CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 162

_id 6499
authors Lintl, C., Economides, D., Hesse, M., Langenbahn, V., Roth, S. and Brack, C.
year 1993
title CAD Education at Munich
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary We are stressing the idea that a combination of learning CAD and developing a design- work will hardly lead to success. It is first important to learn the principle handling of CAD - only then a reasonable application can work out. Our pupils have the chance of comparing, Iearning and working on several different CAD-systems with different philosophies and purposes, so the interested students have the opportunity to choose a tool that fits their working-habits and their designing-methods. Out of an overall number of 200 students of architecture each semester about 150 are willing to participate in the CAD- curriculum. 100 will be left after the low-level introductions and exercises, done with the standard: AutoCAD - these students than have a basic idea of construction with computers. Those students who are going into details are deepening there skills to an extent where any experiment is feasible. It is hard work to get to this perfection.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:28

_id ddss9208
id ddss9208
authors Lucardie, G.L.
year 1993
title A functional approach to realizing decision support systems in technical regulation management for design and construction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Technical building standards defining the quality of buildings, building products, building materials and building processes aim to provide acceptable levels of safety, health, usefulness and energy consumption. However, the logical consistency between these goals and the set of regulations produced to achieve them is often hard to identify. Not only the large quantities of highly complex and frequently changing building regulations to be met, but also the variety of user demands and the steadily increasing technical information on (new) materials, products and buildings have produced a very complex set of knowledge and data that should be taken into account when handling technical building regulations. Integrating knowledge technology and database technology is an important step towards managing the complexity of technical regulations. Generally, two strategies can be followed to integrate knowledge and database technology. The main emphasis of the first strategy is on transferring data structures and processing techniques from one field of research to another. The second approach is concerned exclusively with the semantic structure of what is contained in the data-based or knowledge-based system. The aim of this paper is to show that the second or knowledge-level approach, in particular the theory of functional classifications, is more fundamental and more fruitful. It permits a goal-directed rationalized strategy towards analysis, use and application of regulations. Therefore, it enables the reconstruction of (deep) models of regulations, objects and of users accounting for the flexibility and dynamics that are responsible for the complexity of technical regulations. Finally, at the systems level, the theory supports an effective development of a new class of rational Decision Support Systems (DSS), which should reduce the complexity of technical regulations and restore the logical consistency between the goals of technical regulations and the technical regulations themselves.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ac20
authors Lyons, Arthur and Doidge, Charles
year 1993
title Understanding Structural Movement Joints with CAAD Animation
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The well-established use, as an architectural design tool, of computer graphics using 'fly-through' techniques gives a highly visual overview of design concepts and may additionally illustrate certain specific details, but it cannot show their time-dependent dynamic function. This paper describes and illustrates how CAAD animation can be used to analyse not only structural philosophy but also the dynamic effects of nonstatic loading and thermal movement, thus leading to a better understanding of the design criteria applied in certain elegant solutions. The CAAD video animations illustrate the structural philosophy relating to the facade of the refurbished Bracken House, London and the dynamic operation of key movement junctions within Stansted Airport and East Croydon Railway Station.
keywords Structure, Movement Joints, Animation, Video
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:46

_id 612c
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 1998
title Computers and Architectural Design: Going Beyond the Tool
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 44-57
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.

series ACADIA
email madrazo@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 1998/12/16 07:34

_id 80b9
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 2000
title Computers and architectural design: going beyond the tool
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 5-17
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a150
authors Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 1993
title Open Simulation Environments: A “Preference-Based” Approach
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 195-214
summary This paper introduces in conceptual, algorithmic and implementation terms, the notion of an "open" simulation environment as a "multidirectional" approach to computer-aided performance modelling. A "preference- based" formalization of design intentions/criteria is proposed to cope with the "ambiguity" problem through dynamic control of degrees of freedom of relevant design-related parameters during the interactive design process. A prototypical realization of an open simulation environment called "GESTALT' for simultaneous treatment (parametric manipulation) of various design and performance variables is demonstrated. Some preliminary results of computer-assisted generation of performance-responsive designs are presented.
keywords Open Simulation Environments, Multidirectional Building Performance Simulation, Form-Function Mapping, Preference-Based Convergence Strategies, Preference-Index
series CAAD Futures
email amahdavi@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/02/26 16:26

_id a944
authors Maher, M.L., Gero, J.S. and Saad, M.
year 1993
title Synchronous Support and Emergence in Collaborative CAAD
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 455-470
summary Design is rarely an activity that is commenced and completed by an individual The more common design environment is one in which teams of designers work together towards a final solution. In this paper we consider issues involved in the development of computer-based design environments in which teams of design professionals can collaborate, focusing on the need for visual and underlying representations which can support multiple interpretations. We consider the environment as providing a shared workspace which facilitates both communication and progression of design ideas, concepts, and drawings. In the environment presented here, the shared workspace has two foci: the workspace that designers see and interact with, and the workspace that provides an underlying computer-based representation for persistent memory. The emphasis is on providing representations that support emergence that occurs during collaboration.
keywords Collaborative Design, Team Design, Multi-User Synchronous CAAD, Shared Representation, Shared Workspace, Emergence
series CAAD Futures
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 21f1
authors Martens, Bob
year 1993
title A Renaissance of Architectural Endoscopy?
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 143-152
summary Before individual activities in the field of endoscopy are to be explained a brief insight into the surrounding thereof may prove meaningful. At the Department for Spatial Simulation endoscopy is not treated independently, but principally in connection with other simulation techniques such as the simulation of architectural spatial formations in full-scale, CAAD, stereoscopy and holography. The term SAAD (Simulation Aided Architectural Design) refers to a combination of spatial simulation techniques. This aspect plays a major role at the Vienna University of Technology.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/Renaissance/rae.html
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 8bad
authors Matalasov, Michael
year 1993
title Technical Conception of Videosystems Laboratory at Moscow Institute of Architecture
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 47-50
summary The basic point of our conception is not to submit the architect to technical means, but give him freedom of choice and the opportunity to work in the environment closest to the real one. In our situation it means, that we should provide work in real videoinformative space. Thus, our conception of education is to give all the junior students compulsory general information about videosimulation, and to ensure optional more professional work of undergraduates while carrying out their school projects. We consider, that in the architect’s activity simulation (making small-scale models) plays an essential part, because the small-scale model is the first and the only source of true three-dimensional information about the object designed. At the same time videosimulation does not deny or substitute computer-aided design. To get reliable visual information from the model is possible with the help of special technical means equipped with periscopic devices. In Moscow Institute of Architecture this work has been carried out for 10 years.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id e4fd
authors McCartney, K., Ismail, A. and Rhodes, P.
year 1993
title A Multimedia City Model for Environmental Impact Assessment and Public Consultation
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Experiments with different techniques for creating multimedia models of city zones are being carried out in the School of Architecture in University of Portsmouth. This work is part of a cooperative project with the Department of Economics, the New Media Centre, and the Photogrammetry Unit in the Department of Geography, aimed at developing a prototype multimedia model of a sizable part of the City of Portsmouth. The model is designed to facilitate user interaction, and will be tested to evaluate its potential contribution to the process of public consultation, and in facilitating communication between different specialists engaged in the production of environmental impact statements required by the EC Environmental Impact Directive (851337).
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:46

_id a01a
authors Morgan, Fred and Pohlmann, Richard W. (eds.)
year 1993
title Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0 / Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, 185 p.
summary For many years architects and educators have debated questions about appropriate approaches to architectural education: HOW should education serve the profession? What should be our educational objectives? What level of computer expertise and potential should society expect of our graduates? At times the pragmatic concerns of practitioners have clashed with the theoretical concerns of educators. Most would agree that both points of view have merit; it is in establishing an appropriate balance that we most disagree. Now, the discussions have expanded to include issues of computer-aided design. Software and hardware vendors find themselves in the middle of a difficult but interesting dilemma. While supporting systems optimized for professional practice they are asked to supply radically different systems for educational use.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:06

_id ddss9215
id ddss9215
authors Mortola, E. and Giangrande, A.
year 1993
title A trichotomic segmentation procedure to evaluate projects in architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary This paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for An Interface for Designing (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of the model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo, or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case, it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. The model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed with MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects of reference. An application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0b16
authors Mortola, E., Giangrande, A., Mirabelli, P. and Fortuzzi, A.Fortuzzi
year 1997
title The Self-sustainable Community Laboratories of Rome
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The experience of the Laboratories is not new for Rome. In 1993 the Historical Heritage Office of the Municipality came to an agreement with the Dioguardi Co. to found the Laboratory of Ghetto - the ancient Jewish quarter - with the following objectives: to offer space and tools to analyse public and private proposals for buildings restoration; to collect, elaborate and diffuse data and information about the neighbourhood; to involve inhabitants and train some of them in renewal and restoration activities through the creation of a "pilot yard". The data gathered in the Laboratory were elaborated and used to produce an hypertext which could be consulted by inhabitants. A section of this hypertext showed all the restoration projects, public and private ones (Sivo 1995).
keywords Design Methods, Hypertext, Interactive Design, Multimediacommunity laboratories, development, planning, projects; traffic calmin
series eCAADe
email mortola@arch.uniroma3.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/mortola/mortgfm.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 96a9
authors Mullet, Kevin and Sano, Darrell
year 1993
title Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces Tutorials
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems -- Adjunct Proceedings 1993 p. 230
summary Objective: This tutorial is designed to increase the participant's awareness of visual and aesthetic issues and provide practical techniques (not guidelines) for achieving elegant user interfaces, information displays, and data visualisations. The emphasis is on avoiding a number of mistakes seen repeatedly in commercial products. Content: This tutorial will focus on the core competencies or "tricks of the trade" that all visual designers internalise as part of their basic training. The tutorial is organised not along the traditional graphic design specialisations, such as typography or colour, but according to the design goals and familiar problems of real-world product development. Specific content areas will include elegance and simplicity; scale, contrast and proportion; organisation and visual structure; module and programme; image and representation; and style. The communication-oriented design aesthetic seen in graphic design, industrial design, and architecture can be applied very successfully to graphical user interfaces, data displays, and multimedia. Design rules provided will be illustrated with extensive visual examples drawn from the international design communities as well as from the HCI domain.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 21b5
authors Müller, Volker
year 1993
title Introducing CAD to a Big Corporation
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 497-512
summary The report presents the ongoing activity of introducing CAD to the entire range of facilities planning and management of the Frankfurt Airport Corporation. It addresses issues of organizing the shift from conventional to computer supported planning and facilities management,- the problems of training professionals with various background in the use of new tools; aspects of data validity; regulation of data exchange; and customization of software to the needs of special tasks within the corporation. The report is based on about four years of project runtime. The preparation of the project started in fall 1988. The project proper started in June 1989. It is entering its last year. Up to now about 120 persons have been trained to use CAD.
keywords CAD Introduction, Corporation Setting, Adult Education, Data Integrity, Data Security, Data Exchange, Linkage Between Geometric and Alphanumeric Data, Customized Systems
series CAAD Futures
email vmueller@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id eba1
authors Palmqvist, Henri
year 1993
title The Environmental Simulator and Applications of the Episode Theory in Teaching Architecture
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 67-74
summary Every architectural design consists of spaces and series of successive spaces. The way in which spaces are arranged to form a series can only be experienced by passing through them. This means that movement plays a very important role in the experience of our spatial environment. At the same time, this presents a major challenge to architects, and especially to students in architecture, who need to take into consideration how their designs are experienced in movement. Therefore, at the Department of Architecture in Tampere one of our aims in Architectural Design is to teach our students to see the spaces, masses, houses and housing areas they design from the point of view of movement. This training has mainly been provided in the context of a Basic Course and Professional Course I in Architectural Design and the related course on Time and Motion in Architecture. Projects related to the theory of time and motion are started with students in their first and second year. A major role in all this teaching has been played by our environmental simulator, with which we have been able to evaluate our work by using models on different scales (1/200, 1/100, 1/500). We have applied three main perspectives in our courses: analysis of space, series of spaces, and series of spaces in motion.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 078e
authors Papazian, Pegor
year 1993
title Incommensurability of Criteria and Focus in Design Generation
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 111-125
summary An approach to developing design systems is presented, informed by the recognition that design criteria are incommensurable. The degree to which an artifact satisfies one criterion cannot be compared to the degree to which it satisfies another. Given this principle, it is not valid to combine different "scores " given to independent features in an evolving design into a global evaluation function. The design framework proposed here represents an alternative to the traditional approaches for combining independent criteria and organizational principles. It is based on the opportunistic nature of designing, the multiplicity of semantics active in a design session, and the dynamics of focus and distraction. By way of illustrating both this characterization of designing and the abstract computational framework on which it is based, a simple system for arranging blocks according to a set of formal massing principles is presented. The massing generator has some important properties that other systems lack, such as dynamism, robustness and the ability to deal with partial designs. Through a comparison with some artificial intelligence methods such as production systems and search, the proposed framework is used as a guideline for developing design systems. This paper focuses on designing as an activity, rather than engaging in an analysis of finished designs with the hope of capturing their syntactic properties. Thus the stress is placed on the generator's behavior, by giving examples of how it converges on a series of design alternatives in a dynamic fashion, avoiding oscillations and blocks.
keywords Design, Criteria, Opportunism, Focus, CAD
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id caadria2017_015
id caadria2017_015
authors Pelosi, Antony
year 2017
title Where am I? - Spatial Cognition Inside Building Information Models
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 643-652
summary How do we know what we are looking at while viewing inside Building Information Modelling (BIM) models? Current architectural software typically provides disconnected methods of aiding spatial cognition. There is a strong history of navigation tools developed for controlling our exploration and movement in BIM models, a study by Ruby Darken and John Sibert (1993) found these tools had a strong influence on people's behaviour and understanding of digital space. People perceive and navigate space differently depending on their individual experience with a BIM model, designers and architects build up a detailed cognitive map during the design of a project, while other people have a less detailed comprehension of a project, having only been exposed to select views. This paper will outline key strategies to improve how people comprehend digital space, supporting people in understanding distance and size while inside BIM models. Three design research projects will be presented. The result of the projects define three strategies; Architectural wayshowing, interior-aware transitions, and distance confirmation. Architectural wayshowing needs to be implemented during the design phase, while the remaining two need to be introduced into BIM editing and viewing software.
keywords Whiteout; wayshowing; spatial cognition; navigation; BIM
series CAADRIA
email apelosi@gmail.com
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

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