CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 7475
authors Laurel, B., Strickland, R. and Tow, R.
year 1994
title Placeholder: Landscape and Narrative In Virtual Environments
source ACM Computer Graphics Quarterly Volume 28 Number 2 May
summary The idea of using virtual reality for entertainment purposes is actually quite recent in the history of VR technology. Early VR entertainment applications, appearing in the late 1980s, were extensions of the existing "serious" application of flight simulation training. The other branch of flight - simulator technology - motion platforms used in synchronization with motion video or animation - was much more amenable to the theme park environment. These systems, of which Star Tours is the best known, trade off individual viewpoint control and the sense of agency for thrilling, finely calibrated effects and the optimization of "throughput" - that is, getting the most people through the ride in the least time. Second to motion-platform rides in this regard are networked pods, as used in Virtual World Entertainment systems (previously Battletech). "Classic" virtual reality, with head-mounted displays and various forms of body tracking, are especially problematic in theme park environments for several reasons. It takes time to get the gear onto the participants. Only a handful of people can experience the attraction simultaneously (although a much larger audience might watch what the people "inside" the VR are doing). A hard-driving plot with distinct beginning, middle, and end is a great way to control how long an experience takes, but "classic" VR is inimical to this kind of authorial control - it works best when people can move about and do things in virtual environments in a relatively unconstrained way.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2638
authors Choi, Jin Won
year 1994
title ArchiWAIS: A Multimedia-Based Architectural Information System for Teaching and Learning Architectural History and Theory
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 161-169
summary Currently, there is a debate among architectural educators regarding the use of computers in the curricula. At present, computers are used for design purposes, and there is limited use in other areas of the curricula. This paper explores an instructional tool developed specifically for the teaching and learning of architectural history and theory, and since these courses are main components of any architectural curricula, using this tool can have a great impact on architectural education in general. The tool, called ArchiWAIS, is a multimedia-based architectural information system that utilizes emerging computer technologies such as multimedia, hypermedia, and telecommunications. As a multimedia system ArchiWAIS provides effective ways of handling various architectural media-text, images, architectural drawings and diagrams, three-dimensional models, animation and sound. ArchiWAIS as a distributed hypermedia system also provides multiple ways to search multimedia databases and browse through multimedia. ArchiWAIS is a WAIS (Wide-Area Information Server) client and has access to architectural databases specially constructed for this experimental project as well as general WAIS databases. ArchiWAIS is one of two subsystems of ArchiTOUR, an educational system currently under development. While ArchiWAIS searches and collects a variety of architectural information, HyperTOUR, the other subsystem of ArchiTOUR, can be used for presenting and learning a specific subject in architectural history and theory. A future extension of ArchiTOUR will be the integration of other curricula into the system, in essence, creating a common ground among architectural courses.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:33

_id 4f13
authors Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1994
title A Brief History of CAAD in Italy
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 227
summary Twenty years of revolution, from the middle '70 to the middle '90. Many things have changed since the origins of computer graphics and computer aided design in architecture. We started teaching drafting on terminals which connected to mini computers, complex procedures or sets of graphics libraries working with keywords, vectors and storage screens. The next step was devoted to the discovery of workstations in the early '80's, where the user sat face on to the whole power of a multitasking system. At that time to use up to 16 time sharing processes running on the same work station seemed to have no practical use at all. Fortunately someone (ie Xerox PARC laboratories) at the same time started to develop the so-called GUI. Graphical user interface started a revolution in human/machine interface (ie Smalltalk). The desktop metaphor, the use of multiple windows and dialogues joined with icons and pop up menus let the user manage more applications and, even more important, created a standard in application/user interface (CUA). In the meantime focus had moved from hardware to software, systems being chosen from the software running. The true revolution we have seen starting from that base and involving an ever increasing number of users was the birth of PC based applications for CAAD. Generally speaking nowadays there are three main technologies concerning teaching: communication, multimedia and virtual reality. The first is the real base for future revolution. In the recent past we have started to learn how to manage information by computers. Now we can start to communicate and share information all over the world in real time. The new age opened by fax, followed by personal communication systems and networks is the entry point for a real revolution. We can work in the virtual office, meet in virtual space and cooperate in workgroups. ATM and ISDN based teleconferencing will provide a real working tool for many. The ever increasing number of e-mail addresses and network connections is carrying us towards the so called 'global village'. The future merger between personal digital assistant and personal communication will be fascinating. Multi & HyperMedia technology is, like a part of VR, a powerful way to share and transfer information in a structured form. We do not need to put things in a serial form removing links because we can transfer knowledge as is. Another interesting and fundamental aspect typical of VR applications is the capability to change cognitive processes from secondary (symbolic - reconstructive) to primary (perceptive - motory). In this way we can learn by direct experience, by experiment as opposed to reading books. All these things will affect not only ways of working but also ways of studying and teaching. Digital communications, multimedia and VR will help students, multimedia titles will provide different kinds of information directly at home using text, images, video clips and sounds. Obviously all those things will not substitute human relationship as a multimedia title does not compete against a book but it helps.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:15

_id 6b44
id 6b44
authors Zimring, Craig and Ataman, Osman
year 1994
title Incorporating Guidelines Into a Case-Based Architectural Design Tool
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 87-101
summary This paper discusses an ongoing project called Archie, a collaboration between cognitive scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence and architecture, aimed at creating computer-based aids for conceptual design. Archie is a "case-based design aid" (CBDA): a tool that provides designers flexible access to evaluated examples of past experience that they can use in their own designs. Archie is a "clever" hypermedia database aimed at aiding conceptual design in architecture. It contains about 200 problems, responses, stories, and building descriptions derived from evaluations of six libraries and two courthouses. In this paper we provide a brief history and description of Archie and discuss some issues that have come into focus through developing and initially evaluating the system: how specific architectural case information can be organized; how users can be provided more general information about issues and building types; and how information can be indexed. In each of these we briefly discuss the current state of the system and propose some potential future directions.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/25 16:45

_id 241b
authors Anderson, Lee
year 1994
title Film Theory and Architectural Design
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 219-227
summary This paper describes a 10 week, 3rd year architectural design studio, taught by the author, that explored the use of film and video techniques in the design process. The exploration was of (1) the potential of recently available personal computer software and hardware for image and video capture, manipulation and recording, and (2) the potential for application of video, informed by film theory, in the early stages of architectural design.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id sigradi2005_463
id sigradi2005_463
authors Costa Cabral, Cláudia Piantá
year 2005
title Computer City, 1994
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 463-467
summary This paper is about an emblematic design of the sixties, Dennis Crompton’s Computer City, published in 1964 by Archigram Magazine. Besides other enterprises of its time, Archigram promoted a critical view over institutionalised post-war modernism for not being able to recognize the emergence of new social realities, identified with the new technologies of automation and information, the restructuring of capitalist fordism and the shift from a predominantly industrial culture to an electronic culture. This paper sustains that more than a direct translation of unquestionable technical necessities; it was a conscious attempt of producing a sort of representation of technology. Crompton’s design clearly demonstrates the actual change in the character of technology, when it is no longer primarily identified with artefacts and objects, as the machine, and seems to be progressively identified with abstract and ubiquitous systems and processes of control, as automation and information systems. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0726
authors Kadysz, Andrzej
year 1994
title CAD the Tool
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 212
summary What is the role of CAAD as a tool of architectural form creation ? We used to over-estimate the role of computer as significant factor of design process. In fact it serves only to produce technical documentation and to visualise designed buildings. We usually use CAAD to record ideas, not to create designs. We use it like more complex pencil. But it is unsuitable for conceptual design , with imperceptible influence on idea definition. Its practical usefulnes is limited. I would like to consider and find out reasons of that state, present some conclusions and ideas on computer aided architectural form creation. Many tools were invented to extend posibilities of human body or intellect. Microscop and telescop are extensions of human eye. Which organ is extended by computer (especially by CAAD)? CAAD with high developed function of visualising of the object beeing designed seems to be an extension of architect's imagination. It is beeing used to foresee visual efects, to check designed forms, to see something what we are not able to imagine. It performes the role of electronic modeler. Real model and virtual model - the medium of presentation is diferent but ways of using them are similar . Dislocation of place where we build model is not a big achievement, but potential possbilities of CAAD in modeling are almost unlimited (?). What are special features of CAAD as a modeling tool? First we have to consider what is indispensible when building a model: to embody idea. To do this we need space, substance and tools. In architectural design practice space is a real site with definite climate, neigbourhood, orientation. Substance that we shape is an archiectural form composed of many difrent elements: walls, windows, roof, entry, ... , proportions, rhythm, emotions, impresions... The tool is: our knowledge, imagination, talent, experience, norms, law and drawing equipment. Working with the computer, making virtual model, we have many of mentioned elements given in structure of CAAD program and interpreted by it. But many of them have different character. Making traditional dummy of building we operate on reality which is manually accessible. In case of computer model we operate on information. Space, substance and tool (- program) are informations, data. Human being is not an abstract data processor, but creature that lives non stop in close, direct, sensual contact with nature. By this contact with enviroment collects experiences. Computer can operate on digital data that is optionally selected and given by user, independent upon enviromental conditions. Usually architecture was created on basis of enviroment, climate, gravity. But these do not exist in CAAD programs or exist in the symbolic form. Character of these conditions is not obvious. We can watch demeanour of objects in gravity but it can be also antigravity. In theory of systems everything is considered as a part of biger system. In "virtual" reality (in computer space) we deal with accurences which are reduced to abstract level, free upon terms or connections. We work with our CAAD software using geometric space whithout any other principle.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:04

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id ddss9448
id ddss9448
authors Kane, Andy and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1994
title Intuitive Analysis as Mediator Between Concept and Representation
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Representation in Computer Aided Architectural Design Systems has to date largely focused on the presentation of the end product of design activity, namely the ultimate built form. In thisrespect, 3-dimensional representations traditionally associated with CAAD visualization have relied heavily upon verisimilitude for their efficacy, and have therefore necessitated high levels of dimensional accuracy together with exhaustive description, both of which are absent in the early stages of design formulation. This paper investigates the desired structure of a computational design formulation system which is based, not upon the representation (or presentation) of ultimate form, but instead upon the representation of architectonic ideas resident in the designer's mind, which are central to the organization and generation of proposals. These ideas are of two kinds: conceptual generators, both poetic and architectonic, and the organizational parti or schematic proposals, which embody them. The representation of ideas rather than end form has two primaryobjectives. Firstly, it enables the designer's realization and clarification of concept or parti, and secondly, but most importantly, it enables the designer to critically assess these ideas in relation tothe contextual situation and brief. The computational representation must be structured in a manner which supports the designer's intuitive critical assessment of it, to in turn induce a modification and development of the initial design ideas. Repeated transformation, representation, and intuitive analysis, can then continue in a cyclical manner until an end proposal is achieved. Intuitive analysis, which becomes the mediator between idea and representation, is itself computationally supported by the dual methodologies of comparative and modal superimposition. Superimposition of previous with present representation (either in two or three dimensions)enhances comparative assessment of design developments. Modal analysis, on the other hand, facilitates the superimposition of schematic representations of modes of design thought (circulationpattern with volumetric arrangement, say) in order to intuitively assess their interaction or conflict.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9455
id ddss9455
authors Kraria, H. and Bridges, Alan
year 1994
title Building Integration Tools for Collaborative Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary For many years, research in CAAD systems has been mostly oriented towards single environ-ments, thus restricting the designer to a static environment. In reality the activities of user designers constantly interact with other participants activities (i.e. a structural engineer, services engineer, etc.). For instance, the architect is heavily influenced by the nature of the structural engineering process. It defines the character and integration of the basic components in other words, design is a collaborative process carried out by several participants with a single overall objective. The separation of architectural and engineering aspects in building design has brought on isolated computer tools. These tools are not interchangeable, the situation demands for their integration, all the interaction are supported by the social aspect of members of group participa-ting in collaborating work. The benefits of sharing CAD tools and related data between all members of the design team are that everyone works on the same information, co-ordination is easier and more accurate, and there is a reduction in the amount of repetition, as the need to redraw information is eliminated. The result is an increase in the accuracy and speed of the production of drawings. The technological aspects to support collaborative work and in particular the interaction process in design, is the main work issue being carried out at Strathclyde University, Department of Architecture and Building Science, Glasgow, Scotland U.K.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9482
id ddss9482
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N.
year 1994
title Interaction with Architectural Cases in a Virtual Design Environment
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The prime business of architecture is change through design. While most architects will welcome any tool which supports this activity with minimal effort, they will not embrace a tool which either seems to automate design or requires major efforts to understand and use. Conventional databases - be it in the form of books or computer applications - are normally in a serving function to support the activity of design and to provide reference. Visual databases have a long history in architecture in the form of drawings, photographs and, more recently, computer-captu-red or computer-generated images. Whereas the first computer-based image libraries closely followed the existing paradigm of existing paper-based libraries, new developments both in software and in computing media offer different opportunities. Knowledge-based and case-based descriptions of architectural features increasingly replace the traditional, passive representations. While in the past these images were subject to more or less random interpretations, the new computer-based images are only one representation of a model which includes many other aspects. The visual aspects of a building are thus no longer restricted to the finished drawing, but new representations of the abstractions of a building become possible. True and direct interaction with visually presented objects thus becomes a reality. The paper presents a prototype of a visual database in a virtual design environment in its critical aspects: (i) the architectural content and representation of such a database and the criteria for the cases in it, (ii) the enabling computing and software environment, and (iii) three practical applications. The prototype is presently being implemented in the Architectural Space Laboratory (ASL) in the Department of Architecture at ETh Zurich.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9b9e
authors Schofield , Simon
year 1994
title Non-photorealistic rendering : A critical examination and proposed system
source Middlesex University
summary In the first part of the program the emergent field of Non-Photorealistic Rendering is explored from a cultural perspective. This is to establish a clear understanding of what Non-Photorealistic Rendering (NPR) ought to be in its mature form in order to provide goals and an overall infrastructure for future development. This thesis claims that unless we understand and clarify NPR's relationship with other media (photography, photorealistic computer graphics and traditional media) we will continue to manufacture "new solutions" to computer based imaging which are confused and naive in their goals. Such solutions will be rejected by the art and design community, generally condemned as novelties of little cultural worth ( i.e. they will not sell). This is achieved by critically reviewing published systems that are naively described as Non-photorealistic or "painterly" systems. Current practices and techniques are criticised in terms of their low ability to articulate meaning in images; solutions to this problem are given. A further argument claims that NPR, while being similar to traditional "natural media" techniques in certain aspects, is fundamentally different in other ways. This similarity has lead NPR to be sometimes proposed as "painting simulation" - something it can never be. Methods for avoiding this position are proposed. The similarities and differences to painting and drawing are presented and NPR's relationship to its other counterpart, Photorealistic Rendering (PR), is then delineated. It is shown that NPR is paradigmatically different to other forms of representation - i.e. it is not an "effect", but rather something basically different. The benefits of NPR in its mature form are discussed in the context of Architectural Representation and Design in general. This is done in conjunction with consultations with designers and architects. From this consultation a "wish-list" of capabilities is compiled by way of a requirements capture for a proposed system. A series of computer-based experiments resulting in the systems "Expressive Marks" and "Magic Painter" are carried out; these practical experiments add further understanding to the problems of NPR. The exploration concludes with a prototype system "Piranesi" which is submitted as a good overall solution to the problem of NPR. In support of this written thesis are : - * The Expressive Marks system * Magic Painter system * The Piranesi system (which includes the EPixel and Sketcher systems) * A large portfolio of images generated throughout the exploration
keywords Computer Graphics; Visual Representation; Non-photorealistic Rendering; Natural Media Simulations Rendering; Post-processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 952f
authors Soloway, E., Guzdial, M. and Hay, K.
year 1994
title Learner-Centered Design: The Challenge for HCI in the 21st Century
source Interactions , no. April (1994): 36-48
summary In the 1980's a major transformation took place in the computing world: attention was finally being paid to making computers easier-to-use. You know the history: in the 1970's folks at Xerox were exploring so-called personal computers and developing graphical, point-and-click interfaces. The goal was to make using computers less cognitively taxing, there- by permitting the user to focus more mental cycles on getting the job done. For some time people had recognized that there would be benefits if users could interact with computers using visual cues and motor movements instead of testu- al/linguistic strings. However, computer cycles were costly; they could hardly be wasted on supporting a non-textual interface. There was barely enough zorch (i.e., computer power, measured in your favorite unit) to simply calculate the payroll.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ascaad2006_paper11
id ascaad2006_paper11
authors Stanton, Michael
year 2006
title Redemptive Technologies II: the sequel (A Decade Later)
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Nearly ten years ago I published an article in the Dutch journal ARCHIS called "Redemptive Technologies." It derived from comments I made during a conference held in New Orleans in 1994. At that point the machine aesthetic associated with the "new technologies" generated by the computer had not established a precise formal vocabulary but were generating great excitement among the architectural avant-garde. It addressed the limits of the imagery and data produced by this machine and the simple but very political problem of cost and obsolescence. Now the millennium is well past and the somewhat apostolic fervor that accompanied the interaction of a very expensive consumer device with architecture has cooled. Discussion has generally moved from the titillating possibilities opened up by the device, many of which have so far not come to pass, to the sorts of hard and software available. An architectural language closely associated with the imagistic potential of new programs, biomorphism, has now come and gone on the runways of architectural taste. And yet, in recent articles rejecting the direct political effect of architectural work, the potential of new programs and virtual environments are proposed as alternative directions that our perpetually troubled profession may pursue. This paper will assess the last decade regarding the critical climate that surrounds cyber/technology. In the economic context of architectural education in which computers are still a central issue, the political issues that evolve will form a backdrop to any discussion. Furthermore, the problem of the "new" language of biomorphism will be reiterated as an architectural grammar with a 100-year history - from Catalan Modernismo and Art Nouveau, through Hermann Finsterlin and Eric Mendelsohn's projects of the 1920s, to Giovanni Michelucci and Italian work of the post-war, to Frederick Kiesler's Endless House of the late '50s, continuing through moments of Deconstructivism and Architectural Association salients, etc. These forms continue to be semantically simplistic and hard to make. Really the difference is the neo-avant-garde imagery and rhetoric involved in their continuing resurrection. Computer images, but also the ubiquitous machine itself, are omnipresent and often their value is assumed without question or proposed as a remedy for issues they cannot possibly address. This paper will underline the problem of the computer, of screens and the insistent imagistic formulas encourage by their use, and the ennui that is beginning to pervade the discipline after initial uncritical enthusiasm for this very powerful and expensive medium. But it will also propose other very valuable directions, those relating to reassessing the processes rather than the images that architecture engages, that this now aging "new" technology can much more resolutely and successfully address.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id cd68
authors Szalapaj, Peter J. and Tang, Songlan
year 1994
title Giving Colour to Contextual Hypermedia
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 191-200
summary Design development evolves within design contexts that require expression as much as the design itself, and these contexts often constrain any presentation in ways that are not usually explicitly thought of. The context of a design object will therefore influence the conceptual ways of thinking about and presenting this object. Support in hypermedia applications for the expression of the colour context, therefore, should be based upon sound theoretical principles to ensure the effective communication of design ideas. Johannes Itten has postulated seven ways to communicate visual information by means of colour contrast effects, each of which is unique in character, artistic value, and symbolic effect. Of these seven contrasting effects, three are in terms of the nature of colour itself: hue, brightness, and saturation. Although conventional computer graphics applications support the application of these colour properties to discrete shapes, they give no analysis of contrasting colour relationships between shapes. The proposed system attempts to overcome this deficiency. The remaining four contrast effects concern human psychology and psychophysics, and are not supported at all in computer graphics applications. These include the cold-warm contrast, simultaneous contrast, complementary contrast, and the contrast of extension. Although contrast effects are divided into the above seven aspects, they are also related to one another. Thus, when the hue contrast works, the light-dark contrast and cold-warm contrast must work at the same time. Computational support for these colour effects form the focus of this paper.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:48

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9401
id ddss9401
authors Akin, Omer
year 1994
title Psychology of Early Design in Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Lately there has been a good deal of emphasis on the early stages of the design process, particularly by developers of computer aids and quantitative design models for both evaluation and generation of designs in a variety of domains. Yet, there is little understanding of the early design-process. While the early design process as manifested by human designers need not be the sole basis of the description of this phase, it certainly represents and important kernel of knowledge, especially for those who are interested in developing models, systems or merely interfaces for such systems. This paper focuses on the characterization of the psychology of the early design phase in architecture. It is described in terms of the general design strategies and problem solving tactics used; and is contrasted against some of the process characteristics that
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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