CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 342

_id 6b2b
authors Fenves, S. (et al.)
year 1994
title Concurrent computer-integrated building design
source New Jersey: Prentice Hall
summary This monograph assesses the means by which building design can be achieved in a more rapid and integrated fashion through the use of advanced computer aids.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f5fa
authors Fenves, S., Flemming, U., Hendrickson, C., Maher, M.L., Quadrel, R., Terk, M. and Woodbury, R.
year 1994
title Concurrent Computer-Aided Integrated Building Design
source Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ
summary This monograph assesses the means by which building design can be achieved in a more rapid and integrated fashion through the use of advanced computer aids.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 1262
authors Alshawi, M.
year 1994
title A run time exchange of component information between CAD and object models: A standard interface
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(2), pp. 37-52
summary Integrated computer aided design could only occur in engineering once CAD systems could represent physical features and components rather than graphical primitives. In most dedicated CAD systems, the knowledge of a complete component exists only for the duration of each drawing command and the data stored in the database is simply a set of graphic primitives. This paper proposes an approach for real time information transfer from and to CAD systems based on a high level object representation of the design drawing. Drawing components are automatically identified and represented in an object hierarchy that reflects the 'part-of' relation between the various components including building spaces. Such hierarchies transfer an industry standard CAD system i.e. AutoCAD, into a high level object oriented system that can communicate with external applications with relative ease.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called é─˙gingerbread housesé─¨, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id e751
id e751
authors Clayton, M.J., Kunz, J.C., Fischer, M.A. and Teicholz, P.
year 1994
title First Drawings, Then Semantics
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 13-26
summary The Semantic Modeling Extension (SME) prototype implements a unique approach to integrated architectural CAD that places the drawing act first in the design process. After drawing a design idea using a computer graphic system, the designer interprets the design, providing semantic content to the graphic entities. An interpretation expresses the meaning of the design with respect to a particular issue, such as structural sufficiency, energy consumption, or requirements for egress, and provides reasoning to evaluate the design addressing that issue. A design may have many interpretations to express the multiple issues that are relevant in a design project. The designer may add or delete interpretations of the design as issues change during the course of the project. Underlying the SME prototype are the concepts of form, function and behavior. In the prototype, evaluation of a design is done by deriving behavior from the graphically represented forms and relating the behavior to stated functions or requirements. The concepts of interpretations and form, function and behavior together establish a virtual product model for design. In contrast to component based approaches to product modeling that tightly bind form representations to their behavior and function, a virtual product model allows the designer to manipulate the relations among these three descriptors of a design, and thus manipulate the semantics of the design entities. By distinguishing between the act of proposing a design by drawing the conceived form and the act of assigning meaning to the form, the virtual product model approach supports both graphic thinking for design synthesis and symbolic reasoning for design evaluation. This paper presents a scenario of the use of the SME prototype in building design; provides an analysis of the design process and computational support described in the scenario; contrasts a virtual product model approach with a component-oriented product model approach; describes the software implementation of SME; and presents implications and conclusions regarding design process and technical integration.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2003/12/06 07:49

_id 0380
authors Fenves, S., Flemming, U., Hendrickson, C., Maher, M., Quadrel, R., Terk, M. and Woodbury, R.
year 1994
title Computer Integrated Building Design
source Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New jersey
summary A guide to the principles and applications of computer integrated systems as applied to construction management. Computer-Integrated Building covers the fundamentals of construction project management, the design process for production and opportunities for CAD-integration.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9442
id ddss9442
authors Hensen, Jan
year 1994
title Energy Related Design Decisions Deserve Simulation Approach
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Building energy consumption and indoor climate result from complex dynamic thermal interactions between outdoor environment, building structure, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and occupants. Apart from a few trivial relations, this reality is too complicated to be casted in simple expressions, rules or graphs. As shown in a previous paper, there are now tools available - in the form of computer simulation systems - which treat the building and plant as an integrated, dynamic system. It is argued that these can and should be used in the context of design decision support and design evaluation related to thermal energy. The paper will give ageneral overview of building energy design tools which range from simplified design tools (SDT's) to comprehensive modelling and simulation systems. It will be demonstrated why SDT's are very limited in scope and range of applicability. With respect to building energy simulation the paper will compare simplified models with comprehensive models in terms of ressource needs, applicability etc. In view of the risk involved when using SDT┤s or simplified models, the paper strongly promotes the use of comprehensive tools in combination with emerging intelligent front ends. The message ofthe paper will be: let the machine do the work.
series DDSS
email jan@csru.strathclyde.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9447
id ddss9447
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1994
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer Supported Collaborative Design System
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of specific rules and grammars. Yet, there is a general consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still cannot support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. Thus, if CAAD is to ultimately benefit the design process, it must (1) emulate and support the design team approach to architectural problem solving and (2) be deployed in the earliest possible stages of the design process. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the interaction between a set of requirements (the building program) and the architectural solution that satisfies them (the schematic design). The core of this interaction forms the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modelling (based on the NIAM notation), object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on a literature survey and earlier findings on the role of artifacts in collaborative design, this paper outlines the requirements for the above system and reports on initial experiments. Thus, it constitutes the first stage of a research project that will lead to a full implementation of a distributed collaborative computer environment addressing the above issues.
series DDSS
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2008/06/12 14:32

_id a43d
authors Kim, Inhan
year 1994
title Unified Data Organization and Management in an Integrated Design Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 254
summary The architectural design process is very complex and it is not easily confined to a single design environment. As the design process gets more complex due to the technological advances in building materials and construction methods, an integrated design system becomes a central design issue. To have an integrated design system, all applications should be integrated in a unified environment within which there should be a data structure to facilitate an effective data communication among the various design stages and data control facility to seamlessly connect all these applications. A primary purpose of this work is to suggest an object oriented architectural design environment for the essential part of the seamless environment for designing a building. Within the object-oriented design environment, a unified data model and detailed data control module have been implemented to seamlessly connect all these applications. The unified data model organizes the structure of the design data to keep the design consistent throughout the design and construction process. It also helps to do effective data communication among the various design stages to ensure quality and time saving in the final construction of the building. The data management module supports the consistent and easy mechanisms in controlling the data representation through the inter-connected modules. It is also responsible for creating, maintaining, and viewing a consistent database of the design description. In the suggested design environment, each architectural element partially describes the model and individual elements are aggregated hierarchically. Some parts of the projection are defined and other can be inherited from above. Also, creation of an improved or new design element can easily be accommodated in the environment. The integrated database in the suggested environment is the basis by which design data can be shared among the design tools of the design environment. The database organizes the design description within each representation, correlates equivalent descriptions across the representations, and attempts to maintain these correspondences as the design incrementally evolves.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 14:16

_id a743
authors Laing, L. and Kraria, H.
year 1994
title CAD as an Interface for Integrated Collaborative Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 235
summary In the traditional approach to building design, the designer (usually the architect) produces a design (often quite detailed)in blueprint before handing this to the next member of the design team (engineer) to superimpose the structure, services etc. Often this proves so impractical that the initial proposal has to be referred back to the architect for revision, and the process repeated - and this cycle may be repeated many times. Such routines arise in building design because designers find collaboration among themselves difficult to control, the task of design integration ultimately falling upon the construction manager or the contractor. This is the most common cause of problems arising during the execution of the project on site, causing a delays in the construction process, and building failures which might only be detected after occupancy. As a test-bed for addressing this problem, a system of coordinated files is proposed for use by design-students (with a working knowledge of AutoCAD) during a design project. The aim is to related data (CAD information) across all students working on the same project but developing different aspects. Participating students will be drawn from a range of design specialisms. Each member accessing the same information while developing different aspects (e.g. structure, services, and cost modelling). This goes beyond the conventional use of 'XREF' (cross-referenced drawings) and involves each member accessing and working with the same dataset - e.g. using different layers, co-ordination is easier and the data better integrated - there is thereby a reduction of the amount of repetition as the need to redraw information is eliminated. References or an initial data-set is set up by the tutor and available for reference at any stage of design project. The technological aspects to support collaborative work (and in particular the interaction process in design) is the main thrust of the undergraduate degree in Building Design Engineering at the University of Strathclyde.

series eCAADe
email ccas17@uk.ac.strath
last changed 1998/09/14 08:21

_id ddss9464
id ddss9464
authors McCartney, Kevin and Ismail, Ashraf Lotfy R. M.
year 1994
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Supplementary Planning Guidance and Local Planning Policies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are being designed in order to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; with regards to building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. The measures to determine proper evaluation will be based upon site-development briefs, and design guides produced by the local planning authorities. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. It will also provide many functions for editing two and three dimensional drawings specifically for the environmental analysis tasks. In addition to the common graphical output of Aut0CAD; i.e. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, the tool will generate textual analysis of the design in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Statement of proposed development. The speculative tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out tailor-made for architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of materials for environmental statements. Second, field observation will be carried out to observe the concerned professionals as decision-makers while assessing building design proposals. A prototype will be designed and then tested against the expectations of the tool designer, then the tool performance will be evaluated by a team of professionals participated in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the concluding study findings will be documented as part of a postgraduate research thesis to be completed in June 1995.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9480
id ddss9480
authors Schipper, Roel and Augenbroe, Godfried
year 1994
title An Information Model of Energy Performance in Early Building Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Design is a creative and dynamic process. The level to which a future generation of Intelligent Integrated Building Design Systems will be able to support this process depends on the power of the underlying conceptual models to cover the semantics of design. In the definition of generic building models, the concept of constraints appears to be a powerful means to formalize those semantics. Both design performance goals, and rules and relations in design composition can be described as constraints. The Engineering Data Model (EDM), recently developed at UCLA, acknowledges this fact. It allows the formal definition of object oriented building models, using constraints as the central concept for describing relations. This paper will discuss the development of an EDM building model for the integrated design for energy performance, and the implementa-tion of this model in a small prototype system. We will specifically deal with modelling informati-on in the early design stages. This information typically consists of multiple global design alternatives on one hand, and a wide range of conflicting design goals on the other hand. In the paper, it is demonstrated that integration of these conflicting views on building performance in one coherent model is the key to obtaining an optimal design result. Using the Dutch building codes for energy performance (NEN 2916) as an example of design goals, the concepts and relations of these building codes were translated to a formal EDM model. A small shell was built on top of this computer-interpretable model, to demonstrate the useability of the model during the solving of a concrete design problem. It is shown that the EDM building model is able to provide the designer with integrated information through combining different sets of performance constraints and design alternatives in one environment.
series DDSS
email roel@dutct05.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9492
id ddss9492
authors Tae, Won Jin
year 1994
title A Visualization Model for External Shading Devices Performance at the Early Design Stage
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Windows are used for the visual connection between indoors and outdoors, ventilation and daylight of our interiors and for the reduction of our heating energy through solar energy utilization. This solar energy, however, is often so intense that counter measures should be taken in order to maintain comfortable indoor conditions. Air conditioning is one counteraction. In order to reduce the cooling loads, it is highly recommended to use shading devices. When shading devices are applied in combination with the glass they can modify the thermal effect of windows to a very great extent. The most effective shading devices are exterior types such as overhang, fins and exterior venetian blind. The effectiveness of an external shading device depends on its geometry, sun path, and the orientation of the building. These factors are interrelated dynamically, it is extremely difficult to predict intuitively how the shadow is cast by the external shading device on the window. Due to the inherent complexity of calculation for shadow casting, building designers to fail often integrate them into energy-efficient building design. Since computer graphics can be a powerful visual communication tool, the above problem might be solved through a computerized graphical interface in the early design stage. The research described in this paper involves the development of a computer program which aims the following objectives: (1) to facilitate the description of a external shading device's geometry through an integrated graphic input model, (ii) to simulate the relationship of external shading devices and shadows based on sun path, the orientation of building, (iii) to visualize the shadow casting by shading devices, and (iv) to provide designers with possible solutions to create energy-efficient external shading device for a specific building.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9429
id ddss9429
authors Geerling, Heinrich
year 1994
title A Proposal for a Framework for Business Re-engineering in Design and Realization of Artificial Environments
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary According to the Top-Down design process', this paper gives a generic and qualitative description of a Concurrent Engineering Environment, that should support the problem solving procedure in town planning and architecture in a modern quality oriented society. A system that is based on the principal of democracy might guarantee the preservation of quality in the projection and realization of artificial environments. This environment can be seen as a part of the today often discussed "digital democracy", which practically is based on a infrastructure of computers, interfaces, software systems, a network, databases and a data presentation, that is able to comprise the expectations of professionals involved in the architecture and town planning process. The paper will discuss what the role of the designer and coordinator of this computer environment looks like,in order to design, plan, build and coordinate activities for the realization of this Concurrent Environment and how several software engineers work concurrently to develop tools that guarantee a modular integration. The backbone of this environment is the definition and use of standards for data exchange. Basically those standards are derived from two domains: artifacts will be described in a product model data, while natural resources are described in spatial data. Town planning has to integrate both models. It will be discussed briefly how far the data modelling language EXPRESS of part 11 of the ISO 10303 (Express Language Reference Manual) might be useful to model GIS related problems. An example will describe how a scenario of activities, from registration of real world data to recognition of requirements of society, the definition of development plans through design(competition), lawfulness checking and construction until demolition should look like.
series DDSS
email gee@cim.pe.u-tokyo.ac.jp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9449
id ddss9449
authors Kendall, Stephen
year 1994
title Control of Parts: Identifying Patterns of Control in Production Chains
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary If we examine the stages of production of complex physical systems, we notice that parts change as they progress along a value chain. Parts are deformed, have parts removed, and are assembled and disassembled, in various sequences. In such processes, production operations (milling, cutting, aligning, attaching, and so on) are of particular interest, as are the sequences of production, since some operations and sequences have been found to be more efficient than others, lead to fewer mistakes and produce higher quality results. Research continues to be produced seeking to optimize production operations, sequences and product quality. The production operations we can observe in the making of artifacts are also of interest because they are by definition the result of action taken by certain agents. Parts are changed or controlled by human beings, employing their own hands or sophisticated machines. Today, we are used to making a distinction among agents involved in production: some agents specify what is to be made, and others make what is specified. One agent can do both, but specialization and division of labour has presented us with this distinction. This is now conventional, aside from whether it is "good" or not. The distinction is the basis for the interest in "concurrent design and production of products", the renewed focus on distribution and coordination of work in teams, and the related interest in understanding the dynamics of building systems in terms of the agents who control them. This paper focuses on the place certain kinds of agents take in complex production flows. Since production of parts is both a technical and a social enterprise, we will discover, when we look closely, complex webs of interactions which can be mapped, showing how agents relate to each other through the parts with which they are concerned. In examining the class of agents who control parts, we can see two patterns of control, termed DISPERSED PATTERNS and OVERLAPPING PATTERNS. These become palpable in a graphic diagramming tool, which is demonstrated in what follows. These diagrams also provide a means to consider the agents whose role is to specify what is to be made. The paper includes notes related studies in other fields.Finally, the paper suggests how this perspective can be useful, and several research topics based on it are sketched.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id diss_kuo
id diss_kuo
authors Kuo, C.J.
year 1999
title Unsupervised Dynamic Concurrent Computer-Aided Design Assistant
source Los Angeles: UCLA
summary The increasing capability of computer-aided architectural design systems has strengthened the role that the computer plays in the workplace. Due to the complexity of developing new techniques and research, these systems are undertaken mostly by scientists and engineers without significant architectural input (Willey, 1991). The design concept of these systems may be based on a well-defined and well-understood process, which is not yet realized in architectural design (Galle, 1994). The output of such research may not be easily adapted into the design process. Most of the techniques assume a complete understanding of the design space (Gero and Maher, 1987) (Willey, 1991). The description or construction of the design space is always time and space consuming, and the result can never be complete due to the ever-changing nature of architectural design. This research intends to initiate a solution for the above problems. The proposed system is an unsupervised-dynamic-concurrent-computer-aided-design assistant. The “unsupervised” means the learning process is not supervised by the user because it is against the designer's nature to “think-aloud” in the design studio and it also increases the work load. It is dynamic because the size of the knowledge base is constantly changing. Concurrent means that there are multiple procedures active simultaneously. This research focuses on learning the operational knowledge from an individual designer and reapplying it in future designs. A computer system for this experiment is constructed. It is capable of The preliminary result shows a positive feedback from test subjects. The purpose of this research is to suggest a potent computational frame within which future developments may flourish.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/28 06:37

_id ddss9459
id ddss9459
authors Langelaan, Willem
year 1994
title Sequential and Concurrent Cad Layering
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Most CAD software allows graphical and text objects to be grouped into layers. There are two fundamentally different methods for layering: sequential layering and concurrent layering. With sequential layering, layers are attributes of the CAD database and objects are attributes of a layer. With concurrent layering, objects are attributes of the CAD database and a layer is an attribute of an object. Sequential layering emulates the pinbar drafting technique. As a result, it is output oriented. Only one layer at a time can be edited. Concurrent layering is uniquely a computer based layering method which has no manual equivalent. User specified sets of layers can be edited concurrently. It makes it possible to organize the infrastructure of the CAD database which equally facilitates input, i.e. editing design information, and output, i.e. presenting construction information on paper. Specification levels are related to design levels and to construction phases. Specification levels can serve as interfaces between input and output. In particular, a concurrently layered CAD database can be structured in layers which conform to specification levels. Furthermore, the layers can be subdivided by sub-system such as construction discipline, and by partial-system such as room finish schedules. It is demonstrated how a concurrently layered environment for computer aided design can be developed which permits deductive and inductive design activities. The appendix provides a detailed example of a concurrently layered CAD file with a default input and output environment of layers and layer groups. The environment was developed to coordinate the design and production activities of an architectural practice. The connections between layers and layer groups are illustrated in a 22 x 32 matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e807
authors Anadol, Z., and Akin, O.
year 1994
title Determining the impact of cad drafting tools on the building delivery process
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(1), pp.1-8
summary Computer aided design is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. at a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. to test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. we compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. we found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 065b
authors Beitia, S.S., Zulueta, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1995
title The Virtual Cathedral - An Essay about CAAD, History and Structure
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 355-360
summary The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_43.htm
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