CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 354

_id 130d
authors Hoinkes, R. and Mitchell, R.
year 1994
title Playing with Time - Continuous Temporal Mapping Strategies for Interactive Environments
source 6th Canadian GIS Conference, (Ottawa Natura Resources Canada), pp. 318-329
summary The growing acceptance of GIS technology has had far- reaching effects on many fields of research. The recent developments in the area of dynamic and temporal GIS open new possibilities within the realm of historical research where temporal relationship analysis is as important as spatial relationship analysis. While topological structures have had wide use in spatial GIS and have been the subject of most temporal GIS endeavours, the different demands of many of these temporally- oriented analytic processes questions the choice of the topological direction. In the fall of 1992 the Montreal Research Group (MRG) of the Canadian Centre for Architecture mounted an exhibition dealing with the development of the built environment in 18th- century Montreal. To aid in presenting the interpretive messages of their data, the MRG worked with the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to incorporate the interactive capabilities of the CLR's PolyTRIM research software with the MRG's data base to produce a research tool as well as a public- access interactive display. The interactive capabilities stemming from a real- time object- oriented structure provided an excellent environment for both researchers and the public to investigate the nature of temporal changes in such aspects as landuse, ethnicity, and fortifications of the 18th century city. This paper describes the need for interactive real- time GIS in such temporal analysis projects and the underlying need for object- oriented vs. topologically structured data access strategies to support them.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9502
id ddss9502
authors Wang, Ming-Hung and Chao, Hua-Yu
year 1994
title Spatial Schemata and Design Competence: A Case of Beginning Designers
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In the course of learning professional skills in architectural design, students will develop, usually with the help of instructors, certain ways of analyzing spatial relations. Such spatial schemes are considered critical means to the comprehension of the graphical representations of spaces, and therefore schemes of different kind will have different effects on design performance. This study intends to explore this issue. Three sets of experiments are conducted to test our working hypotheses as stated as follows: (i) to reproduce a plane graphic requires knowledge and skills different from those to recognize; (ii) some schemes are more effective than others in reproducing plane graphics; (iii) the kind of schemes that can effectively reproducing given forms (in plane graphics) can also have positive effects on design capabilities. It is interesting to further differenti-ate the kinds of schemes and their power as design tools. All these experiments employ three kinds of spatial schemes: the categorical, the referential, and the hierarchical from the results we can reach the following conclusions: (i) reconstruction is a different mental activity from recognition which is mainly a comparison between the input data and the known characteristics reconstruction relies more on the structured relations among data that should be established in the course of recognition. Therefore, effective cognition is a part of design competence; (ii) categori-cal schema is found most effective in recognition test. The quality of this type has to do with the quality of its contents. Referential schema can effectively relate elements to one another and to the context in which they are located. This schema contributes to the quality of spatial compositions. Hierarchical schemata are more general that can help identify dependent relations among elements, and therefore reduce the complexity. Conceivably this can increase the efficiency of problem-solving in design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9422
id ddss9422
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, Philip
year 1994
title Sketch-Trigger: A Specification for a Form Generator and Design Analysis Toolbox for Architectural Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In order to develop design and decision support techniques in the early sketch design phases, weshould (1) experience and (2) observe real behaviour in practice, (3) transform observations intoideas for improvement, (4) develop behaviour models to explain the sketch design activities and(5) to evaluate between the proposals, (6) decide between the alternatives, (7) implement theselected option in a supporting tool. Our paper reports about the results of step 3 in particular inthe first phase of a Ph D project, started this year. Our main objective is to amplify the effects ofthe sketch as a very effective instrument to generate original forms and to stimulate the mind to discover new shapes and meanings in the roughly sketched patterns. Instead of considering the sketch only as a representation of what the designer has in mind as is usually assumed in CAD systems, we see sketching as form activation. Thus, we want also to offer triggering images to spark off the imagination of the designer while generating images which are practically impossibleto create by hand and certainly not at short notice. The main improvement proposed is the use of an evolutionary form breeding system: one or more sketched parent images (either ready-made'partis' or basic schemes drafted by the designer) presented in the centre of the screen, will generate surrounding mutated children as defined at random but constrained by default or customization of the available transformations. By selecting one or more children a next generation will be produced in the same way. At all times the designer can introduce or reduce constraints. To complete the usually offered 'classical' symmetrical, spatial and logical operations,we want to introduce dis-functional operations like dislocation, explosion, deformation, anti-logic etc, in short all kinds of antagonistic operations, among them the transformations applied indeconstructionist and post-modern design. Our expectation is that these operations will correspond roughly to the 'move' pertaining to a design entity as the operational unit most appropriate for design behaviour research, in particular the analysis of the chunking and parsing behaviour of the designer. The applicability of the 'move' approach has been shown experimentally by Habraken and others. Goldschmidt has abandoned the usual typology approach of protocolanalysis based on moves and concentrated on the linking of moves, but has been hampered by the lack of a good representational instrument. This brings us to the representation of moves and linkages as a research instrument. The 'linkograph' approach as proposed by Goldschmidt is a first step towards a graphical representation of the designers associative reasoning mode, necessary for tracking the heuristics of designers at the most basic level, but its practical implementation remained as yet incredibly laborious. What is proposed here is an instrument and approach which makes such registration and analysis possible within a structured software environment.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f59d
authors Koelbl, R., Bruntsch, St. and Knoflacher, H.
year 2003
title Perspective Vienna – A Comparison of Planning Scenarios and Real Development
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary With the suspension of national boarders in unions of nations, cities and their regions gain in significance for the economic, social and cultural development. This is particularly valid for Vienna, which lies close to the eastern boarder of the European Union, which should fall with the enlargement of EU in the near future. Of prominent importance is therefore to obtain a comprehensive understanding between proposed and defined aims for an urban development, the related measures and their extent ofimplementations and their actual or real effects. This paper attempts to give a strategic analysis of the Viennese urban and traffic development programs, from 1962, 1972, 1984 and 1994, on the one hand, and the data analysis of the statistical year books beginning from 1960 until 2000, on the other. The results show that adjustments have been made not only in response to certain trends, but also to a change of philosophy of urban development. It can be seen that certain assumptions of, for example, economic and transport measures can have the opposite outcome in relation to the intended objectives. Hence, one main question remains to beanswered: How should Vienna deal with the challenges ahead, to secure and foster a sustainable development under such circumstances on a long-term basis. In this respect, some measures are given, which should make it possible to overcome successfully these challenges.
series other
email stefan.bruntsch@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id 7475
authors Laurel, B., Strickland, R. and Tow, R.
year 1994
title Placeholder: Landscape and Narrative In Virtual Environments
source ACM Computer Graphics Quarterly Volume 28 Number 2 May
summary The idea of using virtual reality for entertainment purposes is actually quite recent in the history of VR technology. Early VR entertainment applications, appearing in the late 1980s, were extensions of the existing "serious" application of flight simulation training. The other branch of flight - simulator technology - motion platforms used in synchronization with motion video or animation - was much more amenable to the theme park environment. These systems, of which Star Tours is the best known, trade off individual viewpoint control and the sense of agency for thrilling, finely calibrated effects and the optimization of "throughput" - that is, getting the most people through the ride in the least time. Second to motion-platform rides in this regard are networked pods, as used in Virtual World Entertainment systems (previously Battletech). "Classic" virtual reality, with head-mounted displays and various forms of body tracking, are especially problematic in theme park environments for several reasons. It takes time to get the gear onto the participants. Only a handful of people can experience the attraction simultaneously (although a much larger audience might watch what the people "inside" the VR are doing). A hard-driving plot with distinct beginning, middle, and end is a great way to control how long an experience takes, but "classic" VR is inimical to this kind of authorial control - it works best when people can move about and do things in virtual environments in a relatively unconstrained way.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 0e58
authors Campbell, D.A. and Wells, M.
year 1994
title A Critique of Virtual Reality in the Architectural Design Process, R-94-3
source Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/r-94-3/: 23 May 2001
summary An addition to a building was designed using virtual reality (VR). The project was part of a design studio for graduate students of architecture. During the design process a detailed journal of activities was kept. In addition, the design implemented with VR was compared to designs implemented with more traditional methods. Both immersive and non-immersive VR simulations were attempted. Part of the rationale for exploring the use of VR in this manner was to develop insight into how VR techniques can be incorporated into the architectural design process, and to provide guidance for the implementers of future VR systems. This paper describes the role of VR in schematic design, through design development to presentation and evaluation. In addition, there are some comments on the effects of VR on detailed design. VR proved to be advantageous in several phases of the design. However, several shortcomings in both hardware and software became apparent. These are described, and a number of recommendations are provided.
series other
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9427
id ddss9427
authors Engelen, Guy and White, Roger
year 1994
title A Strategic Planning and Policy Decision Support Tool for Urban Regions
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper we present a Decision Support System developed to assist urban designers, planners and policy makers to explore and evaluate possible urban layouts and their growth patterns. Thecore of the system consists of a modelling shell allowing the user to specify cellular automata based models of urban and regional systems. These models capture the effect of local spatial processes in which the use, or desired use of each parcel or cell of land is determined partly by institutional and environmental factors, and partly by the activities present in its neighbourhood. Since each cell affects every other cell within its neighbourhood, a complex dynamic emerges. Unlike conventional cellular automata, the models are defined with a large neighbourhood --over a hundred cells-- a relatively large number of states --more than a dozen in some applications-- representing socio-economic and natural land-uses. The approach permits the straightforward integration of detailed physical, environmental, and institutional constraints, as well as including the effects of the transportation and communication infrastructure. These models thus permit a very detailed representation of evolving spatial systems. The current version of the system represents urban areas as consisting of up to 10.000 interacting zones, each roughly the size of an individual city block. These models are easy to build and apply, yet empirical tests show that they produce realistic simulations of urban land use dynamics. Consequently, they are well suited to form the heart of the DSS, which provides the user with a number of tools for exploration,analysis and evaluation of alternative futures of the system as they result from policy interventions that are imposed by means of what-if experiments and scenario analysis. For example, the DSS isable to identify areas in which pressure for change in land use restrictions may become critical under particular development strategies. In the DSS, the modelling shell is coupled to a simple,custom-built GIS. In the stand-alone application of the DSS, this stores the detailed geographical qualities of the area being modelled, and allows basic overlay manipulations. It also displays theresults of the model while the simulation proceeds. Alternatively, the GIS can serve as aninterface to more elaborate, commercial GIS systems.
series DDSS
email rwhite@kean.ucs.mun.ca
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e8b9
authors Kesler, Beatrice
year 1994
title PROGRAMME OF HABITAT WISHES - A TOOL FOR COMMUNICATION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 23-30
summary How to develop an attractive built environment with the desired housing and well kept outdoor conditions? As long as experts do not ask lay-people for their needs and wants, we must not be surprised that people are not interested in their environment and show a lack of care. The contribution of (future) inhabitants in the planning process can have a material and a social impact on building, improving and maintaining a neighbourhood. One of the problems that have to be solved is the question how to improve the communication between non-professionals and professionals, between inhabitants and designers (architects). Inhabitants express themselves in a simple language about the number of rooms, cupboards, size of the garden and parking place. Architects communicate in drawings of designs and talk in a technical language about functions, forms, spacial structures, light and expression. It can be helpful - is the fundamental idea in Wageningen - to develop a shared language, to start talking about activities and to use scale models in a structured process. The participation process is a sort of exploratory expedition. Good communication is a must for a successful participation process. A clear expression of the 'programme of habitat wishes' is the first step in the dialogue between inhabitants and architect. The Structural Space Planning Method is a structured process to develop a 'programme of habitat wishes' for the built environment. It can be related to all sorts of objects: houses, co-housing projects, institutions, playgrounds, streets or neighbourhoods. Full scale and scale models are part of the Structural Space Planning Method, as described by Van Dam (these proceedings). This contribution describes some practical experiences with the development of the 'programme of habitat wishes' and the effects on the participation process.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 08:59

_id ga0009
id ga0009
authors Lewis, Matthew
year 2000
title Aesthetic Evolutionary Design with Data Flow Networks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary For a little over a decade, software has been created which allows for the design of visual content by aesthetic evolutionary design (AED) [3]. The great majority of these AED systems involve custom software intended for breeding entities within one fairly narrow problem domain, e.g., certain classes of buildings, cars, images, etc. [5]. Only a very few generic AED systems have been attempted, and extending them to a new design problem domain can require a significant amount of custom software development [6][8]. High end computer graphics software packages have in recent years become sufficiently robust to allow for flexible specification and construction of high level procedural models. These packages also provide extensibility, allowing for the creation of new software tools. One component of these systems which enables rapid development of new generative models and tools is the visual data flow network [1][2][7]. One of the first CG packages to employ this paradigm was Houdini. A system constructed within Houdini which allows for very fast generic specification of evolvable parametric prototypes is described [4]. The real-time nature of the software, when combined with the interlocking data networks, allows not only for vertical ancestor/child populations within the design space to be explored, but also allows for fast "horizontal" exploration of the potential population surface. Several example problem domains will be presented and discussed. References: [1] Alias | Wavefront. Maya. 2000, http://www.aliaswavefront.com [2] Avid. SOFTIMAGE. 2000, http://www.softimage.com [3] Bentley, Peter J. Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufmann, 1999. [4] Lewis, Matthew. "Metavolve Home Page". 2000, http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/~mlewis/AED/Metavolve/ [5] Lewis, Matthew. "Visual Aesthetic Evolutionary Design Links". 2000, http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu/~mlewis/aed.html [6] Rowley, Timothy. "A Toolkit for Visual Genetic Programming". Technical Report GCG-74, The Geometry Center, University of Minnesota, 1994. [7] Side Effects Software. Houdini. 2000, http://www.sidefx.com [8] Todd, Stephen and William Latham. "The Mutation and Growth of Art by Computers" in Evolutionary Design by Computers, Peter Bentley ed., pp. 221-250, Chapter 9, Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.    
series other
email mlewis@cgrg.ohio-state.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddss9475
id ddss9475
authors Pollalis, Spiro N.
year 1994
title Visual Databases as Documentation and On-Line Information Systems
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary After the wide-spread use of computers as task processors, either for algorithmic operations, or for advanced interfaces, the emphasis has shifted on computers as communicators. Beyond basic serial communications, computers serve as providers of information, linking organizations and expanding the bounded rational of professionals. Based on the use of computers as communica-tors, a multiplicity of visual databases for architecture have emerged in the recent years. Building on a maturing technology, those databases address different domains of design, either aiming to provide the designers with information for making informed decisions, or aiming to document prior designs. However, a common characteristic of those visual databases is a separation between the design of the database, versus the entering of the critical amount of data that can make the databases useful. While the research has progressed in the designs, and technological problems of data presentation and data transfer have reached workable solutions, most of the efforts have not succeeded yet in providing the critical mass of information that is required to make the use of the databases desirable. Furthermore, this effort seems as having less research interest, while the necessary amounts of data, and especially the updating of those data, makes the task impossible for academic institutions, and requires interorganizational efforts. This paper focuses on the duality of the databases, either as a form of documentation, or as on-line interactive information systems. Based on that distinction, it examines the required technology and the critical success factors of each type, and proposes that these databases add value to design and they have considerable market effects, which will drive their development and diffusion.
series DDSS
email pollalis@venus.gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cd68
authors Szalapaj, Peter J. and Tang, Songlan
year 1994
title Giving Colour to Contextual Hypermedia
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 191-200
summary Design development evolves within design contexts that require expression as much as the design itself, and these contexts often constrain any presentation in ways that are not usually explicitly thought of. The context of a design object will therefore influence the conceptual ways of thinking about and presenting this object. Support in hypermedia applications for the expression of the colour context, therefore, should be based upon sound theoretical principles to ensure the effective communication of design ideas. Johannes Itten has postulated seven ways to communicate visual information by means of colour contrast effects, each of which is unique in character, artistic value, and symbolic effect. Of these seven contrasting effects, three are in terms of the nature of colour itself: hue, brightness, and saturation. Although conventional computer graphics applications support the application of these colour properties to discrete shapes, they give no analysis of contrasting colour relationships between shapes. The proposed system attempts to overcome this deficiency. The remaining four contrast effects concern human psychology and psychophysics, and are not supported at all in computer graphics applications. These include the cold-warm contrast, simultaneous contrast, complementary contrast, and the contrast of extension. Although contrast effects are divided into the above seven aspects, they are also related to one another. Thus, when the hue contrast works, the light-dark contrast and cold-warm contrast must work at the same time. Computational support for these colour effects form the focus of this paper.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:48

_id ddss9452
id ddss9452
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Recognition and Retrieval in Visual Architectural Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The development of visual architectural databases is heavily constrained by two technically, practically and conceptually intricate problems, input and retrieval. Input of visual images indifferent forms and from a variety of sources results into computer documents which can only be reproduced and disseminated. Any other use requires extensive annotation of the images with respect to indexing terms and other conceptual structures that make the images identifiable. The bulk of even modest visual databases and the complexity of the images and of the conceptual schemes means that interactive processing is labour-intensive and unreliable. Retrieval also relies on the same processes of annotation and indexing, which make possible the correlation of database contents with user queries. The paper presents the potential of automated recognition for inputting architectural floor plans into visual databases. An optically digitized image is segmented and each segment recognized as an instance of a building element (wall, door, window, etc.). The array ofrecognized elements is then controlled for recognition and segmentation errors. Further processing allows identification of spaces in the floor plan and of their interrelationships. The output of the process is a symbolic array that is much more compact than the original pixel array and also amenable to abstract and /or specific user queries, such as "How many doors are there in the floorplan" or "Which floor plans contain a double loaded corridor". These queries can be input verbally or graphically. Identification of building and spatial elements in a floor plan also allows use of vocabulary control in retrieval: user queries are checked against a thesaurus of architectural terms for accuracy and precision. The user is then presented with options for the improvement of the query before proceeding with identifying relevant entries in the database. Use ofvocabulary control as a search intermediary improves performance and reduces user frustration by making explicit the relevance of a query.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9464
id ddss9464
authors McCartney, Kevin and Ismail, Ashraf Lotfy R. M.
year 1994
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Supplementary Planning Guidance and Local Planning Policies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are being designed in order to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; with regards to building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. The measures to determine proper evaluation will be based upon site-development briefs, and design guides produced by the local planning authorities. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. It will also provide many functions for editing two and three dimensional drawings specifically for the environmental analysis tasks. In addition to the common graphical output of Aut0CAD; i.e. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, the tool will generate textual analysis of the design in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Statement of proposed development. The speculative tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out tailor-made for architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of materials for environmental statements. Second, field observation will be carried out to observe the concerned professionals as decision-makers while assessing building design proposals. A prototype will be designed and then tested against the expectations of the tool designer, then the tool performance will be evaluated by a team of professionals participated in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the concluding study findings will be documented as part of a postgraduate research thesis to be completed in June 1995.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9467
id ddss9467
authors Murison, Alison
year 1994
title A CAD Interface to Objective Assessment of Design to Support Decision Making in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The Department of Architecture at Edinburgh College of Art, Heriot Watt University, has an on-going project to create useful implementations of the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Prof Bill Hillier at the Bartlett School of Architecture, London. Space Syntax can predict the potential usage of each route through an urban space or large building; some routes will be avoided by most traffic (pedestrian or vehicular), while other routes will become busy thoroughfares. It has been used by Architects and Urban Designers to support proposed developments, whether to show that potential commercial activity ought to be concentrated in an area of high traffic, or to change routes through troubled housing estates, bringing the protection of added traffic to areas previously avoided for fear of mugging. The paper describes how a specially written customized version of AutoCAD enables Post Graduate students of Urban Design and Undergraduate Architecture students to test their designs against the Space Syntax Measures. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that plans may be evaluated during the design process, and decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process, and should be useful to many professionals in urban planning.
series DDSS
email arcamlm@heriot.watt.uk.ac
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9492
id ddss9492
authors Tae, Won Jin
year 1994
title A Visualization Model for External Shading Devices Performance at the Early Design Stage
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Windows are used for the visual connection between indoors and outdoors, ventilation and daylight of our interiors and for the reduction of our heating energy through solar energy utilization. This solar energy, however, is often so intense that counter measures should be taken in order to maintain comfortable indoor conditions. Air conditioning is one counteraction. In order to reduce the cooling loads, it is highly recommended to use shading devices. When shading devices are applied in combination with the glass they can modify the thermal effect of windows to a very great extent. The most effective shading devices are exterior types such as overhang, fins and exterior venetian blind. The effectiveness of an external shading device depends on its geometry, sun path, and the orientation of the building. These factors are interrelated dynamically, it is extremely difficult to predict intuitively how the shadow is cast by the external shading device on the window. Due to the inherent complexity of calculation for shadow casting, building designers to fail often integrate them into energy-efficient building design. Since computer graphics can be a powerful visual communication tool, the above problem might be solved through a computerized graphical interface in the early design stage. The research described in this paper involves the development of a computer program which aims the following objectives: (1) to facilitate the description of a external shading device's geometry through an integrated graphic input model, (ii) to simulate the relationship of external shading devices and shadows based on sun path, the orientation of building, (iii) to visualize the shadow casting by shading devices, and (iv) to provide designers with possible solutions to create energy-efficient external shading device for a specific building.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
email jean.winem@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0574
authors Alison Murison and James Gray
year 1994
title Spatial Analysis for Museum Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 201-206
summary The paper describes how a specially written customisation of AutoCAD enables students of Architecture to use the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Professor Bill Hillier of the Bartlett School of Architecture, London, to examine a number of existing museums, to compare the findings against other criteria, and to draw conclusions about the strategy adopted in museum design. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that they may be evaluated during the design process, with decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called ‚Äúgingerbread houses‚Äů, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 6838
authors Berberidou-Kallivoka, Liana
year 1994
title An Open Daylighting Simulation Environment
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary Various studies have shown that performance simulation tools have not been integrated effec- tively in the architectural design process. The conventional lighting simulation tools have been characterized as decision verification tools rather than design support tools. Particularly in the early design stage, when crucial and often irreversible decisions are made, this evident lack of appropriate lighting simulation environments represents a serious drawback. The "mono-directionality" of the conventional simulation tools can be identified as one of the factors responsi- ble for insufficient integration of computational lighting modeling tools in the design process. In response to this circumstance, this thesis presents the conceptual background and the proto- , typical realization of an "open" daylighting simulation environment (GESTALT) to support architectural lighting design and education. Open simulation environments aim at extension (and inversion) of the design-to-performance mapping mechanisms of the conventional build- ing performance simulation tools. Toward this end, two fully operational versions of GESTALT have been implemented. GESTALT-01 is an explicit implementation based on invertible "fast-response" computational modules. GESTALT-02 is an implicit version that uses a comprehensive computational daylight simulator and investigative projection technique for performance-driven design exploration. Concepts, implementations, case studies, contributions and future directions are presented.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:42

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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