CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9461
id ddss9461
authors Leusen, Marc van
year 1994
title System of Types in the Domain of Residential Buildings
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary At the early stages of the architectural design process, general decisions are made with respect to a building's spatial organization. These concern its overall shape and size, as well as its internal organization. Characteristics of a building's spatial organization, however vaguely and incomplete-ly described at those stages, may have serious consequences for various aspects of its performan-ce. Those consequences are often difficult to determine in advance and emerge only during time-consuming elaboration of the design or even not before the actual building is in operation. A designer's ability of foreseeing them is much dependent on his knowledge of existing buildings. More particularly, it depends on his understanding of the performances of types rather than specific precedents. In general terms, the present study aims at supporting design decisions at the early stages by improving the awareness and understanding of types. Many architectural handbooks particularly those in the domain of housing attempt to support access to and acquisition of such knowledge through so-called typologies, in which types are described by means of graphical descriptions, and illustrated with one or more precedents. The effectiveness of such books as design supporting tools is limited by the fact, among others, that type descriptions are not based upon a well-defined representation of spatial organization. This leads to uncertainty as to the handbook's completeness and to unreliability of performances associated with types. The present study explores the possibilities of dealing with these shortcomings. It is limited to the domain of the complex residential building. After a review of existing work in the area of housing typology, the study presents and discusses the following products: (i) a type-representation of basic arrangements of dwellings, that is, a representation which retains only the most general characteristics of spatial organization, (ii) a demonstration of the potential of this representation; this demonstration involves the enumeration and limited exploration of certain ranges of type descriptions.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9415
id ddss9415
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title Innovative Expert Systems With Hypertextual User Interfaces: A Special Support for the Building Recovering Project
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper, first of all a short account on the peculiarity of knowledge in the domain of Architectural and Building Project, particularly in the Building Recovering Project is given. Thatmeans to focus the concept of "degree of authority" of different types of knowledge with regard to project: regulations; specialist literature having in practice the value of self-regulation; technical updating; exemplary design cases; warnings; analysis methods; heuristics; orientating references. Consequently, the different roles of two basic design & decision support systems, that is expert systems and hypertexts, are considered. The former seem to be quite fit for representing information and knowledge linked to a clear "authority", the one of experts in a certain domain; the latter seem to be quite fit for illustrating the interdisciplinary complexity, different historicinterpretations, various analogous references, and so on. Afterwards, the limits of expert systems based on the logic "true-false" are underlined, and the perspective of expert systems based on more sophisticated and appropriate rules and metarules is proposed. At last, the possible structure of such an innovative expert system, with a hypertextual interface, in the domain of Building Recovering Project is exemplified.
series DDSS
email wide@inacriai.criai.it
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddssup9610
id ddssup9610
authors Krafta, Romulo
year 1996
title Built form and urban configuration development simulation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The "centrality/potential" model, proposed by Krafta (1994), for configurational development, aims at the simulation of inner city built form growth. This is generally achieved by simulating the uneven distribution of floor area increments, resulting from replacement of old buildings, considered "devalued capital" form new ones. The model considers two main variables - public urban space system and built form - and treats them unevenly; the former is extensively disaggregated whereas the latter is not. This feature enables the model to make just a rough account of intra-urban built form development. The issue of built form simulation is then taken further in the following way: a) Urban built form is disaggregated by types. Buildings are classified by a cross combination of scale, purpose, age and quality standard; b) The city is itself considered as a set of intertwined typologic cities. This means that each unit of public space is identified by its dominant built form type, producing a multilayered-discontinuous city. Each one has its own market characteristics: rentability, technological availability and demand size; c) The market constraints determine which layer-city has priority over the others, as well as each one's size of growth. References to rentability and demand size gives each built form type priorities for development d) Spatial conditions, in the form of particular evaluation of centrality and spatial opportunity measures, regulates the distribution of built form increments and typological succession. Locational values, denoted by centrality and spatial opportunity measures, area differently accounted for in each layer-city simulation. e) Simulation is obtained by "running" the model recursively. Each built form type is simulated separately and in hyerarquical order, so that priority and replacement of built form types is acknowledged properly.
series DDSS
email kraffa@vortex.ufrgs.br
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga0009
id ga0009
authors Lewis, Matthew
year 2000
title Aesthetic Evolutionary Design with Data Flow Networks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary For a little over a decade, software has been created which allows for the design of visual content by aesthetic evolutionary design (AED) [3]. The great majority of these AED systems involve custom software intended for breeding entities within one fairly narrow problem domain, e.g., certain classes of buildings, cars, images, etc. [5]. Only a very few generic AED systems have been attempted, and extending them to a new design problem domain can require a significant amount of custom software development [6][8]. High end computer graphics software packages have in recent years become sufficiently robust to allow for flexible specification and construction of high level procedural models. These packages also provide extensibility, allowing for the creation of new software tools. One component of these systems which enables rapid development of new generative models and tools is the visual data flow network [1][2][7]. One of the first CG packages to employ this paradigm was Houdini. A system constructed within Houdini which allows for very fast generic specification of evolvable parametric prototypes is described [4]. The real-time nature of the software, when combined with the interlocking data networks, allows not only for vertical ancestor/child populations within the design space to be explored, but also allows for fast "horizontal" exploration of the potential population surface. Several example problem domains will be presented and discussed. References: [1] Alias | Wavefront. Maya. 2000, http://www.aliaswavefront.com [2] Avid. SOFTIMAGE. 2000, http://www.softimage.com [3] Bentley, Peter J. Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufmann, 1999. [4] Lewis, Matthew. "Metavolve Home Page". 2000, http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/~mlewis/AED/Metavolve/ [5] Lewis, Matthew. "Visual Aesthetic Evolutionary Design Links". 2000, http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/~mlewis/aed.html [6] Rowley, Timothy. "A Toolkit for Visual Genetic Programming". Technical Report GCG-74, The Geometry Center, University of Minnesota, 1994. [7] Side Effects Software. Houdini. 2000, http://www.sidefx.com [8] Todd, Stephen and William Latham. "The Mutation and Growth of Art by Computers" in Evolutionary Design by Computers, Peter Bentley ed., pp. 221-250, Chapter 9, Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.    
series other
email mlewis@cgrg.ohio-state.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 8fb2
id 8fb2
authors McCall, Raymond, Bennett, Patrick and Johnson, Erik
year 1994
title An Overview of the PHIDIAS II HyperCAD System
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 63-74
summary The PHIDIAS II HyperCAD system combines the functionality of CAD graphics, hypermedia, database management and knowledge-based computation in a single, highly integrated design environment. The CAD functionality includes both 3-D and 2-D vector graphics. The hypermedia includes support for text, raster images, video and sound. The database management enables persistent storage and interlinking of large collections of text, images, video, sound and vector graphics, i.e., thousands of vector graphic objects and drawings in a single database. Retrieval is provided both through use of "associative indexing" based on hyperlinks and through use of an advanced query language. The knowledge- based computation includes both inference and knowledgebased critiquing.

A highly unusual feature of PHIDIAS II is that it implements all of its functions using only hypermedia mechanisms. Complex vector graphic drawings and objects are represented as composite hypermedia nodes. Inference and critiquing are implemented through use of what are known as virtual structures [Halasz 1988], including virtual links and virtual nodes. These nodes and links are dynamic (computed) rather than static (constant). They are defined as expressions in the same language used for queries and are computed at display time. The implementation of different kinds of functions using a common set of mechanisms makes it easy to use them in combination, thus further augmenting the system's functionality.

PHIDIAS supports design by informing architects as they develop a solution's form. The idea is thus not to make the design process faster or cheaper but rather to improve the quality of the things designed. We believe that architects can create better buildings for their users if they have better information. This includes information about buildings of given types, user populations, historical and modern precedents, local site and climate conditions, the urban and natural context and its historical development, as well as local, state and federal regulations.

series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:34

_id ddss9507
id ddss9507
authors Zimring, C., Do, E., Domeshek, E. and Kolodner, J.
year 1994
title Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation To AID Reflection in ConceptualDesign: Creating a Case-Based Design Aid For Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The design of large complex "real-world" objects such as buildings requires that the intentions of many potentially competing stakeholders be understood and reconciled. The process of conceptual design itself can be understood as a set of discourses among design team participants and between the designer and the design that gradually reveal these intentions and their relationships to design moves. Our goal is to aid this discourse by creating a Case-based Design Aid (CBDA) that provides design team participants access to specific evaluated cases of experience with previous buildings. This represents a merger of two sets of theories and methodologies: case-based reasoning (CBR) in artificial intelligence; and, post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in architectural research. In developing our CBDA, we have focused on several problems in architectural design: understanding the interactions between intentions, and making links between various modes of understanding and communication, and particularly between verbal description and visual representation. This has led to a particular way of parsing experience, and to several modes of entering and browsing the system. For instance, each case is accessible as a specific building, such as the Santa Clara County Hall of Justice, that can be explored much as an architect might browse a magazine article about the building, looking at a brief text description of the building, photos, and plans. However, each plan is annotated with "problematic situations" that are actually hypertext links into the discursive part of the program. By clicking on the button, the users reaches a "story" screen that lists the intentions of various stakeholders relevant to the problematic situation, a fuller text description of the general problematic situation with a diagram, text and diagram for a specific problematic situation as it operates in a specific building, several general design responses showing how one might respond to the problematic situations, and specific design responses from specific buildings. In addition, the user can browse the system by listing his or her interests and moving directly to stories about a given space type such as "courtroom" or issue such as "way finding." In addition, the designer can access brief synopses of key issues in a building type, for a space type, or for an issue. We are currently implementing the system on the Macintosh using Common Lisp and are focusing on libraries and courthouses as initial building types. Initial feedback from designers has been encouraging. We believe that this approach provides a useful alternative to design guidelines, that often tend to be too prescriptive, and the entirely inductive approach of many designers that may miss critical intentions.
series DDSS
email ellen.do@archsun.arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9411
id ddss9411
authors Bouillé, Francois
year 1994
title Mastering Urban Network Intersection And Superimposition, in an Object-oriented Knowledge System Integrating Rules, Neurons and Processes
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many networks cover the urban texture, either superimposed at a variable distance, or really intersecting, or even in interconnection. We briefly recall the HBDS model, working on persistent abstract data types associated to graphical representations and carrying algorithms expressing conditions to be verified and/or actions to be performed. HBDS is an integrated system too, including database, expert system dealing with fuzzy rules and facts, discrete simulation engine, and neural engine; it has a general purpose programming language. Any urban network is associated to a given prototype, according to the same scheme named prototype with more specific components. These prototypes allow to build the different thematic structures instantiations of the prototypes. All possible cases of arc intersection or "pseudo-intersection" (simple superimposition)or interconnection are obtained by, owing to new prototypes. Moreover, such (pseudo)-intersections are automatically recognized and processed without a human intervention, owing to classes ofconstraints and classes of rules. They deal with particular constraints concerning the location of some urban furniture, and rules concerning the way a cable or a pipe must follow according to thepre-existing other networks in a given area, the minimal distances, minimal or maximal depths, and some required equipments. Urban classes of (pseudo-)intersections inserted in the hyperciass"neuron", inheriting of neural features, may be used for automated learning of urban knowledge; owing to their "behavior", these neurons can communicate and perform actions on other components. Urban classes inserted in the hyperciass "process" may be used for building very large models simulating complex urban phenomenons, thus allowing a better understanding of the real phenomenons. As a conclusion, we emphasize the methodological aspects of object-oriented integration for an efficient processing of the urban context, based on prototyping and mixing rules, neurons and processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9412
id ddss9412
authors Bradford, John and Will, Barry
year 1994
title The Temple Tutor Teaching System
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Temple Tutor is a multimedia CA! system developed at the University of Hong Kong to help teach architectural design students about certain fundamentals of building design and construction. It uses 3-D Cad models as user orientation and database access devices. This paper will demonstrate the operation of Temple Tutor, and discuss the types of Information and media used in Temple Tutor.
series DDSS
email bradford@hkucc.hku.hk, bfwill@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9419
id ddss9419
authors Choukry, Maha
year 1994
title Knowledge Acquisition by Measurement: The Domain of Building Change
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper presents a study that is aimed at finding a basis for systematic knowledge acquisition. More specifically, it attempts to introduce, knowledge acquisition by measurement: a method thatallows objective evaluation of empirical observations. Measurement has proven to be a significant tool to acquire, evaluate, and upgrade knowledge in some knowledge domains. In other domains,such as the domain of building change, measurement is barely subject of study. Building change knowledge acquisition by measurement seems to become a significant subject of study for several reasons: (i) increase our objective knowledge of previous building changes, (ii) allow systematic monitoring of present changes, and (iii) assist decisions planning for change in new buildings. In current studies, questions such as what were required changes, what were the building elements that fulfilled a change, how often did a building change, and what were the costs related to a change, often get no systematic or objective answers. Hence, to overcome that, I am concerned with finding a method that is to answer the following questions: 1) What is the domain of building change; 2) Is a method of knowledge acquisition by measurement adequate to represent buildingchanges; 3) Can empirical observations of building change be systematically represented and objectively evaluated using this method; and 4) How can this method be applied to assist theunderstanding of previous changes, the control of present changes, and assist planning for building change. The method introduced is based on three modules: (i) domain of building change; (ii) modelling this domain; and (iii) measurement. These three modules enable the formulation of the measurement of building change, namely the change indicator. Multiple change indicators, such as cost change indicator, or occurrence change indicator can measure empirical observations ofbuilding change. Sequential steps that lead to the development of this method start by section 1, where the domain of building change is specified. In section 2 this domain is modelled, and in section 3, knowledge acquisition by measurement method is introduced. A case study, shows how empirical building changes can be measured is explained in section 4. In section 5, three possible applications are introduced, and in section 6, I explain how a computerized prototype would enhance the efficiency of using such applications. Findings and conclusions resulting from this study are summarized in section 7.
series DDSS
email bwrbmc@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id af8b
authors Dave, B., Schmitt, G., Faltings, B. and Smith, I.
year 1994
title Case-based design in Architecture
source J.S. Gero and F. Sudweeks (eds.), the proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Design '94, pp.145-162
summary Computational support in the domain of building design is hampered by the need to control generation and search processes both of which are elusive due to the lack of strong domain theories. Case based reasoning paradigm may be useful to overcome some of these difficulties. A case based design system is presented here that enables case adaptation and case combination of design cases to generate new design solutions more efficiently. Some issues in our approach that are different from other projects with similar aims are also discussed.
series other
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9425
id ddss9425
authors Deguchi, Atsushi and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title Integration System for Urban Design from Planning Management to Visalization
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Advanced tools based on CAD or GIS systems and simulation methods have recently been introduced to support the many aspects of urban planning (design, analysis, evaluation, presentation). This research aims at constructing a system by integrating these support tools and linking GIS and simulation tools. The major purpose of this system are to manage the geographical data base of the target urban area, utilize the digital information of the area for planning and analysis,evaluate the impact of alternative proposals on the physical environment such as sunlight and daylight, visualize the results of analysis, and support the management of urban redevelopment /development projects. This paper shows some applications to illustrate usefulness of the system. These examples are concerned with a contemporary problem in urban planning of Tokyo: redevelopment of low-rise high-density residential districts and high-rise development in the central business districts. Urban redevelopment for the high-density urban areas in Japan requiresa evaluation of alternative plans by visualizing their environmental impact. This system enables the quantitative analysis of the environmental impact by using 3-dimensional geographical data andsimulation methods. In general, the merit and effect of planning support systems are recognized in terms of the "efficiency" of the planning process. The primary function of GIS is thought to bethe unification and management of various pieces of information. In addition, this research indicates the effectiveness of the integrated system in terms of utilizing the geographical information and visualizing the image of the future environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 27b5
authors Dießenbacher, Claus and Rank, Ernst
year 1995
title A Multimedia Archaeological Museum
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 13-20
summary This paper will present a project, which was first initiated in 1994 as a graduate students seminar and is now being continued as a research project in a cooperation of computer scientists, architects and archaeologists. An ancient roman city (Colonia Ulpia Traiana near todays Xanten in Germany) has been reconstructed, using various levels of abstraction. On the coarsest level, a 3D-model of the whole city was established, distinguishing between different historical periods of the city. The second level picks places of special interest (temples, the forum, the amphitheater, the townbaths etc.) and reconstructs these buildings or groups of buildings. On the finest level important interior parts or functional details like the Hypocaustae in the town-baths are modelled. All reconstructions are oriented as close as possible to results from excavations or other available documents. All levels of the 3D-model have been visualized using photorealistic images and sequences of video animations. The 3D model is integrated into a multimedia environment, augmenting the visualization elements with plans of the city and individual buildings and with text documents. It is intended, that parts of the outlined system will be available at the site of the ancient city, where today a large public archaeological park is located.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_2.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:36

_id 211f
authors Giangrande, A., Marinelli, A.M. and Sansoni, C.
year 1994
title A CAAD Based Method for Designing Industrial Plants in Sensitive Landscapes
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 75-83
summary The protection and management of the visual landscape require new conceptual and operative tools to better link (integrate) the creative and the evaluation phases of the design process. These tools should aid the designer to take into account and evaluate the visual impact of a new project from the early steps of the process: that is the same as saying that we have to upset the logic of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), a procedure that usually is applied when the project is finished or is coming to an end. This paper illustrates the first results of a research that aims to produce a system to aid the designer of buildings or infrastructures — industry plants, transport systems, etc. — that could generate a strong impact on the surrounding landscape. To this end we applied some methods and techniques which was worked out in scientific fields that have developed a lot in the late years: MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid) and CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design). The paper describes a software prototype to aid design of industrial installations for the early design phases.

series eCAADe
email c.sansoni@archiworld.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddss9434
id ddss9434
authors Grant, M.
year 1994
title Urban Gis - The Application of the Information Technologies to Urban Management
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many cities in the UK and indeed throughout the developed world are characterised by the all too familiar symptoms of urban blight caused by insensitive intervention in the environment. The common denominator within this class of problem is the lack of a coordinated, integrated approach to the planning, design and maintenance of our cities. The cycle of development and redevelopment calls for input from a diverse range of disciplines relating to architecture, civilengineering, transport engineering, and the management of city utilities. This lack of a common up datable information base renders access to a global view of the city difficult, if not impossible.This problem has provided the motivation to move towards an integrated philosophy regarding information collection, collation and dissemination. The impetus is provided primarily through theincreasing complexity of urban management but also through central governments policy to progress towards decentralisation of services. Fiscal pressure to increase efficiency, lower manpower resources and arrive at speedier judgements all point to an increasing reliance on the information technologies. Current work at ABACUS within Strathclyde University addresses research whose objective is to identify, and then prototype, a relevant urban information system. It is proposed that by attributing a geometrical framework with those physical quantities thatare relevant to the formal and functional evaluation of the urban environment, the means of evaluating the qualities and quantities of the buildings aswell as the social and economic prospects may be realised.
series DDSS
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9443
id ddss9443
authors Heijs, Wim
year 1994
title Residential Comfort as a Tool for the Design and Evaluation of Dwellings
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The term comfort plays a not inconsiderable role in scientific housing research, for example as a predictor of household energy behaviour and of residential satisfaction. Nevertheless, its meaning is mostly ill-defined and it is unclear which properties of the dwelling are associated with the concept. In an exploratory study the meaning and structure of comfort were established on the basis of an etymological analysis, interviews with occupants and experts, an extensive review of the literature and a survey of 500 respondents in the Netherlands. It is shown that residential comfort is a useful and meaningful concept in housing research. It can be regarded as a variable which represents the totality of properties of a dwelling which are important for the well-being of occupants, including its social and psychological aspects. The structure of comfort is captured in a model that can be used in the designing process and the evaluation of dwellings. The model enables an organized overview of the needs of (intended) groups of occupant, of sub-fields of comfort (e.g. sub-properties of the dwelling) associated with these needs and of possible housing characteristics that are necessary for the presence of the sub-fields. The scheme of analysis appears to be a good instrument for the construction of comparable models for other types of building.
series DDSS
email wmpewh©urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0726
authors Kadysz, Andrzej
year 1994
title CAD the Tool
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 212
summary What is the role of CAAD as a tool of architectural form creation ? We used to over-estimate the role of computer as significant factor of design process. In fact it serves only to produce technical documentation and to visualise designed buildings. We usually use CAAD to record ideas, not to create designs. We use it like more complex pencil. But it is unsuitable for conceptual design , with imperceptible influence on idea definition. Its practical usefulnes is limited. I would like to consider and find out reasons of that state, present some conclusions and ideas on computer aided architectural form creation. Many tools were invented to extend posibilities of human body or intellect. Microscop and telescop are extensions of human eye. Which organ is extended by computer (especially by CAAD)? CAAD with high developed function of visualising of the object beeing designed seems to be an extension of architect's imagination. It is beeing used to foresee visual efects, to check designed forms, to see something what we are not able to imagine. It performes the role of electronic modeler. Real model and virtual model - the medium of presentation is diferent but ways of using them are similar . Dislocation of place where we build model is not a big achievement, but potential possbilities of CAAD in modeling are almost unlimited (?). What are special features of CAAD as a modeling tool? First we have to consider what is indispensible when building a model: to embody idea. To do this we need space, substance and tools. In architectural design practice space is a real site with definite climate, neigbourhood, orientation. Substance that we shape is an archiectural form composed of many difrent elements: walls, windows, roof, entry, ... , proportions, rhythm, emotions, impresions... The tool is: our knowledge, imagination, talent, experience, norms, law and drawing equipment. Working with the computer, making virtual model, we have many of mentioned elements given in structure of CAAD program and interpreted by it. But many of them have different character. Making traditional dummy of building we operate on reality which is manually accessible. In case of computer model we operate on information. Space, substance and tool (- program) are informations, data. Human being is not an abstract data processor, but creature that lives non stop in close, direct, sensual contact with nature. By this contact with enviroment collects experiences. Computer can operate on digital data that is optionally selected and given by user, independent upon enviromental conditions. Usually architecture was created on basis of enviroment, climate, gravity. But these do not exist in CAAD programs or exist in the symbolic form. Character of these conditions is not obvious. We can watch demeanour of objects in gravity but it can be also antigravity. In theory of systems everything is considered as a part of biger system. In "virtual" reality (in computer space) we deal with accurences which are reduced to abstract level, free upon terms or connections. We work with our CAAD software using geometric space whithout any other principle.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:04

_id a887
authors Kaplan, Nancy and Moulthrop, Stuart
year 1994
title Where No Mind Has Gone Before: Ontological Design for Virtual Spaces Papers
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994 pp. 206-216
summary Hypermedia designers have tried to move beyond the directed graph concept, which defines hypermedia structures as aggregations of nodes and links. A substantial body of work attempts to describe hypertexts in terms of extended or global spaces. According to this approach, nodes and links acquire meaning in relation to the space in which they are deployed. Some theory of space thus becomes essential for any advance in hypermedia design; but the type of space implied by electronic information systems, from hyperdocuments to "consensual hallucinations," requires careful analysis. Familiar metaphors drawn from physics, architecture, and everyday experience have only limited descriptive or explanatory value for this type of space. As theorists of virtual reality point out, new information systems demand an internal rather than an external perspective. This shift demands a more sophisticated approach to hypermedia space, one that accounts both for stable design properties (architectonic space) and for unforeseen outcomes, or what Winograd and Flores call "breakdowns." Following Wexelblat in cyberspace theory and Dillon, McKnight, and Richardson in hypermedia theory, we call the domain of these outcomes semantic space. In two thought experiments, or brief exercises in interface design, we attempt to reconcile these divergent notions of space within the conceptual system of hypermedia.
keywords Spatial Hypertext; Interface Design; Information Mapping; Navigation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

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