book discusses many of the techniques that have evolved in the seven years since the previous edition was published. 3D Computer Graphics is a textbook, and it's designed for serious programmers creating graphics applications (not end users). Over the course of 16 sections, Watt introduces the concepts and implementation of computer imaging, from "Mathematical Fundamentals of Computer Graphics" to "Representation and Rendering" and ending with "Image-Based Rendering and Photo-Modeling." The last section, devoted to computer animation, includes methods for linked structures, collision detection, and particle animation (to name a few). Although the topics are sometimes hard to grasp, Mr. Watt writes clearly and concisely, making generous use of diagrams to help convey the principles described in the text. The accompanying CD-ROM includes over a dozen studies of computer graphics techniques and rendering algorithms. Presented in HTML, the exhaustive studies, each with a matrix of thumbnails, demonstrates the varied achievable results. One minor complaint here: although the thumbnails can be clicked to view a much larger image, the larger versions come in .tif format, which few (if any) Web browsers can view. Users will need another application to view them. Having the large image in .jpg format would have enabled the reader to view it in the already-open Web browser.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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