CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0051
authors Wastell, D.G. and White, P.
year 1993
title Using Process Technology to Support Cooperative work: Prospects and Design Issues
source CSCW in Practice: An Introduction and Case Studies. pp. 105-126. Edited by Dan Diaper and Colston Sanger, London: Springer-Veriag
summary CSCW is a diverse and eclectic field. The theme which unifies CSCW is the question of group coordination, how it is achieved as a social phenomenon and how it may be actively assisted by computer-based support. The nature of these social processes are variously discussed in many of this book's other chapters. The issue of what is "true" CSCW and what is not is a contentious academic issue. Support for non-routine "professional" work such as collaborative writing would be widely accepted as a paradigm of CSCW (see, in particular, Sharples, Chapter 4; Gilbert, chapter 5; and Diaper, Chapter 6). Electronic mail, however, does not count for some as CSCW, because it is "not really tuned (or tunable) to the needs of the work group" (Greif, 1988). Technologies which support routine work would appear to fall into a particularly controversial category. Traditional office automation systems come under this heading.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cbfe
authors Dave, Bharat
year 1993
title CDT: A Computer-Assisted Diagramming Tool
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 91-109
summary This paper describes the development of a computer- based diagramming tool (CDT) that supports incremental structuring of problem information using diagrammatic representations. Diagrams as graphic representations of symbolic propositions allow tentative reasoning and inferencing. The development of CDT has been carried out based on two observations. First, many diagrams are used to represent objects and relations between them. Second, diagrams comprise graphic Symbols arranged on a plane using topological and geometric relations to denote problem relevant information. CDT responds to these needs by incorporating a number of computational ideas: graphic interface, direct manipulation, constraint representation by demonstration, and specification and satisfaction of diagram composition rules.
keywords Tentative Reasoning, Incremental Problem Representation and Exploration, Diagramming
series CAAD Futures
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ee51
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 1993
title Exploring and Illustrating
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary CAD, in its usually available forms, is wonderful at illustrating proposed architectural objects. But, as I argued last year at the Barcelona meeting, it is not so good at helping us extend the richness and development of architectural ideas—at the "back of envelope" and other developmental Ievels—indeed, it is (for pragmatic reasons—and others) actually restrictive of change, what-if, suck-it-and-see, etc. I shall describe a work environment, which we have been developing since last year in Portsmouth, in which computing is used by students to assist the generation, testing and extension of ideas: in which exploring takes precedence over illustrating. The central notion of this environment involves the extension and manipulation, through co-operative sharing of a joint "resource base" of computer stored images (recognising origination rather than ownership), and (parts of) which may be copied and transformed by group members as they seek to develop, enrich and extend their ideas. Transformations may be intentional, but some occur through the limits of our computational medium such as compression losses, file formats, colour depth and resolution and are welcomed as a contribution made by the computing medium used. Images are located through a developing, shared filing system, picture search and history trace. The environment relies on a small suite of computers wile a powerful machine acting as a fileserver and undertaking central, computationally-intensive tasks. For this environment, we have chosen software carefully, and the choice will be described. We have also developed a small, but crucial program that traces developments in the shared resource base—in what is, in effect, our own, operational CyberSpace (as distinct from a Virtual Reality). Through these mechanisms, we believe we are able to evade the limitation set by Ross Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", thus expanding the creativity-base of participating designers (students). There are no "scientific results", but we believe the reasoning behind, and the activity and exploration of our environment is valuable in itself, and may be of interest to collegues.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:50

_id c044
authors Heisserman, J. and Woodbury, R.
year 1993
title Generating languages of solid models
source Proceedings of Second ACM/IEEE Symposium on Solid Modeling and Applications, pp. 103-112
summary This paper explores the automatic generation of solid models based on a grammatical paradigm. It presents a formalism, boundary solid grammars, for this purpose. Boundary solid grammars allow complex geometric conditions and operations to be expressed using a logical reasoning mechanism, the construction of powerful rules, and the description of grammars for generation of solid models that is appropriate for a variety of design domains. The formalism is well suited to computer implementation, and we demonstrate a prototype interpreter.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id c05c
authors Hovestadt, Ludger
year 1993
title A4 Digital Building: Extensive Computer Support for Building Design, Construction, and Management
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 405-421
summary The integrated design, construction, and management of buildings are described as being of unlimited complexity. The data structures required to support these tasks cannot be predefined and have- to be worked out during the design process. An instrument that integrates weakly and strongly structured data is necessary. A4 proposes - as a minimal structuring mechanism - the position of information in a dataspace. It offers diverse additional and optional structuring mechanisms. Examples from different domains show the particular strengths of the A4 integration model.
keywords Architecture, Intelligent Building, CAD, Multi-Media, Hypermedia, Active Objects, Virtual Reality, Multi-User, Expert System, Case-Based Reasoning, Communication, Data-Mining
series CAAD Futures
email hovestadt@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Göteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id bdc1
authors Kolodner, J.
year 1993
title Case-Based Reasoning
source San Mateo, CA:Morgan Kaufmann
summary Case-based reasoning systems store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched to help solve them. The author places special emphasis on applying case-based reasoning to complex real-world problem- solving tasks such as medical diagnosis, design, conflict resolution, and planning. The approach combines cognitive science and engineering, and is based on analysis of both expert and common- sense tasks. Guidelines for building case-based expert systems are provided. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or. Book Description
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2004_256
id 2004_256
authors Lai, Ih-Cheng
year 2004
title Interactive Patterns for Associating Ideas during Brainstorming
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 256-261
summary Idea association is an important behavior to generate diverse ideas during brainstorming. Through three linking principles (similarity, contrast and contiguity), idea association involves a dynamic linking process between ideas and design cases. Based on the knowledge representation issue-concept-form proposed by Oxman (1993), three interactive patterns between ideas and design cases are investigated. Finally, some computational mechanisms for supporting the linkage of idea association are discussed.
keywords Idea Association, Linking, Case Representation, Case Based Reasoning, Brainstorming
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 8f1f
authors Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert
year 1993
title Precedents: Memory Structure in Design Case Libraries
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 273-287
summary The paper presents an approach to a memory structure of design ideas in a library of design precedents. A model of case memory for design is developed. The model is composed of distinct chunks of knowledge called design stories. A formalism for the design story is proposed which represents the linkage between design issue, concept and form in stories. Stories are structured in memory according to a semantic network. The lexicon of the semantic network acts as a memory index. The memory structure and indexing system are demonstrated to enhance search and to support crosscontextual browsing and exploration in the precedent library. The approach is demonstrated in a pilot design aid system in the task domain of early conceptual design in architecture.
keywords Knowledge-Based Systems, Case-Based Reasoning, Case-Based Design Aids Systems, Precedents, Electronic Libraries, Memory Organization, Indexing, Storage, Retrieval, Hypermedia Systems, Content Analysis
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 7d26
authors Pearson, D.G., Alexander, C. and Webster, Robin
year 2001
title Working Memory and Expertise Differences in Design.
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary The Creative Synthesis task devised by Finke and Slayton(1988) has been widely used as an experimental measure of mentalsynthesis, but previous studies have often failed to demonstrate anysignificant benefits of external support on participants’ performance.This paper discusses a study that examined novice and expert drawers’performance of synthesis using a modified stimuli set that was designedto increase the load on visuo-spatial working memory. The resultsshowed a significant increase in Transformational Complexity(Anderson & Hesltrup, 1993) of patterns produced by the expert groupwhile using sketching. It is argued that experts are more effective atusing sketching interactively to increase complexity, while novices relymore on using it as a simple memory aid.
series other
email d.g.pearson@abdn.ac.uk
more http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/kcdc/conferences/vr01/
last changed 2003/05/02 09:14

_id 855d
authors Alavalkama, I., Aura, S. and Palmqvist H. (Eds.)
year 1993
title Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture
source Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3 / Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, 196 p.
summary The European Architectural Endoscopy Association was established in connection with the Association’s first international conference on August 25-28, 1993, which was hosted by the Department of Architecture at the Tampere University of Technology. The purpose of the EAEA is to promote experimentation, research, communication, exchange of experiences, collaboration, user participation and teaching in the field of endoscopy and environmental simulation. The first EAEA conference was attended by 25 people from 15 different universities. Working under the general heading of “Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture”, the conference had three specific themes for the first three days: Review of Existing Laboratories; Theories, Methods and Applications; and the Future of Endoscopy. In this volume we have compiled all the papers that were presented at the conference. The texts have been printed in the form we received them, without any attempt to edit them for consistency in style, adding hopefully to a sense of authenticity. Unfortunately, the impressive videos we saw at the conference on the possibilities of endoscopy and environmental simulation as a tool in architecture, cannot be documented here.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
email alavalka@arc.tut.fi
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of ”human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models”. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id d6a3
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1993
title The Changing Image of the City
source University of Utrecht
summary The image and structure of a town are constantly subject to a dynamic process of change and continuity. Visual material, such as photographs, historical maps, town plans, drawings and prints, show us the impact of these changes on the image of a town. The main point of departure of this study stems from the question of how this process of change and continuity is visually detectable in a town or city. The fact that the ideas about the appearance of a city (gradually) change, can be read from the often subtle changes in the townscape. Though in many cases we have a general knowledge of the choices made in urban management, the most difficult problem is to detect the underlying decisions. This raises the question to what extent these changes and also the continuities are the result of deliberate choices in urban management and to what extent they are autonomous developments in the townscape resistant to interventions. Using different kinds of visual information as a basis, computer visualization techniques are used in the present study to examine some cartographic maps and to reconstruct the urban development in the twentieth century of the town of Heusden three-dimensionally in significant phases. The resulting visualization provides us with a tool for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban transformation processes, typologies and morphological changes and continuities.
keywords 3D City Modeling
series thesis:PhD
email patricia.alkhoven@kb.nl
more http://www.library.uu.nl/digiarchief/dip/diss/01754573/hfdheus.htm
last changed 2003/05/15 19:36

_id 3653
authors Alshawi, M. and Budeiri, M.J.
year 1993
title An Integrated approach for 3D simulation of construction sequence
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 1(2), pp. 35-46
summary In order to eliminate design-related problems and to ease planning difficulties, a new integrated approach is required to manage and present design and construction information. This paper examines the feasibility of integrating design and construction scheduling information produced by 'industry standard' software. It describes the structure of a prototype which has been developed to generate a 3D simulation model for the construction sequence by integrating a CAD package with a project planning software. This study aims at establishing an integrated approach to communicate construction planning graphically to users (designers or construction managers) prior to construction in order to enhance the efficiency of the design/construction process.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_1.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
email john@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 86dc
authors Aouad, G., and Price, A.D.F.
year 1993
title An integrated system to aid the planning of concrete structures: introducing the system
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT1(2), pp.1-14
summary This paper reports on the development at Loughborough University of a CAD-based integrated model to aid the planning of in-situ concrete structures. The system development started after a review of the planning models currently available and after a detailed questionnaire survey undertaken amongst the top UK and US contractors on the current status of planning techniques and information technology. The main aim of this system is to automate the planning process of in-situ concrete structures using data generated by CAD systems. So far, the integration of a CAD system (AutoCAD 10) and a computerized scheduling system (Artemis 2000) has been achieved on a typical IBM-PC. This enables the generation of network plans using AutoCAD which are then automatically transferred to the Artemis system for time and cost analyses.Traditionally, construction planners are faced with many conventional drawings and documents which are used to re-extract information relevant to their planning processes. Such an approach can be very inefficient as it involves data double-handling and is often error prone. In addition, current computerized construction planning applications are little more than the automation of manual formulations of plans. For example, data are fed into the planning system and computations are performed using either CPM (Critical Path Method) or PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique). However, data relating to the planning process such as activity lists, resources requirements and durations are not automatically generated within the system. It would thus seem logical to devise a CAD-based integrated planning model which accepts data in its electronic format and involves some integration of the traditional planning approach. This paper introduces the proposed CAD-based integrated planning model and describes its different components. In addition, it discusses the system functional specifications and summarizes the main benefits and limitations of such a model.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ae19
authors Armstrong, Richard
year 1993
title On The Technical Features Of The Endoscope - OES Modelscope as a Case in Point
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 153-156
summary The Olympus Optical Company of Japan was formed in 1919, with the introduction of the first generation single lens reflects camera, and soon after with the first microscope. Since that time, the organisation has developed and is now split into three main divisions: manufacturing and supplying cameras, microscopes and endoscopes. Other smaller specialist divisions exist suppling such products as dictaphones. Perhaps, rather surprisingly, the endoscope division is the largest part of the organisation. Through a world-wide organisation of four main business centers, Olympus Industrial, the name given to the industrial endoscope division, provides service and support to its customers. Each of the main business centers operates through agents and distributors. There are many different industries which gain the benefits of saved time and money provided by using endoscopes. To meet the needs of so many varied industries, there is a need to have a wide range of equipment. This includes light sources, to provide illumination, rigid borescopes, flexible fiberscopes, if views around corners are needed, and the new technology videoscopes. These instruments use the latest CCD technology with a small chip situated in the distal end of the scope, instead of fiberoptic image bundles used in fiberscopes.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2ff9
id 2ff9
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1993
title Knowledge-based Stair Design
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 163-171
summary The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modeling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.

This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:40

_id 4c30
authors Aura, Seppo
year 1993
title Episode as a Unit of Analysis of Movement
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 53-66
summary Everybody who has read his Gordon Cullen or his Edmund H. Bacon knows that movement has long been recognized as a factor in environmental planning in many ways. For example, in the traditional Japanese promenade garden the importance of movement has always been appreciated. The promenader gains an intense experience of the succession, variation and rhythm of the surrounding scene. The spaces and paths lead him from one stage to another. The spatial structure of the Japanese promenade garden, as well as of traditional Japanese architecture in general, is joined most intensively to time and motion. The environment is in relation to the flow of change in many sense, both concretely and existentially. Taking an example of western urban environment. Here perhaps the most marked sequential spaces are to be found in small medieval, mediterranean towns. Thanks to their organic growth, narrow and winding streets and the emphasis on public squares, most of them provide exciting experiences if the observer is only interested in seeing the townscape from the point of view of movement. There are also examples of this kind of environment in Finland. In old wooden towns like Porvoo and Rauma one can still find varied and rhythmic streetscapes and networks of streets and squares, together with a human scale and an almost timeless atmosphere. One could say that such an opportunity to experience spaces sequentially, or as serial visions, is an important dimension for us, especially as pedestrians. And as Gordon Cullen has shown there is in any urban environment much scope to heighten this experience. For example, by creating a sense of ’entering in’ some place, ’leaving for’, ’moving towards’, ’turning into’, ’walking through’ some place or ’following on’ the flow of spaces. Or, as Edmund H. Bacon has said, the departure point of good town planning should be that the successive towns spaces give rise to a flow of harmonic experiences: present experiences merge with earlier ones and become a step towards a future. Or, again in the words of Donald Appleyard, Kevin Lynch and John R. Myer: “The experience of a city is basically of a moving view, and this is the view we must understand if we wish to reform the look of our cities”.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

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