CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 253

_id aa7f
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth and Hill, Pamela
year 1993
title Virtual Reality: Technology of the Future or Playground of the Cyberpunk?
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 121-129
summary Jaron Lanier is a major spokesperson of our society's hottest new technology: VR or virtual reality. He expressed his faith in the VR movement in this quote which appears in The User's Guide to the New Edge published by Mondo 2000. In its most technical sense, VR has attracted the attention of politicians in Washington who wonder if yet another technology developed in the United States will find its application across the globe in Asia. In its most human element, an entire "cyberpunk movement" has appealed to young minds everywhere as a seemingly safe form of hallucination. As architecture students, educators, and practitioners around the world are becoming attracted to the possibilities of VR technology as an extension of 3D modeling, visualization, and animation, it is appropriate to consider an overview of virtual reality.

In virtual reality a user encounters a computersimulated environment through the use of a physical interface. The user can interact with the environment to the point of becoming a part of the experience, and the experience becomes reality. Natural and

instinctive body movements are translated by the interface into computer commands. The quest for perfection in this human-computer relationship seems to be the essence of virtual reality technology.

To begin to capture the essence of virtual reality without first-hand experience, it is helpful to understand two important terms: presence and immersion. The sense of presence can be defined as the degree to which the user feels a part of the actual environment. The more reality the experience provides, the more presence it has. Immersion can be defined as the degree of other simulation a virtual reality interface provides for the viewer. A highly immersive system might provide more than just visual stimuli; for example, it may additionally provide simulated sound and motion, and simultaneously prevent distractions from being present.

series ACADIA
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2979
authors Henry, D. and Furness, T.A.
year 1993
title Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments: Evaluating an Architectural Application
source IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1993, Seattle
summary Over the last several years, professionals from many different fields have come to the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (H.I.T.L) to discover and learn about virtual environments. In general, they are impressed by their experiences and express the tremendous potential the tool has in their respective fields. But the potentials are always projected far in the future, and the tool remains just a concept. This is justifiable because the quality of the visual experience is so much less than what people are used to seeing; high definition television, breathtaking special cinematographic effects and photorealistic computer renderings. Instead, the models in virtual environments are very simple looking; they are made of small spaces, filled with simple or abstract looking objects of little color distinctions as seen through displays of noticeably low resolution and at an update rate which leaves much to be desired. Clearly, for most applications, the requirements of precision have not been met yet with virtual interfaces as they exist today. However, there are a few domains where the relatively low level of the technology could be perfectly appropriate. In general, these are applications which require that the information be presented in symbolic or representational form. Having studied architecture, I knew that there are moments during the early part of the design process when conceptual decisions are made which require precisely the simple and representative nature available in existing virtual environments.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b665
authors Burdea G. and Coiffet, G.
year 1993
title Virtual Reality Technology
source Wiley Interscience
summary This in-depth review of current virtual reality technology and its applications provides a detailed analysis of the engineering, scientific and functional aspects of virtual reality systems and the fundamentals of VR modeling and programming. It also contains an exhaustive list of present and future VR applications in a number of diverse fields. Virtual Reality Technology is the first book to include a full chapter on force and tactile feedback and to discuss newer interface tools such as 3-D probes and cyberscopes. Supplemented with 23 color plates and more than 200 drawings and tables which illustrate the concepts described.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id fda4
authors Jalkanen, Janne
year 2000
title Building a spatially immersive display - HUTCAVE
source Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
summary A spatially immersive display is a display that surrounds the user, thus removing or alleviating many disadvantages the common virtual reality systems, such as head-mounted displays have. The most common example of these spatially immersive displays is the CAVE, "CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment", first built at University of Illinois, in 1993. It combines a large field-of-view with high-resolution images and a high frame refresh rate. In this work, the current Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) systems are examined, and then the CAVE construction is presented. Principles of stereo vision are explained and current methods of obtaining both autostereoscopic and stereopsis-based vision are reviewed. Aspects of different projection methods, screens, mirrors, projectors, tracking equipment, and computing systems are examined. Also, recent work in CAVE audio, so far neglected in research, is presented. Some of the mathematics is also explained, since in most CAVE-systems some sort of optical folding is necessary. Two cases of CAVE construction are presented, both at the Helsinki University of Technology. The first is a single-wall installation built as a temporary system, and the second is a four-sided CAVE at a new location, superseding the temporary installation. Finally the conclusions are presented, both from the process management point of view, and from the technical point of view, examining the good and bad points of the chosen solutions.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 50ce
authors Baker, R.
year 1993
title Designing the Future: The Computer Transformation of Reality
source Thames and Hudson, Hong Kong
summary A coffee table book on computer applications? Well, yes, because it does deal largely with matters of graphic design in architecture, fashion and textiles, painting, and photography; but it also has items which might be of interest in its sections on digital publication, typography, and electronic communication in general. It also seeks to discuss the way in which these applications may force us to change the way we think. Robin Baker writes in an unfortunately stiff and abstract manner about the impact computer programmes have had on the world of art and design, but the graphic images and extended picture captions help to keep the reader awake - even though the main text sometimes disappears for two or three double page spreads on end. There are also smatterings of pretentious art-world-speak about 'solving certain spatial problems' (in the design of curtain fabrics or teapots) and the introduction (inevitable?) of new jargon: 'shape grammar'(a list of so-called shape 'rules'), 'repurposing' (putting somebody else's work to new use) and 'genetic algorithms' (sculptural designs based on re-processed organic shapes - most of which look like stomach tumours). In his favour, Baker very generously credits students and commercial designers who have produced the effects he describes and illustrates so well. For writers, he sketches in the possibilities of Hypertext and Hypermedia and points to the future of Hyper publishing which he (and Rupert Murdoch)believes will be with us before the end of the century. He seems to have a good oversight of what is possible and practicable - though one wonders how up-to-date the view is when his book may have begun its life anything up to three years ago. He usefully points out that much new technology exists in or drags along with it the forms of earlier periods - so that in an age of electronic communication we still have printed books as a dominant cultural form. Maybe this is as it should be - but Baker makes a persuasive case for the claim that All This is Going to Change.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6737
authors Casaus, A., Fargas, J. and Papuzian, P.
year 1993
title Hybrid Design Environments - A Research Program on Creative Collaboration and Communication
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper gives an overview of a research program initiated in the Architectural Design Department of the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona on issues of communication and collaboration in computer aided design. The work is centered around emerging design situations which can be attributed directly to the incorporation of new technologies in education and practice. One of these is the "design triangle" composed of a traditional designer, a CAD workstation and a computer literate collaborator acting as the design medium. Another is the "virtual workshop" consisting of design collaboration involving large-scale distributed communications networks. The research program stresses three common characteristics of these situations which it aims to study in parallel in the setting of an design workshop. The first of these is the characteristic of distance, both physical and conceptual, which separates, on the one hand, the traditional designer from the CAD document and, on the other, the participants of a distributed workshop from each other and each others' thinking. The second, is the typically hybrid nature of such situations where computer technology interacts with more traditional techniques and alternative media are combined both at the level of production and in channels and modes of communication. And finally, the third and most significant for the methodology of the research program, is the fact that both the design triangle and the virtual workshop make explicit aspects of design activity, interaction and intentions which remain hidden or are only implicit in traditional designing.

series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 42ab
authors Dagit, Charles E.
year 1993
title Establishing Virtual Design Environments in Architectural Practice
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 513-522
summary This paper attempts to specify the ideal computerized architectural design tool and outlines steps that are being taken to make this ideal a reality. Section 2 offers a user-centered assessment of the way technology is currently implemented in the design professions. Section 3 describes the state-of-the-art in high-end CAAD applications, including computer rendering, walk-through displays, and expert diagnostic sysWins. Section 4 details work in progress at Worldesign, Inc., a virtual worlds systems integration firm, which is developing Virtual Design Environment (VDE) systems.
keywords Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE), Virtual Worlds Technology, Visualization, Computer Generated Environments, Computer Modeling, Virtual Reality, Information Systems, Information Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 1d5a
authors Schnabel, M.A., Kvan, T., Kruijff, E. and Donath, D.
year 2001
title The First Virtual Environment Design Studio
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 394-400
summary Since 1993 schools of architecture all over the world conduct in various forms of Virtual Design Studio (VDS). They have become an established part of teaching design within the digital realm. They vary in task and structure, are purely text-based or include various forms of interactive, synchronous or asynchronous collaboration. However, ‘virtual’ always refers to the method of communication and exchange of design and ideas. Students have never designed within immersive virtuality. This paper describes the first successful attempt to conduct a Joint Design Studio, which uses Virtual Environment (VE) as tool of design and communication between the remote partners. This first VeDS focused on how architectural students make use of this particular different approach to design within immersive three-dimensional VEs. For example, the students created 3D-immersive design proposals, explored dependencies to textual description of initial intentions and communicated between local and remote team-partners in immersive VE as well as textbased communication-channels. The paper subsequently describes the VeDS, its set-up, realization and outcome. We discuss frameworks and factors influencing how architectural students communicate their proposals in immersive VeDS, and how this new approach of design studio enables new forms of design expressions.
keywords Immersive Virtual Reality, Collaborative Design, Joint Design Studio, Preliminary Design
series eCAADe
email marcaurel@hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 850a
authors Wexelblat, A. (Ed.)
year 1993
title Virtual Reality - Applications and Explorations
source Academic Press Professional
summary Virtual and Artificial Reality have become in the last few years one of the major new hype words. Subsequently there has been a plethora of glossy books and droll conference proceedings describing various systems and hardware implementation problems. As has always been discovered in computer science the major effort is in designing and building the software applications. Alan's aim has been to ignore the hardware side and concentrate on the far larger and almost impossible problem of what to do with it. This book is a collection of ten essays trying to look slightly into the future and define actual uses for Virtual Reality kits rather than showing off expensive hardware. This has resulted in a series of topics, each defines a different interface problem between the user and machine which may have some solution by using Virtual Reality. Even though the topics vary, at times drastically, Alan has managed to use editorial selection very well intertwining them into a reasonably coherent whole. The scope is too large for any single book to cover in any detail and as is inevitable important topics for example military and medicine have been excluded. Topics chosen range from traditional computer information database visualisation to planetary exploration to the Virtual Reality version of the music video and literacy in cyberspace.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id maver_071
id maver_071
authors Mathur, K. and Maver, T.W.
year 1993
title Information Technology in the Management of Design and Construction
source Management of Information Technology for Construction (Ed: K Mathur et al) World Scientific, 585-594
summary This paper provides an overview of the developments in Information Technology (IT) and its impact on the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. It takes note of what has transpired in the last two decades and how the evolution of this subject corresponds to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past. It concludes that changes in procedures, processes and structure of organisations are needed if the most effective use of IT is to be achieved, and it is timely to go beyond solutions which mimic and automate current processes. Strategic frameworks must be defined within which new solutions will emerge rather than specific technical solutions for individual design or automation tasks. Concurrent changes in the AEC professions and the management of projects and organisations will be required to support the new tools and techniques offered by IT. Thus no promises should be made purely on the basis of emerging technologies. Hence the paper makes no attempt to predict the future of the AEC industry even though integrated systems may become available to support creative, cooperative, multi-disciplinary design, and though such systems will assist construction automation tasks, maintenance and facility management.
series other
type normal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2015/02/20 10:30

_id ee23
authors Bille, Pia
year 1994
title A Study of Color
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 185-190
summary Color courses are traditionally based on exercises carried out with either water color or colored paper. Use of the computer as a tool for teaching color theory and analyzing color in architecture was the topic of a course given at the School of Architecture and Planning at the State University of New York at Buffalo, USA where I was an exchange faculty in the academic year 1993/94. The course was structured into 3 topics: color theory, color perception and application of color.
series eCAADe
email pia bille@mail.a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0e89
authors Bradford, J.W., Cheng, N. and Kvan, Thomas
year 1994
title Virtual Design Studios
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 163-167
summary Beginning in 1993, small groups of students of architectural design at different institutions around the world participated in collaborative design projects using a variety of tools, including CAD, Internet and teleconferencing. This programme, known as the "Virtual Design Studio" (VDS), allows students to work collectively with colleagues from different cultures and climates who are thousands of kilometres and in different time zones. Most recently, in February 1994, four institutions in N. America, one in Europe, and one in S E Asia participated in VDS’94. This paper explains the operation of the VDS and explores the future of the VDS as a potential tool for architectural design education. In particular, we review what we have learned in employing computer tools to extend the teaching in design studios into a "virtual" experience.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2010/07/01 05:20

_id 08fc
authors Darken, R.P. and Sibert, J.L.
year 1993
title A toolset for navigation in virtual environments
source Proceedings of the ACM User Interface Software and Technology, pp.157-165
summary Maintaining knowledge of current position and orientation is frequently a problem for people in virtual environments. In this paper we present a toolset of techniques based on principles of navigation derived from real world analogs. We include a discussion of human and avian navigation behaviors and show how knowledge about them were used to design our tools. We also summarize an informal study we performed to determine how our tools influenced the subjects' navigation behavior. We conclude that principles extracted from real world navigation aids such as maps can be seen to apply in virtual environments.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ecaade2014_153
id ecaade2014_153
authors David Morton
year 2014
title Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning:How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 343-356
summary The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
wos WOS:000361384700034
keywords Augmented reality; pedagogy; learning journey; exploration
series eCAADe
email david.e.morton@northumbria.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 8b38
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1998
title The Sundance Lab- "Design Systems of the Future"
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 8-10
summary The last thirty years have seen the development of powerful new tools for architects and planners: CAD, 3D modeling, digital imaging, geographic information systems, and real time animated walkthroughs. That’s just the beginning. Based on our experience with CAD tools, analysis of design practice, and an understanding of computer hardware and software, we’re out to invent the next generation of tools. We think architects should be shakers and makers, not just consumers, of computer aided design. We started the Sundance Lab (for Computing in Design and Planning) in 1993 with a few people and machines. We’ve grown to more than a dozen people (mostly undergraduate students) and a diverse interdisciplinary array of projects. We’ve worked with architects and planners, anthropologists, civil engineers, geographers, computer scientists, and electrical engineers. Our work is about the built environment: its physical form and various information involved in making and inhabiting places. We cover a wide range of topics – from design information management to virtual space, from sketch recognition to design rationale capture, to communication between designer and computer. All start from the position that design is a knowledge based and information rich activity. Explicit representations of design information (knowledge, rationale, and rules) enables us to engage in more intelligent dialogues about design. The following describes some of our projects under various rubrics.
series ACADIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 49f3
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 1993
title Looking into Endoscopy - The Limitations of Evaluation in Architectural Design
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 185-193
summary The means available to architects in their age-old task of creating (most usually, though not necessarily) buildings that do not yet exist (ie. virtual realities), can be seen as falling into two groups. Those that help us develop architectural ideas (exploring), and those that help us evaluate or test them (illustrating). In the former category, we have, for instance, the ”drawing on the back of the envelope”, the discursive brainstorm, and the design ”conversation with ourselves via paper and pencil” (the drawing strikes back). In the latter, we may include physical model building, careful (projective) drawing (including drawings that are instructions for making), mathematical and design science modelling and calculating, visualising techniques such as the rendered perspective, most CAD (computer aided design) work and architectural endoscopy. These techniques may be thought of in two ways, as Bosselman reported: the explanation (eg. the organisational plan) and the experience (eg the ”photo-realistic” perspective). Attached to these we have rules for success, such as those of ”style” (in the broad sense of the personal style that allows us to assume that we have answers to problems that have yet to appear). It should be clear even from the list above that there are many more techniques and technologies for evaluation (illustration) than for exploration (design): such is the mystery of design. It is the primary purpose of this paper to invite those involved in providing the enormous effort that has gone into making such techniques for illustration — evaluation — to consider how their efforts help with that other, and crucial, area — that of exploring: and to redress some of the balance of that effort towards exploration. For it occurs to me (as a teacher of architecture), that evaluation does not provide a course for action — it merely helps us determine what may be wrong (according to some criteria with which we choose not to argue). And, no matter how right or wrong a design may be, knowing that it is wrong doesn’t help us either modify it, or find a better initial idea. It only tells us we are not right — always assuming the evaluative model is correct; perhaps.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ee51
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 1993
title Exploring and Illustrating
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary CAD, in its usually available forms, is wonderful at illustrating proposed architectural objects. But, as I argued last year at the Barcelona meeting, it is not so good at helping us extend the richness and development of architectural ideas—at the "back of envelope" and other developmental Ievels—indeed, it is (for pragmatic reasons—and others) actually restrictive of change, what-if, suck-it-and-see, etc. I shall describe a work environment, which we have been developing since last year in Portsmouth, in which computing is used by students to assist the generation, testing and extension of ideas: in which exploring takes precedence over illustrating. The central notion of this environment involves the extension and manipulation, through co-operative sharing of a joint "resource base" of computer stored images (recognising origination rather than ownership), and (parts of) which may be copied and transformed by group members as they seek to develop, enrich and extend their ideas. Transformations may be intentional, but some occur through the limits of our computational medium such as compression losses, file formats, colour depth and resolution and are welcomed as a contribution made by the computing medium used. Images are located through a developing, shared filing system, picture search and history trace. The environment relies on a small suite of computers wile a powerful machine acting as a fileserver and undertaking central, computationally-intensive tasks. For this environment, we have chosen software carefully, and the choice will be described. We have also developed a small, but crucial program that traces developments in the shared resource base—in what is, in effect, our own, operational CyberSpace (as distinct from a Virtual Reality). Through these mechanisms, we believe we are able to evade the limitation set by Ross Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", thus expanding the creativity-base of participating designers (students). There are no "scientific results", but we believe the reasoning behind, and the activity and exploration of our environment is valuable in itself, and may be of interest to collegues.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:50

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