CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id b110
id b110
authors Abadi Abbo, Isaac and Cavallin Calanche, Humerto
year 1994
title Ecological Validity of Real Scale Models
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 31-40
summary Space simulation is a technique employed by architects, urban designers, environmental psychologists and other related specialists. It is used for academic and research purposes, as an aid to evaluate the impact that the built environment or that to be built would yield in potential or real users. Real Scale Model is organized as one of the models which represents more reliable spatial characteristics in space simulations. However, it is necessary to know the ecological validity of the simulations carried out, that is the degree in which laboratory results could be taken as reliable and representative of real situations. In order to discover which variables of the model used are relevant so that their perception results ecologically valid in respect to reality, a research has been designed in which simulations of specific spaces are appraised both in real space and in the real scale model. The results of both evaluations were statistically analyzed and it shows no significative differences in psychological impressions between the evaluation of real spaces and real scale model. These ecological validation of the real scale model could be of great use to estimate the validity of the results obtained in spaces simulated in the laboratory.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2006/06/24 07:29

_id ddss9401
id ddss9401
authors Akin, Omer
year 1994
title Psychology of Early Design in Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Lately there has been a good deal of emphasis on the early stages of the design process, particularly by developers of computer aids and quantitative design models for both evaluation and generation of designs in a variety of domains. Yet, there is little understanding of the early design-process. While the early design process as manifested by human designers need not be the sole basis of the description of this phase, it certainly represents and important kernel of knowledge, especially for those who are interested in developing models, systems or merely interfaces for such systems. This paper focuses on the characterization of the psychology of the early design phase in architecture. It is described in terms of the general design strategies and problem solving tactics used; and is contrasted against some of the process characteristics that
series DDSS
email oaO4+@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0574
authors Alison Murison and James Gray
year 1994
title Spatial Analysis for Museum Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 201-206
summary The paper describes how a specially written customisation of AutoCAD enables students of Architecture to use the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Professor Bill Hillier of the Bartlett School of Architecture, London, to examine a number of existing museums, to compare the findings against other criteria, and to draw conclusions about the strategy adopted in museum design. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that they may be evaluated during the design process, with decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1262
authors Alshawi, M.
year 1994
title A run time exchange of component information between CAD and object models: A standard interface
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(2), pp. 37-52
summary Integrated computer aided design could only occur in engineering once CAD systems could represent physical features and components rather than graphical primitives. In most dedicated CAD systems, the knowledge of a complete component exists only for the duration of each drawing command and the data stored in the database is simply a set of graphic primitives. This paper proposes an approach for real time information transfer from and to CAD systems based on a high level object representation of the design drawing. Drawing components are automatically identified and represented in an object hierarchy that reflects the 'part-of' relation between the various components including building spaces. Such hierarchies transfer an industry standard CAD system i.e. AutoCAD, into a high level object oriented system that can communicate with external applications with relative ease.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id e807
authors Anadol, Z., and Akin, O.
year 1994
title Determining the impact of cad drafting tools on the building delivery process
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(1), pp.1-8
summary Computer aided design is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. at a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. to test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. we compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. we found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 241b
authors Anderson, Lee
year 1994
title Film Theory and Architectural Design
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 219-227
summary This paper describes a 10 week, 3rd year architectural design studio, taught by the author, that explored the use of film and video techniques in the design process. The exploration was of (1) the potential of recently available personal computer software and hardware for image and video capture, manipulation and recording, and (2) the potential for application of video, informed by film theory, in the early stages of architectural design.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0ecc
authors Anh, Tran Hoai
year 1994
title APPLICATION OF FULL-SCALE MODELLING IN VIETNAM: AN OUTLINE FOR DISCUSSION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 59-70
summary This paper discusses the possibility of applying full-scale modelling in Vietnam, a non-western so called developing country. It deals with two main questions: 1) Is the application of full-scale modelling to be restricted to the West only? 2) what are the possibilities, constraints and fields of application - with attention to the methodological validity and technical solution for full-scale modelling in Vietnam? It is argued that since full-scale modelling is based on people-environment interaction, it should, in principle, apply to studies about people–environment relation anywhere on earth. On the methodological validity, it is discussed that application of full-scale modelling in Vietnam faces similar methodological problems as encountered in European applications (such as people's behaviour in experiment, ability to understand the abstraction of models, etc.) although at another level as this paper will make clear. However, it would be needed to design a modelling kit that is of low costs and adapted to the availability of local materials and suitable for the climatic condition of Vietnam. Two fields of application are projected as most applicable in Vietnam: modelling in architectural education and research investigation. Application for user's participation in the design process will depend on the development of building policy in the country.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:00

_id 592b
authors Apollonio, F., Carini, A., Farina, R., Nuti, F. and Tolomelli, F.
year 1994
title THE ITALIAN FULL-SCALE MODEL LABORATORY: CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT SOME TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURAL EXPERIMENTATION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 71-82
summary The Italian simulation laboratory carries out most of its activity within the experimental programmes promoted by the Ministry of Works. Within this context, we conducted studies based on the topics of EUROPAN competitions for young architects, built models based on EUROREX programme's projects and analyzed experimental projects directly financed by the Ministry (mainly restoration projects).
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:01

_id ddss9402
id ddss9402
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title Design of a View-Based DSS For Location Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes the design of a DSS for locating facility networks. The proposed DSS is based on the principle of dynamic data definitions. The declarative and procedural forms of knowledge involved are identified by a logical analysis of planning tasks. The DSS supports an iterating process of adjusting and evaluating plan options. A flexible and interactive problem solving environment is achieved by means of a user defined set of views that captures both forms of knowledge. Each view describes the system to be planned in terms of a set of variables and attached evaluation procedures. The views are dynamic and linked data structures, so that changes in one view automatically lead to updating all linked views. The DSS supports both the specification of the set of views and its application to solve a specific location problem.
series DDSS
email ta.arentze@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9403
id ddss9403
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A., Dellaert, B. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title A Multi-Purpose Multi-Stop Model Describing Consumers' Choices of Shopping Centres
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Recently, a number of interesting extensions to traditional decompositional and discrete choice models has been introduced that allow one to combine parameters estimated in different phases ofcomplex choice processes. These extensions offer new possibilities to model combinations of choices consumers make if they select shopping centres to visit. This paper will introduce a modelling approach that describes consumer choices of shopping centres involving multiple shopping functions (multi purpose) as well as locations (multi stop). The approach extends traditional decompositional models of single choices to a model of combinations of choices. It uses a recursive scaling procedure that combines attributes related to different shopping functions and to shopping centres at different locations. The model will be tested on data collected on shopping behaviour in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
series DDSS
email t.a.arentze@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9404
id ddss9404
authors Arima, Takafumi and Sato, Seiji
year 1994
title Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: A Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ca51
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1994
title CAFE: Composition for Architects - Forms and Emotions
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 249
summary In the architectural creation process there has always been an inclination to improve the methods of designing in the way of ,,objectivization" of designing process. Objectivization which would explain why we do design in this way and not the other. In spite of the trend to the total objectivization (Vitruvius, Alberti, Palladio), the results appeared to be still subjective, i.e. they included methods of designing typical of the one and only architect. This fact made them completely useless in the designing practice. On the other hand one cannot underestimate their meaning as to this very practice. Because it is just thanks to them that the development of designing studies has taken place. We do learn not only watching works of great architects, but also studying their opinions concerning problems of form, function and construction. That is why it seems to be useful to collect experiences concerning the classic theory of architectural composition, which have been gathered through centuries, as well as to try once again to objectivize the process. Composition information arranged in the form of data-base would create the ground for proper functioning of an expert system uniting diagnostic and planning functions. Study of that kind, not claiming design applications could be an excellent educational equipment in teaching architectural composition. In the proposed teaching system attempts have been made to look at the architectural composition theory in the light of the perception of the form, and - emerging in this process - emotional and aesthetic evaluations. In order to define which evaluations have been most often expressed during the perception process of architectural forms, the students of Architecture Faculty in Bialystok Technical University have been polled on the subject: ,,Which words are most commonly used in the descriptions of architecture works?"

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9405
id ddss9405
authors Ayeni, Bola
year 1994
title The Design of Decision Support Systems in Urban and Regional Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Planning methodology over the years, has shifted from situations whereby planners think, plan and design for the people to one whereby both people and planners have become important components of the planning process. Consequently, the important urban planning methodology of the last two decades that utilized mathematical models in the planning process is fast becoming obsolete. The paper argues that model building should move to the creation of urban decision support systems for the planning process through the development of expert systems shells that interfaces existing planning models with the knowledge content of planning and planners. The expert system shells as the set of decision rules for determining how existing supply and demand relationships are applied for modelling land use and transportation would be responsible forguiding the development of appropriate geographical information systems, supporting land use and other models in a coordinated manner, for communicating with these other systems componentsand for guiding interactions between them and the user. Furthermore, decision support systems should be designed to bring the whole of the knowledge base to bear on a problem through a flexible and adaptive solution system that makes explicit use of both the analysts models and the decision makers expert knowledge. It is argued that this understanding leads to the development of three crucial issues for the design of decision support systems in urban and regional planning;namely the development of user friendly integrated urban land-use transportation models, the development of expert geographical information systems and the development of expert systemshells for many of the routine tasks planners deal with.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9406
id ddss9406
authors Bakel, Anton P.M. van
year 1994
title Assesing Strategy Questionnaire for Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD)
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper the first results will be discussed that were obtained by the Assessing Strategy Questionnaire For Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD). This questionnaire was developed specifically for the assessment of architectural design strategies. The construction of the questionnaire will be discussed in light of previous protocol research on strategic styles of designing. With this questionnaire, we developed a tool to assess an architects design strategy in a faster, easier and more reliable way than used to be the case with conventional protocol studies and other knowledge eliciting techniques like Card Sorting, and Repertory Grid. This questionnairewas submitted in a pilot study to 10 experienced Dutch architects. R.esults show that architects do indeed have preferences for different design situations. Moreover results indicate that they havea preference with respect to their responses within such specific situations. Though the generalizability coefficient was calculated for no more than 10 architects with a value of .57 (generalizing across situations), we feel that this is reason enough to assume that the questionnaire can be used to assess design strategies of architects. These results will be discussed with respect to the development of new design and decision support tools. The fact that designers have preferences for specific design problems and that they respond differently should be considered in the implementation of user interfaces and data base technology where possible.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9407
id ddss9407
authors Barrett, P., Baldry, D., Sexton, M. and Stanley, C.
year 1994
title Key Decisions Within a Generic FM Framework
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Based on extensive fieldwork a generic framework for the facilities management function will be presented within wich a comprehensive range of decisions related to key relationships will be identified. Examples will be given of the application of the framework to a wide range of organisation types. The decision types(pricipally strategic v operational) and techniques to identify which is being confronted will be prposed. Examples will be provided of how, in practice, different organisations approach a given type of decision in a variety of ways.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c5a9
authors Batty, M. and Longley, P.
year 1994
title Fractal Cities - A Geometry of Form and Function
source Academic Press, London
summary Fractal Cities is a pioneering study of the development and use of fractal geometry for understanding and planning the physical form of cities, showing how this geometry enables cities to be simulated through computer graphics. It shows how cities evolve and grow in ways that at first sight appear irregular, but which, when understood in terms of fractals, illustrate an underlying order that reveals their complexity and diversity. The book contains sixteen pages of stunning computer graphics and explanations of how to construct them, as well as new insights into the complexity of social systems. The authors provide a gentle and intelligible introduction to fractal geometry as well as an exciting visual understanding of the form of cities, thus providing one of the best introductions to fractal geometry available for non-mathematicians and social scientists. Fractal Cities can be used as a text for courses on geographic information systems, urban geography, regional science and fractal geometry. Planners and architects will also find that there are many aspects of fractal geometry in this book relevant to their own interests. Furthermore, those involved in fractals and chaos, computer graphics, and systems theory will find important methods and examples that are germane to their work.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9409
id ddss9409
authors Beekman, Solange and Rikhof, Herman G.A.
year 1994
title Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
series DDSS
email h.g.a.rikhof@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 065b
authors Beitia, S.S., Zulueta, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1995
title The Virtual Cathedral - An Essay about CAAD, History and Structure
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 355-360
summary The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_43.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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