CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 342

_id 01ef
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title From Real to Virtual Building Behaviours: “Expert Hypertexts” in the Design Studio
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 243
summary Starting from the refuse of the most impressive, on fashion performances of the so called Virtual Reality, I hypothize for the architectural education of the next decade a strategy based on the following scenario: ()- as regards the form of the virtual studio, it should result from the synergy of many moments and opportunities: telematic interaction; students working at home; students training through assistant design tools in the university venue, with or without teachers’ supervision; informal discussion teachers-students about such training; traditional teachers’ lectures as introductions or resumes; (-) as regards the function of the virtual studio, it should realize the awareness of building behaviours, by teaching architectural design through the critical analysis of positive and - even more important - negative “precedents”.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ee50
authors Campioli, Andrea and Talamo, Cinzia
year 1994
title IPERTEC: Hypertext Information System for Dry-assembled Building Elements
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 239
summary The experience presented concerns the study of advanced information tools for design disciplines teaching. The objectives pursued are: on one hand self-teaching according to methods that go beyond traditional technical manuals and specialized texts and that give a systemic view of the strict connections between technological culture and design poetics; on the other hand assistance during design exercises as far as references assumption and deep analysis of technical and architectural topics are concerned. The result of the research is the information system Ipertec, a hypertext handbook with didactic purposes allowing students to approach executive techniques of dry assembly.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:24

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 45f0
authors Coleman, Kim
year 1994
title Synergism and Contingency: Design Collaboration with the Computer
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 209-217
summary The outcome of an architectural project is always contingent, dependent upon conditions or events that are not established at the outset. A university design studio does not easily replicate the state of flux which occurs as an architectural commission proceeds. In developing an architectural project, each new situation, whether it be a building code issue, an engineering issue, or a client reaction, must be viewed as an opportunity to further refine and develop the design rather than a hindrance to the outcome. In the design studio I describe in this paper, students test processes which attempt to take advantage of contingent conditions, opening up the design solutions to new possibilities. As a means to open up the design process to new possibilities, this studio introduces the computer as the primary tool for design exploration. Through the computer interface, the work speculates on the possibilities of synergism, defined as the actions of two or more substances or organisms to achieve an effect of which each is individually incapable.' Three synergetic conditions are explored: that between the designer and the computer, that between the designer with computer and designers of previous works of art or architecture, and that between two or more designers working together with the computer. The lack of a predictable result, one that may be obvious or superficial, is a positive byproduct of the synergetic and contingent circumstances under which the designs are developed.

series ACADIA
email kcoleman@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ddss9421
id ddss9421
authors Daru, Roel and Adams, Wim
year 1994
title Matchmaker: An Instrument for Matching Demand for and Supply of Buildings and Revealing Specific Discrepancies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary To match supply and demand of buildings, various approaches are possible. While artificial intelligenceis favoured by some, we think that a less 'heavy' approach can be more cost and time efficient. The casewe have chosen to exemplify our approach concerns architectural heritage. To match supply and demandwhile at the same time respecting the constraints imposed by cultural heritage, it is necessary to bringthem together and to effectuate feasibility studies in the shortest possible time. The feasibility study shouldbe served by tools allowing the various partners to communicate on the level of the match between them, translated in terms of spatial organisation and building constraints. In the past years, our designmorphology group has developed and tested a graphic-based reordering tool which has been applied to large governmental buildings, both existing and new. The same tool can be used for weighted objectives ranking and evaluation, to have a synthetic view of the combined basic preferences and differences of the involved parties as for example in a jury wise evaluation and ranking of alternative proposals. The proposed tool is the electronic and graphic version of the data and association matrices, which have been for a long time recommended for use in the preliminary phases of design. But as long as these instruments could only be drawn and redrawn on paper they were much too ineffectual and found little real application. The developed tool is connected by sub-routines to a computer aided design package, within which the spatial patterns are translated into plans and attached data bases. The matching takes place in a number of steps. The first is to describe the organisation (the demanding party) as functional units which can be made corresponding with spatial units. The prescription of spatial needs can take place in both quantitative and qualitative manners. The Matchmaker tools offer the possibility of interactive clustering of spatial needs. Another step, which can be taken concurrently, is to describe the monument in spatial units and distance relationships. The input can be generated directly within the matrix, but it is much easier, more self evident and realistic to generate this automatically from the draughted plan. The following step is the input of constraints originating from heritage preservation objectives, expressed in levels of authorised intervention. Again, the Matchmaker tools offer here the possibility of visual clustering of spatial units, their relationships and associated properties. In the next step, the matching takes place. In this step the actual positions, properties and constraints of existing spaces in the monument are compared (and visualised by discrepancies views) to the optimised and clustered spatial needs of the end user. In the following phase, the feasibility in terms of space, building fabric and costs can be appraised. Once a compromise has been attained, preliminary proposals can be designed and laid down in terms of drawings. The spatialdesigns can then again be translated into matrix views and evaluated.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 27b5
authors Dießenbacher, Claus and Rank, Ernst
year 1995
title A Multimedia Archaeological Museum
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 13-20
summary This paper will present a project, which was first initiated in 1994 as a graduate students seminar and is now being continued as a research project in a cooperation of computer scientists, architects and archaeologists. An ancient roman city (Colonia Ulpia Traiana near todays Xanten in Germany) has been reconstructed, using various levels of abstraction. On the coarsest level, a 3D-model of the whole city was established, distinguishing between different historical periods of the city. The second level picks places of special interest (temples, the forum, the amphitheater, the townbaths etc.) and reconstructs these buildings or groups of buildings. On the finest level important interior parts or functional details like the Hypocaustae in the town-baths are modelled. All reconstructions are oriented as close as possible to results from excavations or other available documents. All levels of the 3D-model have been visualized using photorealistic images and sequences of video animations. The 3D model is integrated into a multimedia environment, augmenting the visualization elements with plans of the city and individual buildings and with text documents. It is intended, that parts of the outlined system will be available at the site of the ancient city, where today a large public archaeological park is located.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_2.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:36

_id 6572
authors Fioravanti, A., Le Rose, L. and Sgueglia della Marra, C.
year 1994
title KAAD: A Didactical Experience
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 257
summary Students in the last year of their course in Building Engineering in the "La Sapienza" University of Rome study questions of architectural design of considerable complexity, since they are characterised by a marked degree of multi-disciplinary work. In the preceding years, the students acquire specialist notions in the fields of thermal behaviour of buildings, technological equipment, static security, architectural composition, programming and costs, technical and constructional details, and so on. However, there is a need for integration at design level of the disciplines learned. At the CAAD Laboratory of the Department of Technical Architecture and Town-planning Technique, with the contribution of the National Research Council, a software known as KAAD (Knowledge-based Assistant for Architectural Design) has been devised, with the aim of providing an effective aid to the activity of design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 14:18

_id 68c8
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R. and Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title SEED: A Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design
source Proceeding of IKM '94, Weimar, Germany, pp. 5-10
summary The SEED project intends to develop a software environment that supports the early phases in building design (Flemming et al., 1993). The goal is to provide support, in principle, for the preliminary design of buildings in all aspects that can gain from computer support. This includes using the computer not only for analysis and evaluation, but also more actively for the generation of designs, or more accurately, for the rapid generation of design representations. A major motivation for the development of SEED is to bring the results of two multi-generational research efforts focusing on `generative' design systems closer to practice: 1. LOOS/ABLOOS, a generative system for the synthesis of layouts of rectangles (Flemming et al., 1988; Flemming, 1989; Coyne and Flemming, 1990; Coyne, 1991); 2. GENESIS, a rule-based system that supports the generation of assemblies of 3-dimensional solids (Heisserman, 1991; Heisserman and Woodbury, 1993). The rapid generation of design representations can take advantage of special opportunities when it deals with a recurring building type, that is, a building type dealt with frequently by the users of the system. Design firms - from housing manufacturers to government agencies - accumulate considerable experience with recurring building types. But current CAD systems capture this experience and support its reuse only marginally. SEED intends to provide systematic support for the storing and retrieval of past solutions and their adaptation to similar problem situations. This motivation aligns aspects of SEED closely with current work in Artificial Intelligence that focuses on case-based design (see, for example, Kolodner, 1991; Domeshek and Kolodner, 1992; Hua et al., 1992).
series other
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0c35
authors Gavin, Lesley C.
year 1994
title The Integrated Teaching of CAAD in the School of Architecture at The Robert Gordon University
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 223
summary This paper discusses how the introduction to computers in architecture being integrated into the design studio can create a stimulating environment for the understanding of the fundamentals of computer aided design.
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddss9444
id ddss9444
authors Hill, Shauna and Streilein, André
year 1994
title Architectural Photogrammetry & Knowledge-Base Systems Record & Redevelopment
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In redevelopment projects, the purpose of heritage recording is part of an investigative process to achieve understanding about structures so that designers can make the appropriate design decisions. It is desirable to integrate the knowledge of the recording and documentation specialist, who has first-hand knowledge of the building, with the interpretative process of evaluating the building information and making design decisions. New developments in the fields of photogram-metric recording and computer science has led to improved "image understanding". This paper describes research that is the result of exploring the concept of integrating new digital photogram-metric recording processes with an automated expert evaluation tool. The goal of this research is to expedite the acquisition of heritage building information for use by a knowledge-based system capable of providing the designer with building performance evaluations. Photogrammetry records all data as a series of three-dimensional coordinates which make it a natural partner for today's three-dimensional CAD systems. Generating a three-dimensional model of architecturally significant physical forms and details can provide a basis for evaluation, understanding, education, and design. The purpose of knowledge-based systems in construction is to enhance the decision-making process with specialized knowledge and experience. The linkage of CAD databases with knowledge-based systems provides a source of input data, such as a three-dimensional model, significant to a particular problem. This research is a collaborative effort between two groups, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich Switzerland, and the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0726
authors Kadysz, Andrzej
year 1994
title CAD the Tool
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 212
summary What is the role of CAAD as a tool of architectural form creation ? We used to over-estimate the role of computer as significant factor of design process. In fact it serves only to produce technical documentation and to visualise designed buildings. We usually use CAAD to record ideas, not to create designs. We use it like more complex pencil. But it is unsuitable for conceptual design , with imperceptible influence on idea definition. Its practical usefulnes is limited. I would like to consider and find out reasons of that state, present some conclusions and ideas on computer aided architectural form creation. Many tools were invented to extend posibilities of human body or intellect. Microscop and telescop are extensions of human eye. Which organ is extended by computer (especially by CAAD)? CAAD with high developed function of visualising of the object beeing designed seems to be an extension of architect's imagination. It is beeing used to foresee visual efects, to check designed forms, to see something what we are not able to imagine. It performes the role of electronic modeler. Real model and virtual model - the medium of presentation is diferent but ways of using them are similar . Dislocation of place where we build model is not a big achievement, but potential possbilities of CAAD in modeling are almost unlimited (?). What are special features of CAAD as a modeling tool? First we have to consider what is indispensible when building a model: to embody idea. To do this we need space, substance and tools. In architectural design practice space is a real site with definite climate, neigbourhood, orientation. Substance that we shape is an archiectural form composed of many difrent elements: walls, windows, roof, entry, ... , proportions, rhythm, emotions, impresions... The tool is: our knowledge, imagination, talent, experience, norms, law and drawing equipment. Working with the computer, making virtual model, we have many of mentioned elements given in structure of CAAD program and interpreted by it. But many of them have different character. Making traditional dummy of building we operate on reality which is manually accessible. In case of computer model we operate on information. Space, substance and tool (- program) are informations, data. Human being is not an abstract data processor, but creature that lives non stop in close, direct, sensual contact with nature. By this contact with enviroment collects experiences. Computer can operate on digital data that is optionally selected and given by user, independent upon enviromental conditions. Usually architecture was created on basis of enviroment, climate, gravity. But these do not exist in CAAD programs or exist in the symbolic form. Character of these conditions is not obvious. We can watch demeanour of objects in gravity but it can be also antigravity. In theory of systems everything is considered as a part of biger system. In "virtual" reality (in computer space) we deal with accurences which are reduced to abstract level, free upon terms or connections. We work with our CAAD software using geometric space whithout any other principle.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:04

_id ddss9452
id ddss9452
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Recognition and Retrieval in Visual Architectural Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The development of visual architectural databases is heavily constrained by two technically, practically and conceptually intricate problems, input and retrieval. Input of visual images indifferent forms and from a variety of sources results into computer documents which can only be reproduced and disseminated. Any other use requires extensive annotation of the images with respect to indexing terms and other conceptual structures that make the images identifiable. The bulk of even modest visual databases and the complexity of the images and of the conceptual schemes means that interactive processing is labour-intensive and unreliable. Retrieval also relies on the same processes of annotation and indexing, which make possible the correlation of database contents with user queries. The paper presents the potential of automated recognition for inputting architectural floor plans into visual databases. An optically digitized image is segmented and each segment recognized as an instance of a building element (wall, door, window, etc.). The array ofrecognized elements is then controlled for recognition and segmentation errors. Further processing allows identification of spaces in the floor plan and of their interrelationships. The output of the process is a symbolic array that is much more compact than the original pixel array and also amenable to abstract and /or specific user queries, such as "How many doors are there in the floorplan" or "Which floor plans contain a double loaded corridor". These queries can be input verbally or graphically. Identification of building and spatial elements in a floor plan also allows use of vocabulary control in retrieval: user queries are checked against a thesaurus of architectural terms for accuracy and precision. The user is then presented with options for the improvement of the query before proceeding with identifying relevant entries in the database. Use ofvocabulary control as a search intermediary improves performance and reduces user frustration by making explicit the relevance of a query.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9455
id ddss9455
authors Kraria, H. and Bridges, Alan
year 1994
title Building Integration Tools for Collaborative Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary For many years, research in CAAD systems has been mostly oriented towards single environ-ments, thus restricting the designer to a static environment. In reality the activities of user designers constantly interact with other participants activities (i.e. a structural engineer, services engineer, etc.). For instance, the architect is heavily influenced by the nature of the structural engineering process. It defines the character and integration of the basic components in other words, design is a collaborative process carried out by several participants with a single overall objective. The separation of architectural and engineering aspects in building design has brought on isolated computer tools. These tools are not interchangeable, the situation demands for their integration, all the interaction are supported by the social aspect of members of group participa-ting in collaborating work. The benefits of sharing CAD tools and related data between all members of the design team are that everyone works on the same information, co-ordination is easier and more accurate, and there is a reduction in the amount of repetition, as the need to redraw information is eliminated. The result is an increase in the accuracy and speed of the production of drawings. The technological aspects to support collaborative work and in particular the interaction process in design, is the main work issue being carried out at Strathclyde University, Department of Architecture and Building Science, Glasgow, Scotland U.K.
series DDSS
email CCAV9O@VAXA.STRATH.AC.UK
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9456
id ddss9456
authors Kubiak, Bernard and Korowicki, Antoni
year 1994
title Identification And Analysis of the Recreational Behaviour Forms and the Needed Recreational Space Using the Integrated Spatial and Object-Oriented Gis: Concepts and Statements
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper is concerned with how to measure and investigate changes in the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space in Polish seaside recreational areas in last few years. Spatial information is an integral part of the identification and analysis of recreational behaviour and required recreational space. We postulate, therefore, that spatial information should be fully incorporated in integrated object-oriented GIS and Decision Support Technology. We argue in this paper that the existing theoretical approaches with their descriptive and technical basis do not offer directions for its application and evaluation. They do not seek to explain the processes undergone by spatial information, nor define appropriate data models. New approaches to GIS use object-oriented structures and expert systems concepts, and they will become increasingly helpful in understanding GIS. It is not unreasonable to expect that the most important issue is to use a data model or object-oriented models which closely represent the user's concept of the geographic object for representing spatial phenomena. We have discovered that most Polish users in this field are unable to collect the data they require directly. Thus they have to use methods and techniques, which cannot be found in GIS such as SWOT analysis. According to our experiences, the identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space should be defined as a system approach where: (i) recreational space requires an object, (ii) state of recreational space is defined by the set of values of recreational space features, and (iii) the utility of the recreational space is defined by a set of features. The identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour in the presented approach are based on the features/utilities matrix of the recreational space and the computer map. The development of such a system needs many organizational changes. It is shown that in many applications organizational rather than the technical aspects of GIS determine their future and open the way to new spatial analytical techniques.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2292
authors Kühn, Christian and Herzog, Marcus
year 1994
title On the Role of Hypermedia in Architectural Design Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 115-120
summary Teaching architectural design is not primarily concerned with presenting a body of knowledge analytically, but rather with influencing the way students act in a design situation. Previous design cases play an important part in this process, as they provide students with sets of objectives and corresponding solution patterns. Nevertheless, one of the main problems with using precedents in the design studio is that students take them rather as models to be copied than as starting points for their own research. To overcome this problem, the representation of design cases has to be improved. Our thesis is that in architectural design the structure of a case base of design precedents relies to a large extent on the various, and often conflicting, interpretations of precedents that are provided by architectural theory and discourse. Within a theory of design where exploration is the dominant strategy, we propose a method of using design cases and design theories in an integrated way. Through the use of hypermedia as a medium for representation of design cases, the process of looking for information can be based on the same metaphor as the design process itself.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:26

_id 2e74
authors Liebich, Thomas
year 1994
title Behind the Lines - Managing Semantically Rich Data in Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 253
summary Current CAD systems have inherent bottlenecks, which diminish possible achievements for architectural practices. Among these shortcomings there are two the paper will deal with. Firstly, traditional CAD relies on a pure geometric model. All non-geometric information about objects of architectural interest has to be attached to these geometric entities. This restricts the ability to describe semantically dependent relationships. Secondly, the integration of different design tools for building and construction is still at its very beginning. The data exchange remains restricted, since it is based on a fairly low semantic level of a document-based exchange of information, such as geometric representation in DXF or IGES, rather than on a high semantic level of a model-based exchange.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 14:16

_id ddss9463
id ddss9463
authors Lucardie, Larry
year 1994
title A Functional Framework For Conceptual Modelling
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary A conceptual model is not only indispensable for the design and implementation of knowledge based systems, but also for their validation, modification, maintenance and enhancement. Experience indicates, however, that in many cases reality is not well reflected in a full-fledged conceptual model. What is systematically lacking in the prevailing conceptualization methods is a well-developed theory of knowledge that underlies conceptualization methods: a theory that precedes the process of forming meaningful classifications and that precedes the specification of a conceptual model. To date, conceptualization methods are based on the probabilistic assumption that, in essence, all conditions necessary for creating a classification, are provided initially and can easily be revealed by utilizing mathematical measures of similarity. Another frequently occurring prototypical assumption is that for creating a classification, necessary conditions are sufficient. Furthermore, it is assumed that the categories of conditions are a priori fixed and unconditional. That conceptualizing takes place without any explicit background knowledge about goals of classifications and without contextual influences and that categorizations have an unconditional status are not viewed as problems. In contrast to these approaches, the functional view states that relevant descriptive attributes are not necessarily a priori given but should be acquired through knowledge about goals of classifications and about contexts. It is also asserted that an explicit concern for necessary conditions will not suffice for capturing the dynamics of reality. Furthermore, the functional view puts forward that a goal- and context-oriented strategy leads to the reconstruction of new attributes and categorizations with a dynamic status. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretic and practical merits of the functional view compared to the probabilistic and prototype approaches. Conceptual models developed in the Computer Integrated Manufacturing-Project will serve as illustrations for the main ideas.
series DDSS
email leg@bouw.tno.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id maver_097
id maver_097
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:01

_id maver_105
id maver_105
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:36

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