CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 361

_id ddss9422
id ddss9422
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, Philip
year 1994
title Sketch-Trigger: A Specification for a Form Generator and Design Analysis Toolbox for Architectural Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In order to develop design and decision support techniques in the early sketch design phases, weshould (1) experience and (2) observe real behaviour in practice, (3) transform observations intoideas for improvement, (4) develop behaviour models to explain the sketch design activities and(5) to evaluate between the proposals, (6) decide between the alternatives, (7) implement theselected option in a supporting tool. Our paper reports about the results of step 3 in particular inthe first phase of a Ph D project, started this year. Our main objective is to amplify the effects ofthe sketch as a very effective instrument to generate original forms and to stimulate the mind to discover new shapes and meanings in the roughly sketched patterns. Instead of considering the sketch only as a representation of what the designer has in mind as is usually assumed in CAD systems, we see sketching as form activation. Thus, we want also to offer triggering images to spark off the imagination of the designer while generating images which are practically impossibleto create by hand and certainly not at short notice. The main improvement proposed is the use of an evolutionary form breeding system: one or more sketched parent images (either ready-made'partis' or basic schemes drafted by the designer) presented in the centre of the screen, will generate surrounding mutated children as defined at random but constrained by default or customization of the available transformations. By selecting one or more children a next generation will be produced in the same way. At all times the designer can introduce or reduce constraints. To complete the usually offered 'classical' symmetrical, spatial and logical operations,we want to introduce dis-functional operations like dislocation, explosion, deformation, anti-logic etc, in short all kinds of antagonistic operations, among them the transformations applied indeconstructionist and post-modern design. Our expectation is that these operations will correspond roughly to the 'move' pertaining to a design entity as the operational unit most appropriate for design behaviour research, in particular the analysis of the chunking and parsing behaviour of the designer. The applicability of the 'move' approach has been shown experimentally by Habraken and others. Goldschmidt has abandoned the usual typology approach of protocolanalysis based on moves and concentrated on the linking of moves, but has been hampered by the lack of a good representational instrument. This brings us to the representation of moves and linkages as a research instrument. The 'linkograph' approach as proposed by Goldschmidt is a first step towards a graphical representation of the designers associative reasoning mode, necessary for tracking the heuristics of designers at the most basic level, but its practical implementation remained as yet incredibly laborious. What is proposed here is an instrument and approach which makes such registration and analysis possible within a structured software environment.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9423
id ddss9423
authors Dasgupta, Shubhagato
year 1994
title A Decision Support System for Architects in the Rural Housing Situation in India
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Even a conservative estimate of the rural housing shortfall in India, is 20.6 million houses. There are three contexts under which external intervention is necessary, the endemic low housing qualityof the poor and landless, the major development projects where displaced people have to be rehoused, and rehabilitation of victims of natural disasters such as the periodic floods or unprecedented earthquakes like the recent one in Maharashtra, Central India, where we successfully applied this method. Interventions by government agencies or charity organisations, have often failed to achieve a viable sustainable habitat, primarily because of misplaced perceptions in need assessment, resulting in disrupted societies. Tailored to the Indian rural housing scenario, the study developed a participatory interface to aid architects and planners in information gathering and systematization of need assessment for input into the designing and decision-making process. The method based on field tested participatory information collection games consists of threemajor stages. The first stage involves user-interactive documentation of the baseline data. The second, involves participatory group analysis and evaluation of issues coupled with rapid interactive verification of information collected in terms ofspatial organisations and production mechanisms. The third is a tool for rapid systematised retrieval of information, for synthesis into preparation of an "user needs statement".
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id af8b
authors Dave, B., Schmitt, G., Faltings, B. and Smith, I.
year 1994
title Case-based design in Architecture
source J.S. Gero and F. Sudweeks (eds.), the proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Design '94, pp.145-162
summary Computational support in the domain of building design is hampered by the need to control generation and search processes both of which are elusive due to the lack of strong domain theories. Case based reasoning paradigm may be useful to overcome some of these difficulties. A case based design system is presented here that enables case adaptation and case combination of design cases to generate new design solutions more efficiently. Some issues in our approach that are different from other projects with similar aims are also discussed.
series other
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9424
id ddss9424
authors Dave, Bharat and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1994
title Information Systems for Spatial Data
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes a continuing research project aimed at the development of a prototype information system to represent and manipulate models of urban settlements. This inter-disciplinaryproject involves researchers and teachers in the fields of urban design, photogrammetry and CAD. Based upon the requirements identified by the urban design team, the photogrammetry teamused aerial imagery to produce accurate digital models of various features of urban settlements. The models comprise natural features like terrain data, water and vegetation systems, and man made features like transportation networks, land parcels, and built-up volumes. These data are represented in the three dimensions, and they are further linked with nongraphic attributes stored in an external database schemata. The architecture of the system under development has been described previously. In this paper, we focus on the generation of thematic abstractions. The working hypothesis for our current work is that (i) to enable reliable decision-making in urbandesign contexts, we require digital models that are complete and accurate at a certain degree of resolution, and (ii) during various stages in the decision-making, we need useful abstractionswhich encode only the salient information and no more. In more specific terms, we are interested in finding computational means to automatically generate schematic generalizations of data that succinctly represent some information without recomputing or displaying all the vectrs and other details. In this papar we present some of the strategies that we employ to support such operations in our system and also present graphic examples that demonstrate the potential andlimitations of our approach.
series DDSS
email dave@arch.ethz.ch, schmitt@erch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 64c5
authors De Mesa, A., Monedero, J., Redondo, E. and Regot, J.
year 1994
title From Image Space to Model Space and Back Again
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 60-68
summary The paper describes in detail a process of work consisting of merging a virtual model into a real image. This process implies three different kinds of operations: geometric restoration of the real scene, in 3D, from a photograph, rendering a virtual model under similar conditions as the photograph, and merging of the rendered image with the original image. The paper empasises quality and visual precision of results together with a semiautomatization of the entire process. It also refers critically these three different groups of operations to their theoretical background. It concludes with an evaluation of the work from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of a general design methodology.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:21

_id ddss9425
id ddss9425
authors Deguchi, Atsushi and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title Integration System for Urban Design from Planning Management to Visalization
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Advanced tools based on CAD or GIS systems and simulation methods have recently been introduced to support the many aspects of urban planning (design, analysis, evaluation, presentation). This research aims at constructing a system by integrating these support tools and linking GIS and simulation tools. The major purpose of this system are to manage the geographical data base of the target urban area, utilize the digital information of the area for planning and analysis,evaluate the impact of alternative proposals on the physical environment such as sunlight and daylight, visualize the results of analysis, and support the management of urban redevelopment /development projects. This paper shows some applications to illustrate usefulness of the system. These examples are concerned with a contemporary problem in urban planning of Tokyo: redevelopment of low-rise high-density residential districts and high-rise development in the central business districts. Urban redevelopment for the high-density urban areas in Japan requiresa evaluation of alternative plans by visualizing their environmental impact. This system enables the quantitative analysis of the environmental impact by using 3-dimensional geographical data andsimulation methods. In general, the merit and effect of planning support systems are recognized in terms of the "efficiency" of the planning process. The primary function of GIS is thought to bethe unification and management of various pieces of information. In addition, this research indicates the effectiveness of the integrated system in terms of utilizing the geographical information and visualizing the image of the future environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 627a
authors Eddison, Tony
year 1994
title An Investigation of the Concept of Designer Style and its Relevance to The Design of CAD Systems
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 213
summary Underlying the notion of style is the basic premise that all designers are not the same and that the manner in which any designer works through a design problem towards a proposed solution may be qualitatively different from other designers. If, through this work, this is shown to be the case and the concept of designer style can be meaningfully discussed then any model of the design process and any system or product relating to this model must allow for such variations at the level of the group or individual. This is the starting point of this investigation of the concept of designer styles.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:08

_id ddss9427
id ddss9427
authors Engelen, Guy and White, Roger
year 1994
title A Strategic Planning and Policy Decision Support Tool for Urban Regions
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper we present a Decision Support System developed to assist urban designers, planners and policy makers to explore and evaluate possible urban layouts and their growth patterns. Thecore of the system consists of a modelling shell allowing the user to specify cellular automata based models of urban and regional systems. These models capture the effect of local spatial processes in which the use, or desired use of each parcel or cell of land is determined partly by institutional and environmental factors, and partly by the activities present in its neighbourhood. Since each cell affects every other cell within its neighbourhood, a complex dynamic emerges. Unlike conventional cellular automata, the models are defined with a large neighbourhood --over a hundred cells-- a relatively large number of states --more than a dozen in some applications-- representing socio-economic and natural land-uses. The approach permits the straightforward integration of detailed physical, environmental, and institutional constraints, as well as including the effects of the transportation and communication infrastructure. These models thus permit a very detailed representation of evolving spatial systems. The current version of the system represents urban areas as consisting of up to 10.000 interacting zones, each roughly the size of an individual city block. These models are easy to build and apply, yet empirical tests show that they produce realistic simulations of urban land use dynamics. Consequently, they are well suited to form the heart of the DSS, which provides the user with a number of tools for exploration,analysis and evaluation of alternative futures of the system as they result from policy interventions that are imposed by means of what-if experiments and scenario analysis. For example, the DSS isable to identify areas in which pressure for change in land use restrictions may become critical under particular development strategies. In the DSS, the modelling shell is coupled to a simple,custom-built GIS. In the stand-alone application of the DSS, this stores the detailed geographical qualities of the area being modelled, and allows basic overlay manipulations. It also displays theresults of the model while the simulation proceeds. Alternatively, the GIS can serve as aninterface to more elaborate, commercial GIS systems.
series DDSS
email rwhite@kean.ucs.mun.ca
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0380
authors Fenves, S., Flemming, U., Hendrickson, C., Maher, M., Quadrel, R., Terk, M. and Woodbury, R.
year 1994
title Computer Integrated Building Design
source Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New jersey
summary A guide to the principles and applications of computer integrated systems as applied to construction management. Computer-Integrated Building covers the fundamentals of construction project management, the design process for production and opportunities for CAD-integration.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 673a
authors Fukuda, T., Nagahama, R. and Sasada, T.
year 1997
title Networked Interactive 3-D design System for Collaboration
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 429-437
summary The concept of ODE (Open Design Environment) and corresponding system were presented in 1991. Then the new concept of NODE. which is networked version of ODE. was generated to make wide area collaboration in 1994. The aim of our research is to facilitate the collaboration among the various people involved in the design process of an urban or architectural project. This includes various designers and engineers, the client and the citizens who may be affected by such a project. With the new technologies of hyper medium, network, and component architecture, we have developed NODE system and applied in practical use of the collaboration among the various people. This study emphasizes the interactive 3-D design tool of NODE which is able to make realistic and realtime presentation with interactive interface. In recent years, ProjectFolder of NODE system, which is a case including documents, plans, and tools to proceed project., is created in the World Wide Web (WWW) and makes hyper links between a 3-D object and a text, an image. and other digital data.
series CAADRIA
email wjm@mit.edu
last changed 2003/04/01 18:20

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a6fe
authors Gatermann, Harald
year 1994
title Using Hypermedia as a Teaching Tool in CAD Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 211
summary CAD-programs belong to the most complex kinds of software - complex and difficult in using and especially in learning for architects and for students. Some years ago we already tried to find ways for making the first steps easier for students and more comfortable for teachers: Our first attempt was to reduce the number of commands from 150 to only 20 in the first lesson by cutting off many of the pull-down-menus (it was even the time before the cad-program, we use, was running under windows). We supported the reduced menus on the screen by handing out a template with all the needed commands for the first lesson. We had two positive results: the first was a reduction of beginners frustrations about too many new things, the second was a homogenisation among the students´ know how: the very eager ones were no longer able to test too many new things! In the second lesson the students got another twenty new commands and so on (they could start the program with a batch rib-1, rib-2 etc.). Our second attempt was the development of new dialogues due to our experience in teaching and in looking at the same points of difficulties every year.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:04

_id cc19
authors Glennie, William L.
year 1994
title Europe '94 - A Visitor's Report on the State of CAAD in Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 262
summary During May, June and July of this year, I had the pleasure of visiting twelve institutions across Europe where computers are being used in the teaching of Architecture. There are as many different approaches to the incorporation of computers in the curriculum as there are places, and they all have some degree of success. My greatest surprise was the large size of these Schools, even in relatively small countries. Dealing with a huge number of students makes any kind of mandatory computer instruction almost impossible. In spite of all difficulties, enthusiasm and willingness to work directly with students was the single most important characteristic in the faculty and staff who are having the greatest success. Support staff dedicated to the maintenance of equipment and software were provided at most of the institutions. For those who do not have this benefit it is critical to relieve the teaching and research faculty of the need for these time-consuming tasks. Formal research activities are not essential to effective education. The process of setting up such efforts is again a distraction from the more important job of teaching. If research projects grow naturally out of the curriculum, they may be pursued without impeding instruction. Most serious of all, there is a substantial lack of communication and cooperation among these schools, and by implication, among all of the other schools in Europe. The mechanism of annual conferences held by ECAADE is insufficient to exchange information and interests. There were several occasions when I mentioned work that was being carried out at one place that would match very nicely with efforts at another. However, it is clearly impossible for any one school to spearhead this kind of collection and coordination of activities. The only appropriate organisation for this kind of exchange would be a centralised service initiated and maintained by the European Community. It is very important that such a body does not attempt to limit or direct the work of individual schools, rather simply serves as a clearinghouse through which the various groups can benefit from each other's work, to the mutual benefit of all.
series eCAADe
email glennie@rpi.edu
last changed 1998/09/14 14:20

_id ddss9434
id ddss9434
authors Grant, M.
year 1994
title Urban Gis - The Application of the Information Technologies to Urban Management
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many cities in the UK and indeed throughout the developed world are characterised by the all too familiar symptoms of urban blight caused by insensitive intervention in the environment. The common denominator within this class of problem is the lack of a coordinated, integrated approach to the planning, design and maintenance of our cities. The cycle of development and redevelopment calls for input from a diverse range of disciplines relating to architecture, civilengineering, transport engineering, and the management of city utilities. This lack of a common up datable information base renders access to a global view of the city difficult, if not impossible.This problem has provided the motivation to move towards an integrated philosophy regarding information collection, collation and dissemination. The impetus is provided primarily through theincreasing complexity of urban management but also through central governments policy to progress towards decentralisation of services. Fiscal pressure to increase efficiency, lower manpower resources and arrive at speedier judgements all point to an increasing reliance on the information technologies. Current work at ABACUS within Strathclyde University addresses research whose objective is to identify, and then prototype, a relevant urban information system. It is proposed that by attributing a geometrical framework with those physical quantities thatare relevant to the formal and functional evaluation of the urban environment, the means of evaluating the qualities and quantities of the buildings aswell as the social and economic prospects may be realised.
series DDSS
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id aeeb
authors Grant, M. and Paterson, I.
year 1994
title Urban Modelling
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 135-139
summary This project was an investigation into the application of Urban Information Systems [UIS] based on 3-Dimensional computer models. The research centred on a collaboration between the Architecture and Buildings Aids Computer Unit, Strathclyde [ABACUS] and the Edinburgh Old Town Renewal Trust [EOTRT] to develop a detailed computer model of Edinburgh's old town. The area of particular interest is the development of an interface to a database of property related information. This provides a means of analysing the multi-layered and multi-dimensional spatial data which is characteristic of urban environments. The research also investigated how, by using multi media technology as a data integration tool , urban models could be used to improve decision making in the framework of urban management.

series eCAADe
email I.Paterson@abertay.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 412e
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E. and McCall, R.J.
year 1997
title Collaboration and Coordination in Architectural Design: approaches to computer mediated team work
source TeamCAD 97, 17-23
summary In 1993 and 1994, instructors and students of architecture at several universities around the world* collaborated briefly on two "virtual design studio" projects. Using off-the-shelf technology of the time-email, CU-See-Me internet video, international conference calls, and exchange of CAD drawings, images, and Quicktime animations-this ambitious project explored the possibility of bringing together diverse members of an international design team together to collaborate on a short term (two week) project. Central to the "Virtual Design Studio" was a 'digital pinup board', an area where participating designers could post and view drawings and textual comments; video links and email exchange provided the media for direct communication media about designs. A report on the project [21] makes clear that the process was not without technical difficulties: a significant amount of communication concerned scheduling and coordinating file formats; disappointingly little was devoted to discussions of design issues. Although it's clear that many of the minor technical problems that inevitably plague a forward-looking effort like the Virtual Design Studio will be solved in the near term, the project also reveals the need for research on software and design practices to make computer mediated design collaboration realize its attractive promise.
series journal paper
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9436
id ddss9436
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1994
title Indexing the Electronic Sketchbook: Diagrams as Keys to Visual Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The question is how to index a visual database. Consider a visual database -- collection of drawings, three-dimensional models, scanned photographs, video, and text -- as a kind of modernmultimedia architectural sketchbook. It can be shared among a wide group of users with different purposes, and who may think about the contents in rather different ways. The connections -- perhaps hypertext -- among the entries may be complex and the organization difficult to comprehend. How then, to index the collection? Certainly traditional techniques -- looking for a concert hail -- built of concrete and glass -- in the 1970's in Utrecht and the architect's name is H* -- will help. But suppose we do not know so precisely what we are looking for? Might we appeal to the language of diagram? Can we add to our schemes for search and retrieval a diagrammatic index? We propose to try this idea. The paper describes our "computer as cocktail napkin" system for recognizing and interpreting diagrams. It consists of a pen-based freehand sketching program that recognizes simple symbols the user has trained (such as lines, shapes, letters, etc.) and spatial arrangements of these symbols. A graphical search procedure finds occurrences of a drawn configuration of symbols in the pages of a sketchbook made using the program. By extending thepages of the sketchbook to include photos, drawings, and text in addition to diagrams, we can use this technique to find items whose diagrams match a drawn search configuration. The paper will demonstrate this prototype program and explore its use for indexing visualdatabases in architecture.
series DDSS
email mdg@cs.colorado.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a163
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1994
title The Fat Pencil, the Cocktail Napkin, and the Slide Library
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 103-113
summary The paper describes recent explorations in sketch recognition and management to support architectural design. The exploration and decisionmaking of early, conceptual design is better suited to freehand drawing, sketching, and diagramming than to the hard-line drawing and construction kit approaches of traditional CAD. However, current sketch programs that simulate paper and pencil fail to take advantage of symbolic manipulation and interactive editing offered by computational environments. The paper presents a computer as cocktail napkin' program, which recognizes and interprets hand-drawn diagrams and provides a graphical search facility, simulated tracing paper, and a multi-user shared drawing surface. The cocktail napkin is the basis of Stretch-A-Sketch, a constraint-based draw program that maintains spatial relations initially specified by a diagram. The cocktail napkin program is also the basis for a query-by-diagram scheme to access a case-based design aid as well as a small collection of images of famous buildings. The paper briefly reviews these extensions of the cocktail napkin program.
series ACADIA
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/03/30 06:57

_id ddss9441
id ddss9441
authors Hammond, Barbara
year 1994
title Computer Aided Urban Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The product of the Urban Design process in the public sector in the UK is usually a briefing document of some kind which communicates design ideas in outline both to the lay public and to private developers. The problem with briefing effectively is that outline expression of ideas does not provide a strong basis for negotiation with developers; the temptation therefore is to work up one proposal in detail and to present it as the only option. This type of prescriptive briefing may be successful in situations where the public body has control over the land, the economy is buoyant and the site has a simple context. Its problems are that it is labour intensive, so some areas are covered in detail, others not at all; it is seen as restrictive by developers, so may create a climate of conflict rather than certainty; it is not responsive to change; it covers specific sites thoroughly but does not deal well with large, complex areas; on large sites it tends towards a homogeneous environment whereas the nature of towns and cities is pluralistic and heterogeneous; it confines the Urban Designer to site specific work rather than allowing concentration on the whole urban system. Urban Designers at the London Docklands Development Corporation felt that CAD might present some answers to these problems in facilitating an iterative, interactive briefing process which could respond quickly to change; whereby varying options for development could be investigated fully but quickly and resource-efficiently; which could be used to communicate design ideas effectively to non-professionals; which could help to make negotiation with developers more effective, less confrontational; which could deal with large, complex sites effectively. The idea was that a piece of city could be modeled on the computer and an urban design study would then be carried out on it which would test varying options for development, resulting in an outline, but three dimensional, model for an area which could be used in three ways: as a briefing tool, as part of a marketing exercise and as a tool to aid effective negotiation and consultation at the planning stage. A pilot project was carried out on a set of development sites at East India Dock and, following the success of this, a full study was carried at Surrey Quays Centre. The paper describes these projects and discusses both their products and their effect on the developmentprocess as aids in decision making.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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