CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 355

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9426
id ddss9426
authors Duijvestein, Kees
year 1994
title Integrated Design and Sustainable Building
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In the international student-project "European Environmental Campus 91 TU Delft Dordrecht" 20 students from 13 European countries worked in september 1991, during three weeks on "EcologicalSketches for the Island of Dordrecht". They worked on four different scales: the region isle of Dordt / the district Stadspolders / the neighbourhood I the house and the block. The environmentaltheme's Energy, Water, Traffic & Noise, Landscape & Soil were together with spatial analyses combined with the different scales. This combination was organised following the scheme mentioned below. The characters stand for the students. During the first period they worked in research groups, during the last period more in design groups. For instance: student L works in the beginning with the students B, G and Q in the research group water. In the last period sheworks with K, M, N and 0 in the design group Neighbourhood. Those students worked earlier in the other research-groups and contribute now in the design-group their thematic environmental knowledge. The results were presented to the Dordrecht council, officials and press. In the next project in september and october 1993 we started earlier with the design groups. Ten Dutch and ten "Erasmus" students worked for six weeks on proposals for the Vinex location Wateringenthe Hague. Each morning they worked in the research groups each afternoon in the design groups. The research groups used the EcoDesign Tools, small applications in Excel on Apple Macintoshto quantify the environmental pressure.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9415
id ddss9415
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title Innovative Expert Systems With Hypertextual User Interfaces: A Special Support for the Building Recovering Project
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper, first of all a short account on the peculiarity of knowledge in the domain of Architectural and Building Project, particularly in the Building Recovering Project is given. Thatmeans to focus the concept of "degree of authority" of different types of knowledge with regard to project: regulations; specialist literature having in practice the value of self-regulation; technical updating; exemplary design cases; warnings; analysis methods; heuristics; orientating references. Consequently, the different roles of two basic design & decision support systems, that is expert systems and hypertexts, are considered. The former seem to be quite fit for representing information and knowledge linked to a clear "authority", the one of experts in a certain domain; the latter seem to be quite fit for illustrating the interdisciplinary complexity, different historicinterpretations, various analogous references, and so on. Afterwards, the limits of expert systems based on the logic "true-false" are underlined, and the perspective of expert systems based on more sophisticated and appropriate rules and metarules is proposed. At last, the possible structure of such an innovative expert system, with a hypertextual interface, in the domain of Building Recovering Project is exemplified.
series DDSS
email wide@inacriai.criai.it
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id ddss9424
id ddss9424
authors Dave, Bharat and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1994
title Information Systems for Spatial Data
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes a continuing research project aimed at the development of a prototype information system to represent and manipulate models of urban settlements. This inter-disciplinaryproject involves researchers and teachers in the fields of urban design, photogrammetry and CAD. Based upon the requirements identified by the urban design team, the photogrammetry teamused aerial imagery to produce accurate digital models of various features of urban settlements. The models comprise natural features like terrain data, water and vegetation systems, and man made features like transportation networks, land parcels, and built-up volumes. These data are represented in the three dimensions, and they are further linked with nongraphic attributes stored in an external database schemata. The architecture of the system under development has been described previously. In this paper, we focus on the generation of thematic abstractions. The working hypothesis for our current work is that (i) to enable reliable decision-making in urbandesign contexts, we require digital models that are complete and accurate at a certain degree of resolution, and (ii) during various stages in the decision-making, we need useful abstractionswhich encode only the salient information and no more. In more specific terms, we are interested in finding computational means to automatically generate schematic generalizations of data that succinctly represent some information without recomputing or displaying all the vectrs and other details. In this papar we present some of the strategies that we employ to support such operations in our system and also present graphic examples that demonstrate the potential andlimitations of our approach.
series DDSS
email dave@arch.ethz.ch, schmitt@erch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id d7f4
authors Gross, M.D.
year 1994
title Roles for Computing in Schools of Architecture and Planning
source Journal of Architectural Education, Sep. 94, pp. 56-64
summary A successful effort to incorporate computing in a school of architecture and planning must satisfy varying student objectives and encompass a range of computing roles. This article reviews these roles and presents a case study of computing at the College of Architecture and Planning (formerly Environmental Design) at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Three categories of instruction make up the curriculum: Tool-using courses teach specific applications, tool-building courses focus on developing new design software, and design theory and methods courses provide rationale for specific computational approaches. Finally, strategies employed in developing this curriculum are discussed.
series journal paper
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9449
id ddss9449
authors Kendall, Stephen
year 1994
title Control of Parts: Identifying Patterns of Control in Production Chains
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary If we examine the stages of production of complex physical systems, we notice that parts change as they progress along a value chain. Parts are deformed, have parts removed, and are assembled and disassembled, in various sequences. In such processes, production operations (milling, cutting, aligning, attaching, and so on) are of particular interest, as are the sequences of production, since some operations and sequences have been found to be more efficient than others, lead to fewer mistakes and produce higher quality results. Research continues to be produced seeking to optimize production operations, sequences and product quality. The production operations we can observe in the making of artifacts are also of interest because they are by definition the result of action taken by certain agents. Parts are changed or controlled by human beings, employing their own hands or sophisticated machines. Today, we are used to making a distinction among agents involved in production: some agents specify what is to be made, and others make what is specified. One agent can do both, but specialization and division of labour has presented us with this distinction. This is now conventional, aside from whether it is "good" or not. The distinction is the basis for the interest in "concurrent design and production of products", the renewed focus on distribution and coordination of work in teams, and the related interest in understanding the dynamics of building systems in terms of the agents who control them. This paper focuses on the place certain kinds of agents take in complex production flows. Since production of parts is both a technical and a social enterprise, we will discover, when we look closely, complex webs of interactions which can be mapped, showing how agents relate to each other through the parts with which they are concerned. In examining the class of agents who control parts, we can see two patterns of control, termed DISPERSED PATTERNS and OVERLAPPING PATTERNS. These become palpable in a graphic diagramming tool, which is demonstrated in what follows. These diagrams also provide a means to consider the agents whose role is to specify what is to be made. The paper includes notes related studies in other fields.Finally, the paper suggests how this perspective can be useful, and several research topics based on it are sketched.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2647
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Sun and Time in the Built Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 248
summary At a time when requirements on the quality of the built environment are increasingly becoming explicit and specific, computer technology promises the ability to analyse and evaluate buildings during the design process. The computer can extract the necessary information from conventional geometric representations, generate comprehensive descriptions of the aspects to be analysed and use these to arrive at precise and accurate results that can be represented visually. Visual representations facilitate comprehension of the analyses and of their results because of their agreement with our predominantly visual perception of the built environment. The consequent close correspondences between geometric design representations and the visual representation of analyses and evaluations allow direct correlation of the results with the design as a whole. Such correlation is instrumental for imposing explicit and justifiable constraints on the further development of a design. One good example of visual analyses is daylighting. In many drafting and modelling programs a viewing point can be set on the basis the sun’s height and azimuth. The projection returned reveals the surfaces that are directly lit by the sun. In other programs the sun’s height and azimuth can be used to position a light source with parallel rays. This source gives rise to shading and shadows that correspond to the ones produced by the sun. In addition, several programs can calculate the position of the sun and hence the viewing point or the light source on the basis of the date, the time and the geographic coordinates of the place. The availability of computer-aided daylighting analysis has obvious advantages for practice. Efficiency and reliability of the analysis increase, while flexibility is superior to analog simulations. Unfortunately automation of daylighting analysis may also impede understanding of underlying principles, that is, of the issues at the focus of architectural education. Explaining how the analysis is performed and why becomes thus a necessity for computer-aided design education. Exercises that aim at more than just learning and using a computer program can enrich the student’s understanding of the analysis and its results. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer facilitate the study of aspects such as the comparison of local apparent time, local mean time, standard time and daylight saving time and their significance for daylighting, solar heating and cooling patterns and possibilities. Sundials with their explicit correspondence to solar movement can be instrumental in this respect. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer also support the investigation of the techniques by which the daylighting analysis is performed and explain the relationships between projective theory, sciagraphy and computer graphics. A better understanding of the principles and techniques for daylighting analysis has a generally positive influence on the students’ learning of the daylighting analysis software and more significantly on their correlation of daylighting constraints with their designs. This leads in turn to increased flexibility and adaptability of the designs with respect to daylighting and to a conscious and meaningful exploration of variations and alternative solutions.
series eCAADe
email A.Koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ab3c
authors Kramer, G.
year 1996
title Mapping a Single Data Stream to Multiple Auditory Variables: A Subjective Approach to Creating a Compelling Design
source Proceedings of the Third International Conferenceon Auditory Display, Santa FO Institute
summary Representing a single data variable changing in time via sonification, or using that data to control a sound in some way appears to be a simple problem but actually involves a significant degree of subjectivity. This paper is a response to my own focus on specific sonification tasks (Kramer 1990, 1993) (Fitch & Kramer, 1994), on broad theoretical concerns in auditory display (Kramer 1994a, 1994b, 1995), and on the representation of high-dimensional data sets (Kramer 1991a & Kramer & Ellison, 1991b). The design focus of this paper is partly a response to the others who, like myself, have primarily employed single fundamental acoustic variables such as pitch or loudness to represent single data streams. These simple representations have framed three challenges: Behavioral and Cognitive Science-Can sonifications created with complex sounds changing simultaneously in several dimensions facilitate the formation of a stronger internal auditory image, or audiation, than would be produced by simpler sonifications? Human Factors and Applications-Would such a stronger internal image of the data prove to be more useful from the standpoint of conveying information? Technology and Design-How might these richer displays be constructed? This final question serves as a starting point for this paper. After years of cautious sonification research I wanted to explore the creation of more interesting and compelling representations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4f13
authors Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1994
title A Brief History of CAAD in Italy
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 227
summary Twenty years of revolution, from the middle '70 to the middle '90. Many things have changed since the origins of computer graphics and computer aided design in architecture. We started teaching drafting on terminals which connected to mini computers, complex procedures or sets of graphics libraries working with keywords, vectors and storage screens. The next step was devoted to the discovery of workstations in the early '80's, where the user sat face on to the whole power of a multitasking system. At that time to use up to 16 time sharing processes running on the same work station seemed to have no practical use at all. Fortunately someone (ie Xerox PARC laboratories) at the same time started to develop the so-called GUI. Graphical user interface started a revolution in human/machine interface (ie Smalltalk). The desktop metaphor, the use of multiple windows and dialogues joined with icons and pop up menus let the user manage more applications and, even more important, created a standard in application/user interface (CUA). In the meantime focus had moved from hardware to software, systems being chosen from the software running. The true revolution we have seen starting from that base and involving an ever increasing number of users was the birth of PC based applications for CAAD. Generally speaking nowadays there are three main technologies concerning teaching: communication, multimedia and virtual reality. The first is the real base for future revolution. In the recent past we have started to learn how to manage information by computers. Now we can start to communicate and share information all over the world in real time. The new age opened by fax, followed by personal communication systems and networks is the entry point for a real revolution. We can work in the virtual office, meet in virtual space and cooperate in workgroups. ATM and ISDN based teleconferencing will provide a real working tool for many. The ever increasing number of e-mail addresses and network connections is carrying us towards the so called 'global village'. The future merger between personal digital assistant and personal communication will be fascinating. Multi & HyperMedia technology is, like a part of VR, a powerful way to share and transfer information in a structured form. We do not need to put things in a serial form removing links because we can transfer knowledge as is. Another interesting and fundamental aspect typical of VR applications is the capability to change cognitive processes from secondary (symbolic - reconstructive) to primary (perceptive - motory). In this way we can learn by direct experience, by experiment as opposed to reading books. All these things will affect not only ways of working but also ways of studying and teaching. Digital communications, multimedia and VR will help students, multimedia titles will provide different kinds of information directly at home using text, images, video clips and sounds. Obviously all those things will not substitute human relationship as a multimedia title does not compete against a book but it helps.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:15

_id aca9
authors Saund, E. and Moran, T.P.
year 1994
title A Perceptually- Supported Sketch Editor
source Proc. UIST 94, Marina del Rey, CA 175-184
summary The human visual system makes a great deal more of images than the elemental marks on a surface. In the course of viewing, creating, or editing a picture, we actively construct a host of visual structures and relationships as components of sensible interpretations. This paper shows how some of these computational processes can be incorporated into peneptuallysupported image editing tools, enabling machines to better engage users at the level of their own percepts. We focus on the domain of freehand sketch editors, such as an electronic whiteboard application for a pen-based computer. By using computer vision techniques to perform covert recognition of visual structure as it emerges during the course of a drawingkditing session, a perceptually supported image editor gives users access to visual objects as they are perceived by the human visual system. We present a flexible image interpretation architecture based on token grouping in a multiscale blackboard data structure. This organization supports multiple perceptual interpretations of line drawing data, domain-specific knowledge bases for interpretable visual structures, and gesture-based selection of visual objects. A system implementing these ideas, called Per-Sketch, begins to explore a new space of WYPIWYG (What Your Perceive Is What You Get) image editing tools.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 952f
authors Soloway, E., Guzdial, M. and Hay, K.
year 1994
title Learner-Centered Design: The Challenge for HCI in the 21st Century
source Interactions , no. April (1994): 36-48
summary In the 1980's a major transformation took place in the computing world: attention was finally being paid to making computers easier-to-use. You know the history: in the 1970's folks at Xerox were exploring so-called personal computers and developing graphical, point-and-click interfaces. The goal was to make using computers less cognitively taxing, there- by permitting the user to focus more mental cycles on getting the job done. For some time people had recognized that there would be benefits if users could interact with computers using visual cues and motor movements instead of testu- al/linguistic strings. However, computer cycles were costly; they could hardly be wasted on supporting a non-textual interface. There was barely enough zorch (i.e., computer power, measured in your favorite unit) to simply calculate the payroll.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id cd68
authors Szalapaj, Peter J. and Tang, Songlan
year 1994
title Giving Colour to Contextual Hypermedia
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 191-200
summary Design development evolves within design contexts that require expression as much as the design itself, and these contexts often constrain any presentation in ways that are not usually explicitly thought of. The context of a design object will therefore influence the conceptual ways of thinking about and presenting this object. Support in hypermedia applications for the expression of the colour context, therefore, should be based upon sound theoretical principles to ensure the effective communication of design ideas. Johannes Itten has postulated seven ways to communicate visual information by means of colour contrast effects, each of which is unique in character, artistic value, and symbolic effect. Of these seven contrasting effects, three are in terms of the nature of colour itself: hue, brightness, and saturation. Although conventional computer graphics applications support the application of these colour properties to discrete shapes, they give no analysis of contrasting colour relationships between shapes. The proposed system attempts to overcome this deficiency. The remaining four contrast effects concern human psychology and psychophysics, and are not supported at all in computer graphics applications. These include the cold-warm contrast, simultaneous contrast, complementary contrast, and the contrast of extension. Although contrast effects are divided into the above seven aspects, they are also related to one another. Thus, when the hue contrast works, the light-dark contrast and cold-warm contrast must work at the same time. Computational support for these colour effects form the focus of this paper.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:48

_id 0465
authors Szövényi-Lux, Miklós
year 1994
title Virtual Future!?
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 215
summary Architecture was born long, long ago with the help of those people who first realised that they are not only building houses but, what is more important, thrilling and has been the focus of many debates, creating space. In the beginning man created space by adding and combining different volumes of masses. They thought that space can be perceived as determined by different points of orientation placed around us. Later people started to realise that perception of space is a little bit more sophisticated. Perhaps everybody has smiled at a baby who standing up for the first time in his life in his playpen, extending his hands towards objects on the nearby table physically unreachable for him. If he was an adult, people would think perhaps something is wrong with him, when he extends his hands towards things we surely know are impossible to reach from his actual position. So how come we can judge with exactitude the place of different objects in space? Maybe by the time needed for the movement to get there. Let us not forget that the baby's first real movement is when he starts to walk and then he starts to get the feeling of this three dimensional world, around which can be only realised simultaneously in space and time. Anyone can say that this is an interesting theory, but who cares? It is said that most of the architects, who are real designers have a keen sense of creating and perceiving space. They are far more interested in the perfection of the created space with all its details than anything else. And here is where a CAD program can come into the picture. Talking about a real CAD program that means from the point of view of a designer, a silent friend who never cheats or boasts, who takes him in SPACE wherever he wants to go and shows him his CREATION as an extending arm between his imagination and the reality.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:09

_id ddss9493
id ddss9493
authors Teldenburg, J.A.F., Timmermans, H.J.P. and Borgers, A.W.J.
year 1994
title Design Tools in an Integrated Cad-Gis Environment: Space Syntax asan Example
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The focus of this paper is how to make good use of the possibilities offered by integrated CAD-GIS software. It addresses the problem of the difference in types of information required by urban designers and urban planners to perform their tasks. It is stated that there is an overlap in these types of information. Both planners and designers can benefit from the extension of information offered to them by the other party. Integrated CAD-GIS software facilitates the exchange of information. There is a need for implementation in the integrated CAD-GIS environment of a type of information that addresses designers and planners alike. The paper takes Space Syntax models as an example of such information.
series DDSS
email j.a.f.teklenburg@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9494
id ddss9494
authors Thomas, Tom and Saslaw, Karen L.
year 1994
title Post-Occupancy Evaluations: Research of New Initiatives in Health Care Facilities
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary American health care is undergoing an evolution of epic proportions and medical centres throughout the country are responding by restructuring the delivery of patient care services. Changes in professional staffing, technology and locations of services are just a few actions underway to create operationally efficient, more cost-effective institutions. Facility planning and design is equally challenged to present new facility models for these retooled medical centres. In 2025, American hospitals may bear little resemblance to the imposing medical structures which form this country's historical health facility reference points. This presentation will focus on the use of post-occupancy evaluations to improve innovation of health facility planning and design. We will discuss the use of post-occupancy evaluations to analyze the functional and environmental aspects of operational departmental areas, and the utilization of research conclusions to improve innovation and creativity in the design of new facilities. Ms. Saslaw, a health care administrator and planner, and Mr. Thomas, a health care architect and planner, will introduce the process issues of POE in design, and then present case studies and facility plans which demonstrate the value to new innovative environments. Specifically, individuals attending this session will: (i) understand the contemporary use of post-occupancy evaluations in facility planning and design; (ii) review several cases and discuss alternative facility responses derived from use of post-occupancy evaluations (iii) discuss the "Patient Focus Care" trend and the architects/planners response in improving health facility design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c4f8
authors Travis, D., Watson, T. and Atyeo, M.
year 1994
title Human Psychology in Virtual Environments
source Interacting with Virtual Environments. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester
summary The design of virtual environments can be approached profitably from the point of view of behavioural science. A review of current applications suggests that an early and continual focus on users-although widely accepted as vital in the design of these applications-is being ignored in favour of a focus on the technology. One example of this can be found in the use of immersion as a defining characteristic of virtual environments: this defining characteristic ignores the tasks that the user may wish to solve. By adopting user performance criteria in the design of virtual environments, we can be sure that the focus is placed on the user and the user's capabilities.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cbed
authors Yakubu, G.S.
year 1994
title Maximising the Benefits of CAD Systems in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 228
summary The positive impact of Computer Aided Design (CAD) in professional architectural practice has been in focus in recent times but relatively little has been written on its significance in the education of the contemporary architect. It is common knowledge that the profession of architecture is currently undergoing enormous strains as it battles to keep abreast of trends and developments in a period of series of rapid advancement in science, technology and management (RIBA, 1992). Whilst attempts are being made to redress the shortcomings of the profession in the above context, the requirements for architectural education are yet to forge a coherent strategy for the implementation of CAD/IT in the curriculum of schools of architecture. In almost every other field, including engineering, medicine and the humanities, computing application to problem-solving and decision-making is seen as a way forward as we move into 21st century. Architectural education must integrate CAD/IT into the teaching of core modules that give the architect distinctive competence: studio design. That is one of the best ways of doing justice to the education of the architect of today and the future. Some approaches to the teaching of CAD in schools of architecture have been touched upon in the recent past. Building upon this background as well as an understanding of the nature of design teaching/learning, this paper examines ways of maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education and of bringing computer aided designing into the studio not only to enhance design thinking and creativity but also to support interactive processes. In order to maximise or optimise any function, one approach is to use the hard systems methodology which utilises analytic, analogic and iconic models to show the effect of those factors which are significant for the purposes being considered. The other approach is to use the soft systems methodology in which the analysis encompasses the concept of a human activity system as a means of improving a situation. The use of soft systems methodology is considered more appropriate for dealing with the problem of design which is characterised by a flux of interacting events and ideas that unroll through time. The paper concludes that the main impediment to maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education is not only the inappropriate definition of the objectives for the implementation of CAD education but also that the control subsystems are usually ill-structured and relatively poorly defined. Schools must attempt to define a coherent and consistent policy on the use of CAD systems as an integral part of studio design and evolve an in-house strategic and operational controls that enable the set objectives to be met. Furthermore, it is necessary to support the high level of productivity from CAD systems with a more efficient management system, especially in dealing with communication, data sharing via relational database, co-ordination and integration. Finally, the use of soft systems methodology is recommended as the way forward to optimising CAD systems in design education as it would provide continuous improvements while maintaining their productive value.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:16

_id 6b44
id 6b44
authors Zimring, Craig and Ataman, Osman
year 1994
title Incorporating Guidelines Into a Case-Based Architectural Design Tool
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 87-101
summary This paper discusses an ongoing project called Archie, a collaboration between cognitive scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence and architecture, aimed at creating computer-based aids for conceptual design. Archie is a "case-based design aid" (CBDA): a tool that provides designers flexible access to evaluated examples of past experience that they can use in their own designs. Archie is a "clever" hypermedia database aimed at aiding conceptual design in architecture. It contains about 200 problems, responses, stories, and building descriptions derived from evaluations of six libraries and two courthouses. In this paper we provide a brief history and description of Archie and discuss some issues that have come into focus through developing and initially evaluating the system: how specific architectural case information can be organized; how users can be provided more general information about issues and building types; and how information can be indexed. In each of these we briefly discuss the current state of the system and propose some potential future directions.
series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2004/03/25 16:45

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