CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 351

_id ddss9464
id ddss9464
authors McCartney, Kevin and Ismail, Ashraf Lotfy R. M.
year 1994
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Supplementary Planning Guidance and Local Planning Policies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are being designed in order to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; with regards to building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. The measures to determine proper evaluation will be based upon site-development briefs, and design guides produced by the local planning authorities. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. It will also provide many functions for editing two and three dimensional drawings specifically for the environmental analysis tasks. In addition to the common graphical output of Aut0CAD; i.e. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, the tool will generate textual analysis of the design in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Statement of proposed development. The speculative tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out tailor-made for architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of materials for environmental statements. Second, field observation will be carried out to observe the concerned professionals as decision-makers while assessing building design proposals. A prototype will be designed and then tested against the expectations of the tool designer, then the tool performance will be evaluated by a team of professionals participated in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the concluding study findings will be documented as part of a postgraduate research thesis to be completed in June 1995.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c239
authors Kensek, Karen M. and Noble, Douglas E.
year 1994
title Student Initiated Computer Explorations in the Design Studio
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 187-194
summary Many schools of architecture have been attempting to integrate computer applications into their curriculum. This paper will briefly discuss computer-aided design courses that are offered at USC, courses that are similar to those being offered at many universities, and then describe three exceptional cases where the student initiated the use of the computer in a way that was unexpected and different from the methods being taught. A result of conscious deliberation by the student, this experimentation resulted in unexpected discoveries by the instructors of the course. It is this digital serendipity that we wish to explore and discuss. Only occasionally do we hear much about these explorations in formal proceedings and conferences, but they are some of the most intriguing and interesting aspects of computer integration in design.
series ACADIA
email kensek@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ddss9421
id ddss9421
authors Daru, Roel and Adams, Wim
year 1994
title Matchmaker: An Instrument for Matching Demand for and Supply of Buildings and Revealing Specific Discrepancies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary To match supply and demand of buildings, various approaches are possible. While artificial intelligenceis favoured by some, we think that a less 'heavy' approach can be more cost and time efficient. The casewe have chosen to exemplify our approach concerns architectural heritage. To match supply and demandwhile at the same time respecting the constraints imposed by cultural heritage, it is necessary to bringthem together and to effectuate feasibility studies in the shortest possible time. The feasibility study shouldbe served by tools allowing the various partners to communicate on the level of the match between them, translated in terms of spatial organisation and building constraints. In the past years, our designmorphology group has developed and tested a graphic-based reordering tool which has been applied to large governmental buildings, both existing and new. The same tool can be used for weighted objectives ranking and evaluation, to have a synthetic view of the combined basic preferences and differences of the involved parties as for example in a jury wise evaluation and ranking of alternative proposals. The proposed tool is the electronic and graphic version of the data and association matrices, which have been for a long time recommended for use in the preliminary phases of design. But as long as these instruments could only be drawn and redrawn on paper they were much too ineffectual and found little real application. The developed tool is connected by sub-routines to a computer aided design package, within which the spatial patterns are translated into plans and attached data bases. The matching takes place in a number of steps. The first is to describe the organisation (the demanding party) as functional units which can be made corresponding with spatial units. The prescription of spatial needs can take place in both quantitative and qualitative manners. The Matchmaker tools offer the possibility of interactive clustering of spatial needs. Another step, which can be taken concurrently, is to describe the monument in spatial units and distance relationships. The input can be generated directly within the matrix, but it is much easier, more self evident and realistic to generate this automatically from the draughted plan. The following step is the input of constraints originating from heritage preservation objectives, expressed in levels of authorised intervention. Again, the Matchmaker tools offer here the possibility of visual clustering of spatial units, their relationships and associated properties. In the next step, the matching takes place. In this step the actual positions, properties and constraints of existing spaces in the monument are compared (and visualised by discrepancies views) to the optimised and clustered spatial needs of the end user. In the following phase, the feasibility in terms of space, building fabric and costs can be appraised. Once a compromise has been attained, preliminary proposals can be designed and laid down in terms of drawings. The spatialdesigns can then again be translated into matrix views and evaluated.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 64c5
authors De Mesa, A., Monedero, J., Redondo, E. and Regot, J.
year 1994
title From Image Space to Model Space and Back Again
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 60-68
summary The paper describes in detail a process of work consisting of merging a virtual model into a real image. This process implies three different kinds of operations: geometric restoration of the real scene, in 3D, from a photograph, rendering a virtual model under similar conditions as the photograph, and merging of the rendered image with the original image. The paper empasises quality and visual precision of results together with a semiautomatization of the entire process. It also refers critically these three different groups of operations to their theoretical background. It concludes with an evaluation of the work from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of a general design methodology.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:21

_id 211f
authors Giangrande, A., Marinelli, A.M. and Sansoni, C.
year 1994
title A CAAD Based Method for Designing Industrial Plants in Sensitive Landscapes
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 75-83
summary The protection and management of the visual landscape require new conceptual and operative tools to better link (integrate) the creative and the evaluation phases of the design process. These tools should aid the designer to take into account and evaluate the visual impact of a new project from the early steps of the process: that is the same as saying that we have to upset the logic of EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), a procedure that usually is applied when the project is finished or is coming to an end. This paper illustrates the first results of a research that aims to produce a system to aid the designer of buildings or infrastructures — industry plants, transport systems, etc. — that could generate a strong impact on the surrounding landscape. To this end we applied some methods and techniques which was worked out in scientific fields that have developed a lot in the late years: MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Aid) and CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design). The paper describes a software prototype to aid design of industrial installations for the early design phases.

series eCAADe
email c.sansoni@archiworld.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddss9444
id ddss9444
authors Hill, Shauna and Streilein, André
year 1994
title Architectural Photogrammetry & Knowledge-Base Systems Record & Redevelopment
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In redevelopment projects, the purpose of heritage recording is part of an investigative process to achieve understanding about structures so that designers can make the appropriate design decisions. It is desirable to integrate the knowledge of the recording and documentation specialist, who has first-hand knowledge of the building, with the interpretative process of evaluating the building information and making design decisions. New developments in the fields of photogram-metric recording and computer science has led to improved "image understanding". This paper describes research that is the result of exploring the concept of integrating new digital photogram-metric recording processes with an automated expert evaluation tool. The goal of this research is to expedite the acquisition of heritage building information for use by a knowledge-based system capable of providing the designer with building performance evaluations. Photogrammetry records all data as a series of three-dimensional coordinates which make it a natural partner for today's three-dimensional CAD systems. Generating a three-dimensional model of architecturally significant physical forms and details can provide a basis for evaluation, understanding, education, and design. The purpose of knowledge-based systems in construction is to enhance the decision-making process with specialized knowledge and experience. The linkage of CAD databases with knowledge-based systems provides a source of input data, such as a three-dimensional model, significant to a particular problem. This research is a collaborative effort between two groups, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich Switzerland, and the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id maver_074
id maver_074
authors Rutherford, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Knowledge Based Design Support
source Automation in Design, Vol 3, Nos 2-3, 187-202
summary In 1971 the Architects' Journal featured a paper entitled PACE 1: Computer Aided Building Appraisal. The software known as PACE (Package for Architectural Computer Evaluation), initially developed on the Systemshare time-sharing system accessed on-line from a teletype terminal over the ordinary voice grade telephone network, has, in concept at least, survived the subsequent 22 years and remains to this day a crucial aid in the teaching of architectural design in the University of Strathclyde's Department of Architecture and Building Science.
series journal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:03

_id maver_073
id maver_073
authors Rutherford, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Knowledge Based Design Support
source Knowledge Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design (Ed. G Carrara and Y Kalay), Elsevier, 243-268
summary In 1971 the Architects' Journal featured a paper entitled PACE 1: Computer Aided Building Appraisal. The softwareknown as PACE (Package for Architectural Computer Evaluation), initially developed on the Systemshare time-sharing system accessed on- line from a teletype terminal over the ordinary voice grade telephone network, has, in concept at least, survived the subsequent 22 years and remains to this day a crucial aid in the teaching of architectural design in the University of Strathclyde's Department of Architecture and Building Science.
series other
type normal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2015/02/20 10:39

_id 89a8
authors Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1994
title Virtual Reality in Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 244
summary This short presentation will describe the application of a Virtual Reality system for the architectural design process. This is based on the results of research into 6 technology and in particular on the possibilities of a natural interface between a designer and a design system. This description is also based on the development of a laboratory setup for a “fully immersive” (all-round representation) and a “partially immersive” (stereo representation) 6 application. This application offers a designer the possibility of modify-ing and assessing a 3D design model in “Virtual Reality” This presentation is mainly based on the use of Virtual Reality in the course of several case studies. One of these case studies was the making of a presenta-tion of a design to possibly interested parties. The other case study was the use of Virtual Reality in the course of a design process. Finally this publication includes the description of some future and anticipated developments. The research problem is mainly posed by the questions regarding the ways in which the design process changes under the influence of, amongst other factors, the 6 technology. Other questions concern the ways in which the interface between a designer and a design system can be made as natural as possible, the way in which a design model can be made as autonomous as possible, and the way in which a representation can be made as realistic as possible. With regard to these the starting points were respectively the use of sensors, behaviour characteristics and illumination simulations. The development problem is posed by the question regarding the way in which a laboratory setup, in cooperation with a supplier of hardware (Sun Microsystems Nederland BV) and a supplier of software (Autodesk Benelux BV), can be developed. In order to do this use has to be made of their system components, such as workstations and CAD software. Another problem for the development of the laboratory setup is the way in which the project was to be made to lead to presentations and demonstra-tions of 6 technology which was still not yet generally available. The first case study was the development of a 6 presentation of a housing project. This presentation was in the first instance intended for people who had an interest in the project. In addition, naturally, people who really only had an interest in Virtual Reality itself also attended. The presentation was announced as being a first Virtual Open House. Each interested party could wander through the 3D design model and move the furniture. In the course of this case study consideration was above all given to the relationships between the interfaces between the user and the system, the level of detail of the model and the speed of the representation. The second case study was the use of Virtual Reality during a design process. The system is used for the evaluation of visibility and safety aspects of another housing project. The use of the system was initially only intended for the designer and the principal. At the end of the process different design modifications were effected in accordance with their evaluations of the design. After that the system was also used for internal presentations of the applications as well as of the technology. The problem which played a role in the course of these studies was in the first instance a design problem and in the second in-stance a technical problem.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 14:12

_id dda4
authors Yezioro, Abraham
year 1994
title Form and Performance in Intelligent CAAD Systems for Early Stages in Solar Design Building
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary Great care should be taken at the initial design stages to determine the principles and solution schemes for climate and energy-conscious buildings. The present study deals with supporting the designer's efforts at the early stages to lay down the appropriate principles for a conceptual and geometric design of energy-preserving buildings, which are also thermally comfortable and adapted to local climatic conditions. For years, especially during the last decade, important data concerning climate-conscious construction has been compiled, but the information has not been utilized by designers, due to its inaccessibility. It is significant, though, that solutions based on this knowledge could be found and assessed at the preliminary design steps. A correct climate-conscious design conceived at the initial stages may guarantee that during later phases of the project's development no problems calling for essential and drastic changes in the basic design will crop up. The meaning of such changes at later stages may require sometimes a redesigning of the entire project. It is vital, therefore, to understand at the pre-conceptual phase, what are the correct climatic-solar design strategies which satisfy the requirements of the local conditions, and enable the attainment of thermal comfort conditions, while consuming the least possible energy. The present study proposes a computer-aided passive solar design system (PASYS) which enables the handling of entire designing process, and its general, conceptual aspects, as well as the preliminary designing steps and their particular, practical aspects. The system is based both on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning solar-climatic construction in the form of rules of thumb, and on precise procedural models which enable finding solutions suited to the local climatic conditions. The proposed system is an intelligent CAAD system which equips the designer who is aware of the constraints of climate and energy, with a tool to achieve a better design. PASYS was developed as a universal system to deal with the various activities involved in the initial – pre-conceptual and conceptual - design stages. The system supports the following design activities of each stage of this kind: analysis, synthesis, documentation, assessment and decision making. It is capable of analyzing given conditions, thus helping the designer understand which are the significant preliminary design stages that have a bearing on thermal comfort conditions in a given climate. The system is also capable of proposing solutions corresponding with the particular design phase, and assess their adequacy. These solutions take into account the constraints determined both by the designer and by the system itself, owing to the knowledge base it contains. The system can also document the various solutions that have been found and selected, so that may be further developed at later stages. This documentation is carried out by a graphic interface, developed as part of the system, as well as by an interface devised for existing CAD software. This study highlights the interaction between form and performance. The system is able to assess the performance of a proposed design by considering a given geometry (form), or viceversa, it is able to recommend a solution that can deliver desired and required performances. The study comprises three parts: (a.) Development of the conceptual model of a knowledge based design process. (b.) Further development of the initial stages of the afore mentioned process, including the pre-conceptual and conceptual stages. (c.) Demonstration of the mode of work with the PASYS system. // The first part of the study deals with the definition of the design process, the definition of the various design steps and their characteristics, and the definition of the activities involved in each design step. This part of the work also presents the kinds of knowledge bases affecting the design process, and shows how this knowledge is an inseparable part of the design process. The second part deals with the development of the initial design stages - the pre-conceptual and the conceptual - which are based on knowledge. This part also contains compiled knowledge that is relevant to the design stage, and a knowledge storage and retrieval method that was developed so as to make the knowledge available and accessible on demand. This part further presents precise procedural methods, developed to find solutions adapted to the specific given conditions, and to precisely assess the performance of the proposed solution. A case in point is the module of the SHADING system which enables a precise assessment of the mutual shading of buildings, and an examination of the exposure of the southern elevation to the sun, which is necessary in order to determine the effective solar absorption area in a proposed project in given environment conditions. The third part of the study demonstrates the solar-climatic design process put into action and supported by the system that was developed. This system enables the designer, even at the preliminary design stages, to determine which properties relating to local climatic conditions he will introduce into the building. This important, seemingly natural act, is usually performed during more advanced stages, when it might generate significant changes in the design, at a juncture when changes are hard to make. A PASYS-aided design environment ensures that from the beginning of the designing process, the project will be designed correctly and efficiently as far as energy is concerned.
keywords Knowledge Base; Design Process; Form; Performance; CAAD Systems
series thesis:PhD
email array01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/03/03 10:58

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9401
id ddss9401
authors Akin, Omer
year 1994
title Psychology of Early Design in Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Lately there has been a good deal of emphasis on the early stages of the design process, particularly by developers of computer aids and quantitative design models for both evaluation and generation of designs in a variety of domains. Yet, there is little understanding of the early design-process. While the early design process as manifested by human designers need not be the sole basis of the description of this phase, it certainly represents and important kernel of knowledge, especially for those who are interested in developing models, systems or merely interfaces for such systems. This paper focuses on the characterization of the psychology of the early design phase in architecture. It is described in terms of the general design strategies and problem solving tactics used; and is contrasted against some of the process characteristics that
series DDSS
email oaO4+@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0574
authors Alison Murison and James Gray
year 1994
title Spatial Analysis for Museum Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 201-206
summary The paper describes how a specially written customisation of AutoCAD enables students of Architecture to use the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Professor Bill Hillier of the Bartlett School of Architecture, London, to examine a number of existing museums, to compare the findings against other criteria, and to draw conclusions about the strategy adopted in museum design. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that they may be evaluated during the design process, with decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1262
authors Alshawi, M.
year 1994
title A run time exchange of component information between CAD and object models: A standard interface
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(2), pp. 37-52
summary Integrated computer aided design could only occur in engineering once CAD systems could represent physical features and components rather than graphical primitives. In most dedicated CAD systems, the knowledge of a complete component exists only for the duration of each drawing command and the data stored in the database is simply a set of graphic primitives. This paper proposes an approach for real time information transfer from and to CAD systems based on a high level object representation of the design drawing. Drawing components are automatically identified and represented in an object hierarchy that reflects the 'part-of' relation between the various components including building spaces. Such hierarchies transfer an industry standard CAD system i.e. AutoCAD, into a high level object oriented system that can communicate with external applications with relative ease.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id e807
authors Anadol, Z., and Akin, O.
year 1994
title Determining the impact of cad drafting tools on the building delivery process
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(1), pp.1-8
summary Computer aided design is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. at a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. to test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. we compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. we found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ddss9404
id ddss9404
authors Arima, Takafumi and Sato, Seiji
year 1994
title Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: A Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ca51
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1994
title CAFE: Composition for Architects - Forms and Emotions
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 249
summary In the architectural creation process there has always been an inclination to improve the methods of designing in the way of ,,objectivization" of designing process. Objectivization which would explain why we do design in this way and not the other. In spite of the trend to the total objectivization (Vitruvius, Alberti, Palladio), the results appeared to be still subjective, i.e. they included methods of designing typical of the one and only architect. This fact made them completely useless in the designing practice. On the other hand one cannot underestimate their meaning as to this very practice. Because it is just thanks to them that the development of designing studies has taken place. We do learn not only watching works of great architects, but also studying their opinions concerning problems of form, function and construction. That is why it seems to be useful to collect experiences concerning the classic theory of architectural composition, which have been gathered through centuries, as well as to try once again to objectivize the process. Composition information arranged in the form of data-base would create the ground for proper functioning of an expert system uniting diagnostic and planning functions. Study of that kind, not claiming design applications could be an excellent educational equipment in teaching architectural composition. In the proposed teaching system attempts have been made to look at the architectural composition theory in the light of the perception of the form, and - emerging in this process - emotional and aesthetic evaluations. In order to define which evaluations have been most often expressed during the perception process of architectural forms, the students of Architecture Faculty in Bialystok Technical University have been polled on the subject: ,,Which words are most commonly used in the descriptions of architecture works?"

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 065b
authors Beitia, S.S., Zulueta, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1995
title The Virtual Cathedral - An Essay about CAAD, History and Structure
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 355-360
summary The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_43.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ee23
authors Bille, Pia
year 1994
title A Study of Color
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 185-190
summary Color courses are traditionally based on exercises carried out with either water color or colored paper. Use of the computer as a tool for teaching color theory and analyzing color in architecture was the topic of a course given at the School of Architecture and Planning at the State University of New York at Buffalo, USA where I was an exchange faculty in the academic year 1993/94. The course was structured into 3 topics: color theory, color perception and application of color.
series eCAADe
email pia bille@mail.a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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