CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 315

_id diss_brewster
id diss_brewster
authors Brewster, S.A.
year 1994
title Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces
source Heslington, York: University of York
summary This thesis provides a framework for integrating non-speech sound into human-computer interfaces. Previously there was no structured way of doing this, it was done in an ad hoc manner by individual designers. This led to ineffective uses of sound. In order to add sounds to improve usability two questions must be answered: What sounds should be used and where is it best to use them? With these answers a structured method for adding sound can be created. An investigation of earcons as a means of presenting information in sound was undertaken. A series of detailed experiments showed that earcons were effective, especially if musical timbres were used. Parallel earcons were also investigated (where two earcons are played simultaneously) and an experiment showed that they could increase sound presentation rates. From these results guidelines were drawn up for designers to use when creating usable earcons. These formed the first half of the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces. An informal analysis technique was designed to investigate interactions to identify situations where hidden information existed and where non-speech sound could be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions were considered in terms of events, status and modes to find hidden information. This information was then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. Several examples of the use of the technique were presented. This technique formed the second half of the structured method. The structured method was evaluated by testing sonically-enhanced scrollbars, buttons and windows. Experimental results showed that sound could improve usability by increasing performance, reducing time to recover from errors and reducing workload. There was also no increased annoyance due to the sound. Thus the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces was shown to be effective when applied to existing interface widgets.
series thesis:PhD
email stephen@dcs.gla.ac.uk
more http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/publications.shtml
last changed 2003/11/28 06:34

_id 5dff
authors Bricken, M.
year 1994
title Virtual Worlds: No Interface to Design
source Cyberspace - First Steps, M.Benedikt ed, MIT Press
summary In a virtual world, we are inside an environment of pure information that we can see, hear, and touch. The technology itself is invisible, and carefully adapted to human activity so that we can behave naturally in this artificial world. We can create any imaginable environment and we can experience entirely new perspectives and capabilities within it. A virtual world can be informative, useful, and fun; it can also be boring and uncomfortable. The difference is in the design. The platform and the interactive devices we use, the software tools and the purpose of the environment are all elements in the design of virtual worlds. But the most important component in designing comfortable, functional worlds is the person inside them. Cyberspace technology couples the functions of the computer with human capabilities. This requires that we tailor the technology to people, and refine the fit to individuals. We then have customized interaction with personalized forms of information that can amplify our individual intelligence and broaden our experience. Designing virtual worlds is a challenging departure from traditional interface design. In the first section of this chapter I differentiate between paradigms for screen-based interface design and paradigms for creating virtual worlds. The engineer, the designer, and the participant co-create cyberspace. Each role carries its own set of goals and expectations, its own model of the technology's salient features. In the second section of the chapter I address these multiple perspectives, and how they interrelate in the cooperative design process. In conclusion, I consider broader design issues, including control, politics, and emergent phenomena in cyberspace.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9414
id ddss9414
authors Bright, Elise N.
year 1994
title THe "Allots" Model: A PC-Based Approach to Demand Distribution for Siting and Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper reports on the development and application of ALLOT: a user-friendly, flexible computer model which has been designed to help governmental jurisdictions and private landowners throughout the world to achieve more economically efficient and environmentally sound land use and development patterns in a short period of time. ALLOT has the potential to drastically change the way that land use planning is conducted, since it has the capability to allow theincorporation of a wide variety of previously ignored environmental characteristics and up-to-date land use patterns. ALLOT, which is written in the SAS programming language, contains twomajor parts. The first part employs a GIS database to conduct land suitability analyses for the area. It then produces maps showing the most suitable areas for various land use types. The second part appears to be unique in the field of computerized land use planning models. It combines the results of the suitability analysis with forecasted demand for various land use types to produce "optimum" future land use patterns. The model is capable of quickly analyzing a wide variety of forecasts, allowing easy comparison of different growth scenarios; and it can also be modified to reflect community goals and objectives, such as protection of wildlife habitat orattraction of industry. The flexibility, combined with the fact that it runs on any IBM-compatible PC (286 or higher), make it a powerful land use planning tool. The model has been successfully applied in two "real world" situations. First, three alternative future land use patterns were developed for a rural lakeside area. The area had rural characteristics and was lacking infrastructure, but a large influx of people was expected as the lake was filled. The success of this effort led to decision to test it´s use as a method for facility siting (using landfill siting as an example).
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4727
authors Cabellos, C., Casaus, A., Fargas, J., Mas, M., Papazian,P. and Roses, J.
year 1994
title Heterogeneous, Distributed, Collaborative: The Li-Long Virtual Design Studio
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 175-182
summary This paper describes the Li-Long Virtual Design Studio, which involved six universities in three countries, collaborating in a distributed asynchronous manner on a two-week design exercise. We give an account of the technical, methodological and design aspects of the exercise, concentrating on the perspective of the Barcelona node, and evaluating some of the technical tools used in the studio.

series eCAADe
email fargas@dtec.es
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddss9415
id ddss9415
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title Innovative Expert Systems With Hypertextual User Interfaces: A Special Support for the Building Recovering Project
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper, first of all a short account on the peculiarity of knowledge in the domain of Architectural and Building Project, particularly in the Building Recovering Project is given. Thatmeans to focus the concept of "degree of authority" of different types of knowledge with regard to project: regulations; specialist literature having in practice the value of self-regulation; technical updating; exemplary design cases; warnings; analysis methods; heuristics; orientating references. Consequently, the different roles of two basic design & decision support systems, that is expert systems and hypertexts, are considered. The former seem to be quite fit for representing information and knowledge linked to a clear "authority", the one of experts in a certain domain; the latter seem to be quite fit for illustrating the interdisciplinary complexity, different historicinterpretations, various analogous references, and so on. Afterwards, the limits of expert systems based on the logic "true-false" are underlined, and the perspective of expert systems based on more sophisticated and appropriate rules and metarules is proposed. At last, the possible structure of such an innovative expert system, with a hypertextual interface, in the domain of Building Recovering Project is exemplified.
series DDSS
email wide@inacriai.criai.it
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0e58
authors Campbell, D.A. and Wells, M.
year 1994
title A Critique of Virtual Reality in the Architectural Design Process, R-94-3
source Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/r-94-3/: 23 May 2001
summary An addition to a building was designed using virtual reality (VR). The project was part of a design studio for graduate students of architecture. During the design process a detailed journal of activities was kept. In addition, the design implemented with VR was compared to designs implemented with more traditional methods. Both immersive and non-immersive VR simulations were attempted. Part of the rationale for exploring the use of VR in this manner was to develop insight into how VR techniques can be incorporated into the architectural design process, and to provide guidance for the implementers of future VR systems. This paper describes the role of VR in schematic design, through design development to presentation and evaluation. In addition, there are some comments on the effects of VR on detailed design. VR proved to be advantageous in several phases of the design. However, several shortcomings in both hardware and software became apparent. These are described, and a number of recommendations are provided.
series other
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6651
id 6651
authors Chen, N., Kvan, T., Wojtowicz, J., Van Bakergem, D., Casaus, T., Davidson, J., Fargas, J., Hubbell, K., Mitchell, W., Nagakura, T. and Papazian, P.
year 1994
title PLACE, TIME AND THE VIRTUAL DESIGN STUDIO
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 115-132
summary A design problem shared over the Internet raises issues of how digital media and group dynamics affect networked design collaborations. This paper describes how to conduct a long-distance studio and compares asynchronous and synchronous collaborative techniques. Digital methods are discussed in relationship to both the creative process and design communication. In schematic stages, less precise tools used asynchronously allow free exploration and creative misreadings, while in later stages, more direct real-time exchanges bring a project to resolution. For the final review, synchronous video-conferencing with interactive graphics allow comparison of cross-cultural differences. Used effectively, these tools can electronically create a compelling sense of place. Ways to foster a strong virtual community are discussed in an agenda for future virtual design.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 2004/04/10 04:45

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9420
id ddss9420
authors Christie, Colin Ian
year 1994
title User Interfaces and Systems for Remote Design Working on ISDN Systems
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper will discuss the requirements and possible configurations of user interfaces suitable for remote working multi-disciplinary design practices. Telecom companies throughout Europe are making heavy investments in digital communication technology (ISDN). The networks being created will form a standard method of high speed data transfer which can be readily accessed by any computer hardware platform. There are great opportunities for remote working by design groups, not simply sharing data but also interactive working and video communications. Digital communications provide the electronic arterial system to the new field of remote computing,whilst cheap and effective hardware and software support systems provide readily usable platforms on which to build remote multi-disciplinary design practices where the exploitation of specialistknowledge and skills is not limited by traditional methods of communication. ISDN networks allow real time video, voice and design software interaction - indeed, everything except the designer's physical presence. However as with all computer technology and indeed communications technology the user interface which gives access and control is vitally important. The user interface should provide the following features: be transparent to the user and simple and reliable to operate; allow an interactive window/s into the remote site's design information whatever the type of application being dealt with; carry out data compression, file transfer and file management procedures with minimum input from the user; cause no conflicts with design software or secondary applications;be able to access different platforms.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e751
id e751
authors Clayton, M.J., Kunz, J.C., Fischer, M.A. and Teicholz, P.
year 1994
title First Drawings, Then Semantics
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 13-26
summary The Semantic Modeling Extension (SME) prototype implements a unique approach to integrated architectural CAD that places the drawing act first in the design process. After drawing a design idea using a computer graphic system, the designer interprets the design, providing semantic content to the graphic entities. An interpretation expresses the meaning of the design with respect to a particular issue, such as structural sufficiency, energy consumption, or requirements for egress, and provides reasoning to evaluate the design addressing that issue. A design may have many interpretations to express the multiple issues that are relevant in a design project. The designer may add or delete interpretations of the design as issues change during the course of the project. Underlying the SME prototype are the concepts of form, function and behavior. In the prototype, evaluation of a design is done by deriving behavior from the graphically represented forms and relating the behavior to stated functions or requirements. The concepts of interpretations and form, function and behavior together establish a virtual product model for design. In contrast to component based approaches to product modeling that tightly bind form representations to their behavior and function, a virtual product model allows the designer to manipulate the relations among these three descriptors of a design, and thus manipulate the semantics of the design entities. By distinguishing between the act of proposing a design by drawing the conceived form and the act of assigning meaning to the form, the virtual product model approach supports both graphic thinking for design synthesis and symbolic reasoning for design evaluation. This paper presents a scenario of the use of the SME prototype in building design; provides an analysis of the design process and computational support described in the scenario; contrasts a virtual product model approach with a component-oriented product model approach; describes the software implementation of SME; and presents implications and conclusions regarding design process and technical integration.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2003/12/06 07:49

_id 7ed5
authors Corne, D., Smithers, T. and Ross, P.
year 1994
title Solving design problems by computational exploration
source J. S. Gero and E. Tyugu (eds), Formal Design Methods for CAD, NorthHolland, Amsterdam, pp. 249-270
summary Most real-world problems, especially design problems, are ill-structured, but formal approaches to problem-solving in AI have only really made progress into techniques for solving well-structured problems. Nevertheless, such research contains clues which illuminate the way towards formal approaches to solving ill-structured problems. This paper presents the foundations of an approach towards developing a better computational understanding of ill-structured problems and how to solve them computationally, with the eventual aim of giving AI problems a much greater and more useful role in the design process. The main issues which come up in this endeavour are the notions of different kinds of ill-structuredness, and the meaning of a 'solution' to an ill-structured (and hence possibly insoluble) problem. Some basic algorithmic recipes are proposed for dealing with the main kinds of ill-structuredness, and the initial design of a general computational technique which deals with general ill-structuredness is discussed.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2005_463
id sigradi2005_463
authors Costa Cabral, Cláudia Piantá
year 2005
title Computer City, 1994
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 463-467
summary This paper is about an emblematic design of the sixties, Dennis Crompton’s Computer City, published in 1964 by Archigram Magazine. Besides other enterprises of its time, Archigram promoted a critical view over institutionalised post-war modernism for not being able to recognize the emergence of new social realities, identified with the new technologies of automation and information, the restructuring of capitalist fordism and the shift from a predominantly industrial culture to an electronic culture. This paper sustains that more than a direct translation of unquestionable technical necessities; it was a conscious attempt of producing a sort of representation of technology. Crompton’s design clearly demonstrates the actual change in the character of technology, when it is no longer primarily identified with artefacts and objects, as the machine, and seems to be progressively identified with abstract and ubiquitous systems and processes of control, as automation and information systems. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email cabralfendt@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ddss9421
id ddss9421
authors Daru, Roel and Adams, Wim
year 1994
title Matchmaker: An Instrument for Matching Demand for and Supply of Buildings and Revealing Specific Discrepancies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary To match supply and demand of buildings, various approaches are possible. While artificial intelligenceis favoured by some, we think that a less 'heavy' approach can be more cost and time efficient. The casewe have chosen to exemplify our approach concerns architectural heritage. To match supply and demandwhile at the same time respecting the constraints imposed by cultural heritage, it is necessary to bringthem together and to effectuate feasibility studies in the shortest possible time. The feasibility study shouldbe served by tools allowing the various partners to communicate on the level of the match between them, translated in terms of spatial organisation and building constraints. In the past years, our designmorphology group has developed and tested a graphic-based reordering tool which has been applied to large governmental buildings, both existing and new. The same tool can be used for weighted objectives ranking and evaluation, to have a synthetic view of the combined basic preferences and differences of the involved parties as for example in a jury wise evaluation and ranking of alternative proposals. The proposed tool is the electronic and graphic version of the data and association matrices, which have been for a long time recommended for use in the preliminary phases of design. But as long as these instruments could only be drawn and redrawn on paper they were much too ineffectual and found little real application. The developed tool is connected by sub-routines to a computer aided design package, within which the spatial patterns are translated into plans and attached data bases. The matching takes place in a number of steps. The first is to describe the organisation (the demanding party) as functional units which can be made corresponding with spatial units. The prescription of spatial needs can take place in both quantitative and qualitative manners. The Matchmaker tools offer the possibility of interactive clustering of spatial needs. Another step, which can be taken concurrently, is to describe the monument in spatial units and distance relationships. The input can be generated directly within the matrix, but it is much easier, more self evident and realistic to generate this automatically from the draughted plan. The following step is the input of constraints originating from heritage preservation objectives, expressed in levels of authorised intervention. Again, the Matchmaker tools offer here the possibility of visual clustering of spatial units, their relationships and associated properties. In the next step, the matching takes place. In this step the actual positions, properties and constraints of existing spaces in the monument are compared (and visualised by discrepancies views) to the optimised and clustered spatial needs of the end user. In the following phase, the feasibility in terms of space, building fabric and costs can be appraised. Once a compromise has been attained, preliminary proposals can be designed and laid down in terms of drawings. The spatialdesigns can then again be translated into matrix views and evaluated.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9422
id ddss9422
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, Philip
year 1994
title Sketch-Trigger: A Specification for a Form Generator and Design Analysis Toolbox for Architectural Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In order to develop design and decision support techniques in the early sketch design phases, weshould (1) experience and (2) observe real behaviour in practice, (3) transform observations intoideas for improvement, (4) develop behaviour models to explain the sketch design activities and(5) to evaluate between the proposals, (6) decide between the alternatives, (7) implement theselected option in a supporting tool. Our paper reports about the results of step 3 in particular inthe first phase of a Ph D project, started this year. Our main objective is to amplify the effects ofthe sketch as a very effective instrument to generate original forms and to stimulate the mind to discover new shapes and meanings in the roughly sketched patterns. Instead of considering the sketch only as a representation of what the designer has in mind as is usually assumed in CAD systems, we see sketching as form activation. Thus, we want also to offer triggering images to spark off the imagination of the designer while generating images which are practically impossibleto create by hand and certainly not at short notice. The main improvement proposed is the use of an evolutionary form breeding system: one or more sketched parent images (either ready-made'partis' or basic schemes drafted by the designer) presented in the centre of the screen, will generate surrounding mutated children as defined at random but constrained by default or customization of the available transformations. By selecting one or more children a next generation will be produced in the same way. At all times the designer can introduce or reduce constraints. To complete the usually offered 'classical' symmetrical, spatial and logical operations,we want to introduce dis-functional operations like dislocation, explosion, deformation, anti-logic etc, in short all kinds of antagonistic operations, among them the transformations applied indeconstructionist and post-modern design. Our expectation is that these operations will correspond roughly to the 'move' pertaining to a design entity as the operational unit most appropriate for design behaviour research, in particular the analysis of the chunking and parsing behaviour of the designer. The applicability of the 'move' approach has been shown experimentally by Habraken and others. Goldschmidt has abandoned the usual typology approach of protocolanalysis based on moves and concentrated on the linking of moves, but has been hampered by the lack of a good representational instrument. This brings us to the representation of moves and linkages as a research instrument. The 'linkograph' approach as proposed by Goldschmidt is a first step towards a graphical representation of the designers associative reasoning mode, necessary for tracking the heuristics of designers at the most basic level, but its practical implementation remained as yet incredibly laborious. What is proposed here is an instrument and approach which makes such registration and analysis possible within a structured software environment.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9423
id ddss9423
authors Dasgupta, Shubhagato
year 1994
title A Decision Support System for Architects in the Rural Housing Situation in India
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Even a conservative estimate of the rural housing shortfall in India, is 20.6 million houses. There are three contexts under which external intervention is necessary, the endemic low housing qualityof the poor and landless, the major development projects where displaced people have to be rehoused, and rehabilitation of victims of natural disasters such as the periodic floods or unprecedented earthquakes like the recent one in Maharashtra, Central India, where we successfully applied this method. Interventions by government agencies or charity organisations, have often failed to achieve a viable sustainable habitat, primarily because of misplaced perceptions in need assessment, resulting in disrupted societies. Tailored to the Indian rural housing scenario, the study developed a participatory interface to aid architects and planners in information gathering and systematization of need assessment for input into the designing and decision-making process. The method based on field tested participatory information collection games consists of threemajor stages. The first stage involves user-interactive documentation of the baseline data. The second, involves participatory group analysis and evaluation of issues coupled with rapid interactive verification of information collected in terms ofspatial organisations and production mechanisms. The third is a tool for rapid systematised retrieval of information, for synthesis into preparation of an "user needs statement".
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9424
id ddss9424
authors Dave, Bharat and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1994
title Information Systems for Spatial Data
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes a continuing research project aimed at the development of a prototype information system to represent and manipulate models of urban settlements. This inter-disciplinaryproject involves researchers and teachers in the fields of urban design, photogrammetry and CAD. Based upon the requirements identified by the urban design team, the photogrammetry teamused aerial imagery to produce accurate digital models of various features of urban settlements. The models comprise natural features like terrain data, water and vegetation systems, and man made features like transportation networks, land parcels, and built-up volumes. These data are represented in the three dimensions, and they are further linked with nongraphic attributes stored in an external database schemata. The architecture of the system under development has been described previously. In this paper, we focus on the generation of thematic abstractions. The working hypothesis for our current work is that (i) to enable reliable decision-making in urbandesign contexts, we require digital models that are complete and accurate at a certain degree of resolution, and (ii) during various stages in the decision-making, we need useful abstractionswhich encode only the salient information and no more. In more specific terms, we are interested in finding computational means to automatically generate schematic generalizations of data that succinctly represent some information without recomputing or displaying all the vectrs and other details. In this papar we present some of the strategies that we employ to support such operations in our system and also present graphic examples that demonstrate the potential andlimitations of our approach.
series DDSS
email dave@arch.ethz.ch, schmitt@erch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id b81d
authors Davies, C. and Harrison, J.
year 1996
title Osmose: Towards Broadening the Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
source ACM Computer Graphics: Virtual Reality Volume 30, Number 4
summary Osmose is an immersive virtual environment, produced by Softimage in 1994/95. One of the primary goals of Osmose was to push the expressive capabilities of existing 3D tools, to demonstrate that an alternative aesthetic and interactive sensibility is possible for real-time, interactive, 3D computer graphics. Osmose was created under the direction of Char Davies, the Director of Visual Research at Softimage. A former painter, as well as a creator of 3D computer graphic stills, Davies has a particular artistic vision which has driven the project. Davies has been striving for years to represent space as a luminous enveloping medium. This has led her from painting to 3D computer graphics, and finally into creating immersive virtual spaces. One of Davies' intentions for Osmose was to create a space that is "psychically innovating," one in which, to quote Bachelard, participants do not change "place," but change their own nature. Osmose was therefore designed to explore the potential of immersive virtual space to allow participants to shed their habitual ways of looking at (and behaving in) the world. By doing this, we hoped they would then emerge from the virtual world to experience the real world in a fresh way, reawakening a fundamental sense of their own "being-in-the-world." We hoped that this could be accomplished through the visual, aural and interactive aesthetic of the work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id cdd0
authors Day, A.
year 1994
title From Map to Model: the Development of an Urban Information System
source Design Studies, Vol 15 No 3, July 1994
summary The use of three-dimensional computer models for urban planning and design is discussed with particular reference to a recently completed model of the City of Bath. Problems in making such models generally available are identified and a solution, which is particularly appropriate for nonexpert users, is proposed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4f23
authors Dieberger, Andreas
year 1994
title Navigation in Spatial Information Environments: User Interface Design Issues for Hypertext and VR Systems Posters
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994
summary The Information City project (presented in a poster at Hypertext 93) uses the spatial user interface metaphor of a city to organize and navigate large collections of hypertextual information. As we are used to navigate real life cities the city metaphor -- enriched with magic features -- should help to navigate information structures. A first implementation of the Information City was started in a MUD system. MUDs are networked multi-user text-adventure games which usually make use of a house / city metaphor. MUDs are conceptually similar to hypertext systems and navigational findings in those systems are therefore relevant also to hypertext. While implementing the first parts of the city research into navigation in MUDs was found necessary. This poster presents some results of this navigational study and describes how knowledge in the domains of architecture and city-planning can be used to design an easy to navigate virtual city. Highlights of the results concern magic features and collaboration. Magic features extend the spatial metaphor beyond typical properties of space. An example is the hypertext link which allows tunneling through the spatial structure. Other results concern the richness of spaces (or space-descriptions) and communication between users. It seems the chief benefit of the spatial metaphor of the city is in communication about spatial relationships of information. The findings probably are valuable in designing any information system using spatial metaphors. They are especially useful for hypertext systems realized in some virtual environment -- be it a MUD or an immerse virtual reality system.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 27b5
authors Dießenbacher, Claus and Rank, Ernst
year 1995
title A Multimedia Archaeological Museum
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 13-20
summary This paper will present a project, which was first initiated in 1994 as a graduate students seminar and is now being continued as a research project in a cooperation of computer scientists, architects and archaeologists. An ancient roman city (Colonia Ulpia Traiana near todays Xanten in Germany) has been reconstructed, using various levels of abstraction. On the coarsest level, a 3D-model of the whole city was established, distinguishing between different historical periods of the city. The second level picks places of special interest (temples, the forum, the amphitheater, the townbaths etc.) and reconstructs these buildings or groups of buildings. On the finest level important interior parts or functional details like the Hypocaustae in the town-baths are modelled. All reconstructions are oriented as close as possible to results from excavations or other available documents. All levels of the 3D-model have been visualized using photorealistic images and sequences of video animations. The 3D model is integrated into a multimedia environment, augmenting the visualization elements with plans of the city and individual buildings and with text documents. It is intended, that parts of the outlined system will be available at the site of the ancient city, where today a large public archaeological park is located.
series eCAADe
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