CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0e89
authors Bradford, J.W., Cheng, N. and Kvan, Thomas
year 1994
title Virtual Design Studios
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 163-167
summary Beginning in 1993, small groups of students of architectural design at different institutions around the world participated in collaborative design projects using a variety of tools, including CAD, Internet and teleconferencing. This programme, known as the "Virtual Design Studio" (VDS), allows students to work collectively with colleagues from different cultures and climates who are thousands of kilometres and in different time zones. Most recently, in February 1994, four institutions in N. America, one in Europe, and one in S E Asia participated in VDS’94. This paper explains the operation of the VDS and explores the future of the VDS as a potential tool for architectural design education. In particular, we review what we have learned in employing computer tools to extend the teaching in design studios into a "virtual" experience.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2010/07/01 05:20

_id b665
authors Burdea G. and Coiffet, G.
year 1993
title Virtual Reality Technology
source Wiley Interscience
summary This in-depth review of current virtual reality technology and its applications provides a detailed analysis of the engineering, scientific and functional aspects of virtual reality systems and the fundamentals of VR modeling and programming. It also contains an exhaustive list of present and future VR applications in a number of diverse fields. Virtual Reality Technology is the first book to include a full chapter on force and tactile feedback and to discuss newer interface tools such as 3-D probes and cyberscopes. Supplemented with 23 color plates and more than 200 drawings and tables which illustrate the concepts described.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c372
authors Calvert, T., Bruderlin, A., Mah, S., Schiphorst, T. and Welman, C.
year 1993
title The Evolution of an Interface for Choreographers Evolving Design
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1993 pp. 115-122
summary This paper describes the evolution of the interface to Life Forms, a compositional tool for the creation of dance choreography, and highlights some of the important lessons we have learned during a six year design and implementation period. The lessons learned can be grouped into two categories: 1) Process, and 2) Architecture of the Interface. Our goal in developing a tool for choreography has been to provide computer-based creative design support for the conception and development of dance. The evolution was driven by feedback from the choreographers and users who were members of the development team, combined with our knowledge of current thinking on design and composition. Although the interface evolved in a relatively unconstrained way, the resulting system has many of the features that theoretical discussion in human interface design has projected as necessary. The Life Forms interface has evolved incrementally with one major discontinuity where adoption of a new compositional primitive required a completely new version. The choreography and composition of a dance is a complex synthesis task which has much in common with design. Thus, the lessons learned here are applicable to the development of interfaces to such applications as computer aided design.
keywords Composition; Design; User Interface; Dance; Complexity; Choreography; Human Animation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id 97e7
authors Carter, K.
year 1993
title Computer aided design: back to the drawing board
source Proc. of Creativity and Cognition, Loughborough, April
summary This paper argues that the role of Computer Aided Design (CAD) should be to enhance and extend paper-based working, rather than to replace it. Current CAD tools are little used in the early stages of designing. Paper is heavily used, with its physical properties supporting work practices that are not possible with CAD. This paper presents implications for the design of new computer-based tools drawn from observations of designers' work practices. A new system is described that integrates paper-based and computer-based working in the same physical space and supports the application of computation to images on paper.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6737
authors Casaus, A., Fargas, J. and Papuzian, P.
year 1993
title Hybrid Design Environments - A Research Program on Creative Collaboration and Communication
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper gives an overview of a research program initiated in the Architectural Design Department of the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona on issues of communication and collaboration in computer aided design. The work is centered around emerging design situations which can be attributed directly to the incorporation of new technologies in education and practice. One of these is the "design triangle" composed of a traditional designer, a CAD workstation and a computer literate collaborator acting as the design medium. Another is the "virtual workshop" consisting of design collaboration involving large-scale distributed communications networks. The research program stresses three common characteristics of these situations which it aims to study in parallel in the setting of an design workshop. The first of these is the characteristic of distance, both physical and conceptual, which separates, on the one hand, the traditional designer from the CAD document and, on the other, the participants of a distributed workshop from each other and each others' thinking. The second, is the typically hybrid nature of such situations where computer technology interacts with more traditional techniques and alternative media are combined both at the level of production and in channels and modes of communication. And finally, the third and most significant for the methodology of the research program, is the fact that both the design triangle and the virtual workshop make explicit aspects of design activity, interaction and intentions which remain hidden or are only implicit in traditional designing.

series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 7fe0
authors Castleman, Kenneth R.
year 1993
title Digital image processing
source California Institute of Technologie
summary Digital image processing has experienced explosive growth over the past two decades. Public awareness has increased by way of video games, digital video special effects used in the entertainement industry, as well as articles in the mainstream press. However, the most significant impact of digital image processing in the 90s will be in the area of applications of real world problems. To help readers keep pace, author Kenneth R. Castleman concentrates on those techniques that have proven most useful in practice. Part I presents several important concepts that can be developed without detailed mathematical analysis for a basic understanding. Part II addresses techniques that rely more on mathematics and eaborates analytically on certain concepts introduced in Part I. Part III covers specific application aread that are particularly in industry, science, and medicine. Contents: Preface; Images and Digital Processing; Digitizing Images; Digital Image Display; Image Processing Software; The Gray Level Histogram; Point Operations; Algebraic Operations; Geometric Operations; Filter Design; Wavelet Transformations; Image Restorations; Image Compression; Three Dimensional Image Processing; Appendices; Index.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 88c5
authors Caturano, U.
year 1993
title A Proposal of Iconic Map on Computer Aided Architectural Design: 3DIMCAAD
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary During the development of my graduation thesis I had to propose a subdivision of informatics technologies for architectural design into several research fields, each of them characterized by specific aims. This kind of subdivision was originally configured as an orientation tool inside the wide CAAD discipline, and only in a second time it took the features of a complete organization layout in which it is understandable not only the position of each single discipline in comparison with the others but, above all, the connections and interactions between them. The model, obtained as the result of many handlings but undefined yet, has been named 3DIMCaad (3 Dimensional Iconic Map on Computer Aided Architectural Design) and, in according to an initial hypothesis it could be regarded as a map of the sectors pointed out by my proposal, in fact, it is a iconic model of the connections and differences between the informatic main topics that I analysed. Every main topic is represented by a spheric nucleus linked to the others by a connection line (the ''pipe''), the dimension of which, quite generous, makes the observer understand the numerous interactions and exchange presents if two main topics are linked.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:00

_id cbe7
authors Caturano, Umberto and Sanseverino di Marcellinara, Carlo
year 1993
title Solid Modelling by Low-cost Hardware and Software: The Crystal Palace's Node
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper describes the approach to the solid modelling by low-cost hardware and software, developed by a workgroup composed by staff members, young researchers and students of the University of Naples - Faculty of Architecture. The work was born in need of exposing to the students the project of Crystal Palace, designed in 1850 by J. Paxton, and used in the Italian universities as an example of first prefabrication by components and the organization of the yard. Using commercial programs and the students' computers, we had done a 3D model of the Crystal Palace's structural node, making an interesting experience based on the cooperation between university structures and private resources.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:29

_id 9937
authors Chandansingh, R.A., and Vos, Ch.J.
year 1993
title Modelling effects of cad on concrete construction using production graphs
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 1(4), pp. 39-50
summary Quantitative statements on effects of CAD systems are needed to manage their use in concrete construction, but are hard to make. This paper describes an approach to model the effects of CAD systems on concrete construction. The approach is based on the concept of 'the market value of information commodities', and uses graph theory to build a formal model of the construction process. The formal model, so-called production graph, allows for investigation and quantification of the effects of CAD systems, which depend on their so-called value adding dimensions. An example of application of the approach is provided. Experiences with this approach are very good. General patterns between the value adding dimensions of CAD systems and their effects on production graphs must be determined to develop a descriptive and predictive model. Case-studies are being done to identify these general patterns.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
email Ru.zero@gmail.com
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 0b24
authors Chilton, J.C., Wester, T. and Yu, J.
year 1993
title Exploring Structural Morphology Using CAD
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Often in the design process the student's imagination is restricted by their inability to visualise, model or accurately sketch ideas for innovative structural systems. By using CAD as a design tool it is possible to explore the morphology of complex structures and to be able to produce perspective drawings of them with relative ease. Within AutoCAD there is a small library of standard three-dimensional objects and surfaces that can be called upon to generate more complex forms. However, to further facilitate the architectural design process, an extended library of innovative structural forms would allow the professional designer, or student, greater design freedom and any increase in the palette of structural forms available should stimulate creativity. As practical examples, the paper describes how students have been encouraged to experiment with the use of structures which can only be physically modelled with difficulty and which are also difficult to represent on the two- dimensional surface of the drawing board unless the geometry has previously been determined by the methods described. These are (i) Reciprocal Frame three-dimensional beam grillage structures and (ii) plate domes created from lattice structures by point-to- plane duality. The problem, of representation of these structures has been overcome, in the first case, by generating AutoLISP procedures to draw the complex three-dimensional geometrical form automatically in AutoCAD and, in the second case, by the development of the computer program CADual.

series eCAADe
email John.Chilton@nottingham.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 09:08

_id af70
authors Coates, Paul and Yakeley, Megan
year 1993
title Function Follows Form: A Description of the Work and Educational Objectives of the MSc in Computing & Design at the University of East London School of Architecture
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper demonstrates the approach to Architectural education that has been developed over the last 3 years on the MSc Computing & Design course at the University of East London. Although the course deals exclusively in computer based topics, the main concern is primarily with developing a design methodology and a way of teaching design method, more particularly an algorithmic description of form. Rule based design, emergent form and bottom up approaches to design have become fashionable to the point of ubiquity in the last 5 years, but we like to think that only at UEL have these concerns been linked to a consistent view of design.
series eCAADe
email m.yakeley@manchester.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 09:07

_id cad5
authors Coyne, R.F., Flemming, U., Piela, P. and Woodbury, R.
year 1993
title Behavior Modeling in Design System Development
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 335-354
summary We describe the development approach for a software environment to support the early phases in building design called SEED. The combination of capabilities offered by SEED to designers is novel and includes the integrated handling of solution prototypes. We give the reasons for using an object-oriented software engineering approach in the development of the system, which starts with a comprehensive behavioral model of the system from the user's perspective based on actors and use cases. We illustrate results from the first development phase and sketch the next phases. At the time of the CAAD Futures '93 conference, we will be able to report our experience in developing a first system prototype and to demonstrate the prototype.
keywords Object-Oriented Software Engineering, Integrated Design Systems, Architectural Programming, Schematic Layout Design
series CAAD Futures
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 08fc
authors Darken, R.P. and Sibert, J.L.
year 1993
title A toolset for navigation in virtual environments
source Proceedings of the ACM User Interface Software and Technology, pp.157-165
summary Maintaining knowledge of current position and orientation is frequently a problem for people in virtual environments. In this paper we present a toolset of techniques based on principles of navigation derived from real world analogs. We include a discussion of human and avian navigation behaviors and show how knowledge about them were used to design our tools. We also summarize an informal study we performed to determine how our tools influenced the subjects' navigation behavior. We conclude that principles extracted from real world navigation aids such as maps can be seen to apply in virtual environments.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e92c
authors Dave, Bharat
year 1993
title A Computer-Assisted Diagramming System
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary This research investigates characteristics and generation of graphic diagrams used in support of analysis, presentation and synthesis of information in various domains. The research is aimed at the development of a software system which can be used to specify, generate and manipulate diagrams similar to the way they are represented and operated upon in traditional media.Diagrams are graphic representations of symbolic propositions that allow tentative reasoning and inferencing, and enable a person to focus on selected aspects of a situation that are deemed of interest. The economy and directness of expression found in diagrams seem to be the prime reasons why they are so ubiquitous in many domains. Despite these advantages, studies into supporting diagrammatic representations using computers are rather sparse. This research is an attempt at developing a comprehensive framework of thought in this direction.In the context of design disciplines like architecture, this research forms a part of the continuum of studies in computer aided design techniques and tools. While a large number of tools and techniques in CAD have emerged so far, usage of such tools, due to their underlying representations, expects and demands commitment of too many details too early in the design process. This research is aimed at characterizing and developing a computer based diagramming system to support tentative reasoning using diagrams, and thus hopes to extend the scope of CAD environments in design. The thesis first articulates motivations for this topic in detail. Next, a discussion on the role played by diagrams as conceptual tools in various domains is presented. It is followed by a detailed look at characteristics and components of diagrams viewed as a graphic communication system. Next, a comprehensive set of requirements for an ideal software environment for diagramming tasks is developed. A prototype system called CDT was implemented and is used to demonstrate ideas developed in this research. The study concludes with some observations on contributions of this research effort and possible future extensions.
series thesis:PhD
email b.dave@architecture.unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/10 03:43

_id cbfe
authors Dave, Bharat
year 1993
title CDT: A Computer-Assisted Diagramming Tool
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 91-109
summary This paper describes the development of a computer- based diagramming tool (CDT) that supports incremental structuring of problem information using diagrammatic representations. Diagrams as graphic representations of symbolic propositions allow tentative reasoning and inferencing. The development of CDT has been carried out based on two observations. First, many diagrams are used to represent objects and relations between them. Second, diagrams comprise graphic Symbols arranged on a plane using topological and geometric relations to denote problem relevant information. CDT responds to these needs by incorporating a number of computational ideas: graphic interface, direct manipulation, constraint representation by demonstration, and specification and satisfaction of diagram composition rules.
keywords Tentative Reasoning, Incremental Problem Representation and Exploration, Diagramming
series CAAD Futures
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ecaade2014_153
id ecaade2014_153
authors David Morton
year 2014
title Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning:How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 343-356
summary The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
wos WOS:000361384700034
keywords Augmented reality; pedagogy; learning journey; exploration
series eCAADe
email david.e.morton@northumbria.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2014_146
id ecaade2014_146
authors Davide Ventura and Matteo Baldassari
year 2014
title Grow: Generative Responsive Object for Web-based design - Methodology for generative design and interactive prototyping
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 587-594
summary This paper is part of the research on Generative Design and is inspired by the ideas spread by the following paradigms: the Internet of Things (Auto-ID Center, 1999) and the Pervasive/Ubiquitous Computing (Weiser, 1993). Particularly, the research describes a number of case studies and, in detail, the experimental prototype of an interactive-design object: “Grow-1”. The general assumptions of the study are as follows: a) Developing the experimental prototype of a smart-design object (Figure 1) in terms of interaction with man, with regard to the specific conditions of the indoor environment as well as in relation to the internet/web platforms. b) Setting up a project research based on the principles of Generative Design.c) Formulating and adopting a methodology where computational design techniques and interactive prototyping ones converge, in line with the principles spread by the new paradigms like the Internet of Things.
wos WOS:000361385100061
keywords Responsive environments and smart spaces; ubiquitous pervasive computing; internet of things; generative design; parametric modelling
series eCAADe
email davide.ventura@uniroma1.it
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

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