CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 180

_id ac20
authors Lyons, Arthur and Doidge, Charles
year 1993
title Understanding Structural Movement Joints with CAAD Animation
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The well-established use, as an architectural design tool, of computer graphics using 'fly-through' techniques gives a highly visual overview of design concepts and may additionally illustrate certain specific details, but it cannot show their time-dependent dynamic function. This paper describes and illustrates how CAAD animation can be used to analyse not only structural philosophy but also the dynamic effects of nonstatic loading and thermal movement, thus leading to a better understanding of the design criteria applied in certain elegant solutions. The CAAD video animations illustrate the structural philosophy relating to the facade of the refurbished Bracken House, London and the dynamic operation of key movement junctions within Stansted Airport and East Croydon Railway Station.
keywords Structure, Movement Joints, Animation, Video
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:46

_id cd30
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1993
title On the Correlation of Design and Computational Techniques in Architectural Education
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Many studies employ analyses of human intelligence as justification or guideline for the development of machine intelligence. The main benefit brought on by such studies has been the improvement of our understanding of both human and machine intelligence. In teaching architecture with computers the same approach can make explicit design techniques architects use by means of equivalent or similar computational techniques. Explicitation of design techniques leads to a better understanding of architects' activities, as well as to which computer tools can offer automated support to these activities. In the curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, relations and correspondences between computational and design techniques form a major underlying theme in computer-aided design courses. The purposes of this theme are (i) comprehension of the computational structure of a computer design tool, and (ii) explanation of how such computational structures relate to architectural design. (correspondences between the computational principles of computer programs and design techniques are instrumental in defining the scope of each computer tool in architectural design while improving the students' understanding of architectural design as a cognitive process and thus promoting automation as a natural extension of established conventional practices. The paper outlines the correlation of computational and design techniques in the case of electronic spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are introduced through a thorough presentation of the various kinds and aspects of constraint propagation, their underlying computational principle. Numerical constraint propagation is explained by means of spreadsheet applications for simple numerical calculations. Symbolic constraint propagation is presented in the framework of machine perception. Both forms are then linked to architectural design through parametric design and the recognition of spaces in floor plans. Exercises linked to spreadsheets and constraint propagation include the parametric calculation of stairs and making parametric variations of a building on the basis of floor area calculations.

series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://caad.bk.tudelft.nl/koutamanis/
last changed 1998/08/24 08:56

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2017_015
id caadria2017_015
authors Pelosi, Antony
year 2017
title Where am I? - Spatial Cognition Inside Building Information Models
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 643-652
summary How do we know what we are looking at while viewing inside Building Information Modelling (BIM) models? Current architectural software typically provides disconnected methods of aiding spatial cognition. There is a strong history of navigation tools developed for controlling our exploration and movement in BIM models, a study by Ruby Darken and John Sibert (1993) found these tools had a strong influence on people's behaviour and understanding of digital space. People perceive and navigate space differently depending on their individual experience with a BIM model, designers and architects build up a detailed cognitive map during the design of a project, while other people have a less detailed comprehension of a project, having only been exposed to select views. This paper will outline key strategies to improve how people comprehend digital space, supporting people in understanding distance and size while inside BIM models. Three design research projects will be presented. The result of the projects define three strategies; Architectural wayshowing, interior-aware transitions, and distance confirmation. Architectural wayshowing needs to be implemented during the design phase, while the remaining two need to be introduced into BIM editing and viewing software.
keywords Whiteout; wayshowing; spatial cognition; navigation; BIM
series CAADRIA
email apelosi@gmail.com
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id 60f3
authors Wright, Robert M. and Hoinkes, Rodney M.
year 1993
title Computational Issues in Urban Design: Developing a Strategy for Solar Impact Assessment
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 543-555
summary A comprehensive method for identifying the impacts on solar access of large scale architectural projects still continues to be an important and controversial area in city planning and urban design. Previous research studies such as the Sun Wind and Pedestrian Comfort, a study of Toronto's Central Area, demonstrated approaches possible when dealing with solar issues related to urban design. Existing techniques for solar inventory, analysis and evaluation, while effective, are often dependent on single event analysis (shadow casting) or manual procedures that are time consuming and exceedingly complex especially when needed for day-to-day use by planners or architects involved in complex urban projects. The Centre for Landscape Research has undertaken as part of its research to develop a computational approach that would help city urban designers evaluate and represent the issues of solar access in an urban setting. This paper will outline a series of computational methods developed to utilize an existing municipal digital data base and to describe complex issues of solar access in terms of urban form and context. A technique will be described that quantitatively assesses the total solar potential of a site as compared to changes in solar access due to different urban design proposals. Two-, three- and four-dimensional representation techniques are developed to facilitate understanding of the analysis to users such as city officials, the public, developers, etc.
keywords Solar Assessment, Urban Design, Open Space, Modeling Visualization
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id aa7f
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth and Hill, Pamela
year 1993
title Virtual Reality: Technology of the Future or Playground of the Cyberpunk?
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 121-129
summary Jaron Lanier is a major spokesperson of our society's hottest new technology: VR or virtual reality. He expressed his faith in the VR movement in this quote which appears in The User's Guide to the New Edge published by Mondo 2000. In its most technical sense, VR has attracted the attention of politicians in Washington who wonder if yet another technology developed in the United States will find its application across the globe in Asia. In its most human element, an entire "cyberpunk movement" has appealed to young minds everywhere as a seemingly safe form of hallucination. As architecture students, educators, and practitioners around the world are becoming attracted to the possibilities of VR technology as an extension of 3D modeling, visualization, and animation, it is appropriate to consider an overview of virtual reality.

In virtual reality a user encounters a computersimulated environment through the use of a physical interface. The user can interact with the environment to the point of becoming a part of the experience, and the experience becomes reality. Natural and

instinctive body movements are translated by the interface into computer commands. The quest for perfection in this human-computer relationship seems to be the essence of virtual reality technology.

To begin to capture the essence of virtual reality without first-hand experience, it is helpful to understand two important terms: presence and immersion. The sense of presence can be defined as the degree to which the user feels a part of the actual environment. The more reality the experience provides, the more presence it has. Immersion can be defined as the degree of other simulation a virtual reality interface provides for the viewer. A highly immersive system might provide more than just visual stimuli; for example, it may additionally provide simulated sound and motion, and simultaneously prevent distractions from being present.

series ACADIA
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2d1f
authors Kavakli, Manolya and Bayazit, Nigan
year 1993
title An Experiment on the Image Schemata
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The main objective of this paper is to explain the process of knowledge acquisition utilising the method for the decomposition of the components of a system to extract design rules. The furnished drawing of a dwelling is considered as the language of a designer. These drawings contain the semantic knowledge that can be called general architectural know-how. This paper bases on the decomposition of the syntax of a room image. The syntax of a room image consists of walls, windows, circulation zones and furniture such as beds, wardrobes, commodes, dressing tables, etc. The syntax of a room image has some linkages. The designer put the syntax together with the joints of circulation zones as a grammar to match. The existing relations between the objects in a design can be called grammar. An experiment is applied to three classes of a CAAD course organised by the Turkish Chamber of Architects. The living room is given already furnished in the experiment and the rest of a dwelling is expected to be furnished. In the first phase, the experiment is applied on two different classes in different times. It is interesting that the same grammar is used by 6 of 8 couple of designers for 3 different types (A, B and D) of bedrooms. Only one of the bedrooms of C type) has different design styles in spite of looking much like each other. In the second phase, for the third class of 6 groups, plan is modified slightly. In this case all of the 6 couples of designers use the same grammar for 2 alternatives of D type bedroom for parents. An original method is applied in the elicitation of the knowledge in this experiment. The properties of the objects and their links are represented by a semantic network graph. This paper also presents the grammar of the furnished rooms and shows the density of preferences. Design rules are extracted from these drawings of a furnished dwelling by searching for similarities in the plans designed by different designers. The designers have some specifications about the grammar of furnishing and an image schema of the proposed room in their minds, depending on their education and experiences. During the design of a room, designers look for differences and the similarities existing in the syntax of the proposed room image and the image of furnished room on the screen. If these images match with each other, the designers satisfy with the result This paper investigates the image schemata of the designers by evaluating their drawings. Some design rules are represented by means of image schemata. Matching the joints of circulation zones, the designers put the syntax of different image schemata together and they can illustrate different alternatives, restricted by the translation of these image schemata.

series eCAADe
email bayazit@sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr
last changed 1998/08/24 08:49

_id a12b
authors Kokosalakis, J., Farrow, J. and Spalton, N.
year 1993
title Introducing 2D Draughting and 3D CAD Modelling into the Information and Library Studies Curriculum in Response to Increasingly Complex Design Requirements of Information Resources
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper describes enhancements to the Information and Library Studies curriculum at the Liverpool John Moores University. In the design process for buildings and space utilised for learning resources informed client involvement is seen as important by the information professional. A new module has been introduced with the aim of providing students with the knowledge and skills to communicate effectively with building design professionals. It is apparent that CAD has a place in this teaching. The programme of study is outlined, including a discussion of significant, relevant examples produced by the CAAD staff of the School of the Built Environment. The teaching methods were drawn from experience in the well established curricula and delivery of CAAD to the architecture and environmental planning students using School of the Built Environment Macintosh hardware and software. From the Aldham Robarts Learning Resource Centre, (presently nearing completion) examples will be shown of animated models, design, organisational and staffing solutions to new technological demands. These include transfer of the Austin - Smith: Lord Intergraph/MicroStation 3D model to Zoom, animation with Electric Image and Theseus and assisting library staff to use ArchiCAD to design and consider shelf planning arrangements for negotiation with the architects. There are interesting lessons to be learned about the advantages of CAD for future client control.

keywords Information Professional, CAAD, Learning Resource Centre, Open Learning, Information and Library Studies, Curriculum.
series eCAADe
email BLTJKOKO@livjm.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 08:43

_id d6a3
authors Alkhoven, Patricia
year 1993
title The Changing Image of the City
source University of Utrecht
summary The image and structure of a town are constantly subject to a dynamic process of change and continuity. Visual material, such as photographs, historical maps, town plans, drawings and prints, show us the impact of these changes on the image of a town. The main point of departure of this study stems from the question of how this process of change and continuity is visually detectable in a town or city. The fact that the ideas about the appearance of a city (gradually) change, can be read from the often subtle changes in the townscape. Though in many cases we have a general knowledge of the choices made in urban management, the most difficult problem is to detect the underlying decisions. This raises the question to what extent these changes and also the continuities are the result of deliberate choices in urban management and to what extent they are autonomous developments in the townscape resistant to interventions. Using different kinds of visual information as a basis, computer visualization techniques are used in the present study to examine some cartographic maps and to reconstruct the urban development in the twentieth century of the town of Heusden three-dimensionally in significant phases. The resulting visualization provides us with a tool for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban transformation processes, typologies and morphological changes and continuities.
keywords 3D City Modeling
series thesis:PhD
email patricia.alkhoven@kb.nl
more http://www.library.uu.nl/digiarchief/dip/diss/01754573/hfdheus.htm
last changed 2003/05/15 19:36

_id 4dd6
authors Bhavnani, S.K., Garrett, J. and Shaw, D.S.
year 1993
title Leading Indicators of CAD Experience
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 313-334
summary Current interfaces and help facilities of CAD systems are not designed to respond to a user's performance. To develop such adaptive environments, a better understanding of the indicators of CAD experience is required. This paper discusses the results of studying behavior patterns of different types and levels of CAD users for a specific drawing task. The results show that the type and experience of the CAD user has a clear correlation to the pattern of commands used, the time taken, and the quality of drawing produced. By using the experimental data to train a neural network, the paper demonstrates a connectionist approach for experience assessment. This information, it is proposed, can provide input to an adaptive interface which generates unobtrusive interception to improve the performance of a CAD user. Future experiments to explore the issues of generality and interception are presented.
keywords CAD user Modeling, Adaptive Interface, Neural Networks
series CAAD Futures
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c207
authors Branzell, Arne
year 1993
title The Studio CTH-A and the Searching Picture
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 129-140
summary What happens during an architect’s search for the best solution? How does he (or she) begin, which tools are chosen, what happens when he comes to a standstill? The activities – sketching, discussions with other people, making models, taking walks to think, visits to the library, etc? What is an ordinary procedure and what is more specific? Do the tools have an impact on the final solution chosen? What happens during periods of no activity? Are they important? In which fields of activities are signs of the searching process to be found? In other words — what is the process of creative thinking for architects? Mikael Hedin and myself at Design Methods, Chalmers University of Technology, have started research into architects’ problem-solving. We have finished a pilot study on a very experienced architect working traditionally, without Cad (”The Bo Cederlöf Case”). We have started preliminary discussions with our second ”Case”, an architect in another situation, who has been working for many years with Cad equipment (Gert Wingårdh). For our next case, we will study a third situation – two or more architects who share the responsibility for the solution and where the searching is a consequence of a dialogue between equal partners. At present, we are preparing a report on theories in and methods for Searching and Creativity. I will give you some results of our work up till now, in the form of ten hypotheses on the searching process. Finally, I would like to present those fields of activity where we have so far found signs of searching. Our approach, in comparison with earlier investigations into searching (the most respected being Arnheim’s study on Picasso’s completion of the Guernica) is to collect and observe signs of searching during the process, not afterwards. We are, to use a metaphor, following in the footsteps of the hunter, recording the path he chooses, what marks he makes, what tools, implements and equipment he uses. For practising architects: a better understanding of what is going on and encouragement to try new ways of searching, for architectural students: better preparation and training for problem solving. It all began while we compared the different objects in our collection of sketches at the Chalmers STUDIO for Visualisation and Communication. (For some years, we have been gathering sketches by Alvar Aalto, Jorn Utzon, Ralph Erskine, Erik and Tore Ahlsén, Lewerenz, Nyrén, Lindroos, Wingårdh and others in a permanent exhibition). We observed similarities in these sketches which allowed us to frame ten hypotheses about the searching process.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
email branzell@arch.chalmers.se
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 8b38
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1998
title The Sundance Lab- "Design Systems of the Future"
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 8-10
summary The last thirty years have seen the development of powerful new tools for architects and planners: CAD, 3D modeling, digital imaging, geographic information systems, and real time animated walkthroughs. That’s just the beginning. Based on our experience with CAD tools, analysis of design practice, and an understanding of computer hardware and software, we’re out to invent the next generation of tools. We think architects should be shakers and makers, not just consumers, of computer aided design. We started the Sundance Lab (for Computing in Design and Planning) in 1993 with a few people and machines. We’ve grown to more than a dozen people (mostly undergraduate students) and a diverse interdisciplinary array of projects. We’ve worked with architects and planners, anthropologists, civil engineers, geographers, computer scientists, and electrical engineers. Our work is about the built environment: its physical form and various information involved in making and inhabiting places. We cover a wide range of topics – from design information management to virtual space, from sketch recognition to design rationale capture, to communication between designer and computer. All start from the position that design is a knowledge based and information rich activity. Explicit representations of design information (knowledge, rationale, and rules) enables us to engage in more intelligent dialogues about design. The following describes some of our projects under various rubrics.
series ACADIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id ca14
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1993
title Generative Modelling and Electronic Lego
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper shows work exemplifying the further extent of computer capabilities in the field of design. The work stems from a belief that for computers to be used effectively within the architectural profession their utility must stretch far beyond the process of description of geometric data, but be incorporated in the fundamental roots of design: that of conceptual design. Computers can be used to access the knowledge we have and then formulate this knowledge into a working language of design. Computers can be used to generate space and form in accordance with any relationship the designer may choose to set. This allows them to be used from the very conception of design. It is only by working from the very beginning, the very basis of the design of a building that we can fully develop the integration of computers in the construction industry. The work undertaken sets out primarily to explore one of the ways computers could be used in the field of architectural design. In recognition that an important byproduct of any design search is the enhanced understanding of the problem itself, the work was directed towards a particular project. This allowed each stage of thought to be to be considered as it arose and subsequently incorporated into the design model. The work does not attempt to automise the design process but simply tries to explore some of the opportunities offered by computers and see if they can be easily incorporated into the design process offering design solutions that may not otherwise have been considered. The exploration resulted in a simple design process model that incorporates the more accessible and useful aspects of computer technology.
keywords Generative Modelling, Rule Based Form, Random Factors, Shape Grammars
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Göteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e469
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 1993
title The Graphics Application Paradigm: A Framework for User Understanding of CG/CAD Applications
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 11-20
summary What do young architects need to know about computer graphics? What "immutable and eternal" models will allow them to perform their best as professional architects? At one time all computer users were computer programmers and the answer was thus rooted in programming expertise, but the era of personally developed software is largely past. An alternative more vocational approach would stress courses in the use of specific programs, but it is hard to imagine a more mutable "object of knowledge" than the practical details of computing in the late twentieth century. In fact, our students are deluged with information: commands, vocabulary, options, sales hyperbole, and "do this, it works" cookbooks. As educators, we face the challenge of identifying that which is "immutable and eternal", and presenting it to our students (and trying to focus their attention on it).
series ACADIA
email brj@u.washington.edu
last changed 1999/02/25 09:14

_id 60c9
authors Laurel, B.
year 1993
title Computer as Theatre
source Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
summary I used Aristotelian poetics as a way to look at how plays in particular are made and constructed and to figure out what their parts are and how they work together. So some of the ways, in which there is a relationship, is the idea of action as being the primary element of a play. Often in the old days in particular working with the computer we did not think of the user taking action or getting something done. We thought of the computer presenting information. In the early days it felt much more like television. The idea of taking action and make choices is a very important one in understanding the deepest potential of interactivity. That said I could have based that book on a dramatic theory of Bertolt Brecht for example. There are other consistent, systematic theories of drama you could use to model and interact the system. The only reason I checked Aristotelian poetics is because it seemed so fundamental to me.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 98bd
authors Pea, R.
year 1993
title Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education
source Distributed Cognitions, edited by G. Salomon. New York, NY: CambridgeUniversity Press
summary v Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts... v Intelligence may also be distributed for use in designed artifacts as diverse as physical tools, representations such as diagrams, and computer-user interfaces to complex tasks. v Leont'ev 1978 for activity theory that argues forcibly for the centrality of people-in-action, activity systems, as units of analysis for deepening our understanding of thinking. v Intelligence is distributed: the resources that shape and enable activity are distributed across people, environments, and situations. v Intelligence is accomplished rather than possessed. v Affordance refers to the perceived and actual properties of a thing, primarily those functional properties that determine how the thing could possibly be used. v Norman 1988 on design and psychology - the psychology of everyday things" v We deploy effort-saving strategies in recognition of their cognitive economy and diminished opportunity for error. v The affordances of artifacts may be more or less difficult to convey to novice users of these artifacts in the activities to which they contribute distributed intelligence. v Starts with Norman's seven stages of action Ø Forming a goal; an intention § Task desire - clear goal and intention - an action and a means § Mapping desire - unable to map goal back to action § Circumstantial desire - no specific goal or intention - opportunistic approach to potential new goal § Habitual desire - familiar course of action - rapidly cycle all seven stages of action v Differentiates inscriptional systems from representational or symbol systems because inscriptional systems are completely external, while representational or symbol systems have been used in cognitive science as mental constructs. v The situated properties of everyday cognition are highly inventive in exploiting features of the physical and social situation as resources for performing a task, thereby avoiding the need for mental symbol manipulations unless they are required by that task. v Explicit recognition of the intelligence represented and representable in design, specifically in designed artifacts that play important roles in human activities. v Once intelligence is designed into the affordances properties of artifacts, it both guides and constrains the likely contributions of that artifact to distributed intelligence in activity. v Culturally valued designs for distributed intelligence will change over time, especially as new technology becomes associated with a task domain. v If we treat distributed intelligence in action as the scientific unit of analysis for research and theory on learning and reasoning... Ø What is distributed? Ø What constraints govern the dynamics of such distributions in different time scales? Ø Through what reconfigurations of distributed intelligence might the performance of an activity system improve over time? v Intelligence is manifest in activity and distributed in nature. v Intelligent activities ...in the real world... are often collaborative, depend on resources beyond an individual's long-term memory, and require the use of information-handling tools... v Wartofsky 1979 - the artifact is to cultural evolution what the gene is to biological evolution - the vehicle of information across generations. v Systems of activity - involving persons, environment, tools - become the locus of developmental investigation. v Disagrees with Salomon et al.'s entity-oriented approach - a language of containers holding things. v Human cognition aspires to efficiency in distributing intelligence - across individuals, environment, external symbolic representations, tools, and artifacts - as a means of coping with the complexity of activities we often cal "mental." "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2006_252
id 2006_252
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 2006
title Managing the Changes within the Architectural Practice - The Effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 252-260
summary The architectural working environment has changed during the last 30 years more than ever before. Most of the changes have been related with information and communication technologies (ICT). Architectural working methods and tools have changed profoundly, when CAD has replaced more traditional methods and tools. Communicative working environment and document management within design & construction has also been changed to digital, meaning email and project webs. Completing a traditional architectural profile of the 20th centrury, a drawer-designer, contemporary communicating and managing skills plus mastering ICT are needed today to operate modern architectural practise properly. The objective of this study is to create a change-oriented understanding of the contemporary architectural profession concentrating on architectural information management. The first phase, a literature study, will be followed by interviews and case-studies, to examine three hypothetically different periods of time: a) 1980-85 the era before CAD, the last days of hand-drawing, b) 1993-98 the era of digital drawing, the expansion of architectural CAD, c) 2000-05 the rise of integrated and pervasive web-supported digital design. The study will propose new aspects to be included in the modern architectural profile, namingly project coordination, collaborative team-work, design information integration and profound digital content management.
keywords architectural profession; design practice; architectural ICT; change management
series eCAADe
email hannu.penttila@hut.fi
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 4cd5
authors Thiel, Philip
year 1993
title A Better Understanding of The Role of Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 123-128
summary As the most tool-dependent species on our planet, our technology determines our activities and thus defines our existence. Because of this a clear understanding of the ends-means relationship of our tools is of critical social- and professional-concern. Endoscopy, or the use of periscopic-like devices to extract human eye-level visual images, static or dynamic, from iconic scale models of proposed environments, is a case in point. Use is appropriate at advanced stages of planning and design, when such experiential simulations are necessary for both professional evaluation and lay approval. But note that the simulation is only a means to an end, and that the fundamental purpose is to evoke a response to a proposal. Simulation and response are opposite sides of the same coin, and the response is the goal. Any such responses are meaningful only with reference to the ultimate users’ experiential preferences, preferably explicitly established as ”performance specifications” before the start of the design process in consultation with a representative sample of these people. This implies the necessity of a means to identify these beneficiaries of our work, and a means to characterize their environmental ”experiential profiles”. It also requires a means for the discursive scripting of their experiential preferences. The development of a design oriented to the achievement of these ends then depends on a similar time-based scoring for the description of sequentially-experienced environmental attributes, hypothesized as related to these responses. Endoscopy then takes its place as the means for a penultimate check on the experiential design-hypotheses, in conjunction with suitable means to record the simulates’ responses in the same format as the original experiential performance specifications, for comparison therewith. The danger in being the most tool-dependent species on Earth is that in our necessary concern with technological means we may loose sight of our ultimate human ends; as suggested by the apothegm ”the operation was a success, but the patient died”. Our inexorable impetus toward technological development means that the specialized training that is inherent in professional education tends to separate and distance the perceptions of those so conditioned from those of the many others who are the presumed beneficiaries of their efforts.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5... show page 8HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_713814 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002