CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9457
id ddss9457
authors Kubota, Y., Yoshikawa, M. and Masaki, E.
year 1994
title Development of an Expert Cad System for Visual Design of a Bridge in a Landscape
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Architects, landscape architects and urban designers are often required to be involved in the process of bridge design from an aesthetic point of view. The authors have been developing a comprehensive CAD system to support such visual design works, especially at an early stage of design. Conventional complicated technical standards and guidelines tend to discourage creative design. In order to support free conception and creation of bridge forms, this system includes a visual design core system as a workshop, even enabling freehand sketch drawing on existing landscape images of the site. This is supported by a landscape simulation subsystem. The system can also provide initial design ideas with several different types of bridge form, derived from knowledge based subsystems on design guidelines and precedent examples which can be quoted also to examine the physical possibility of sketch drawn alternatives in terms of structural dimensions and construction costs. Created design alternatives will be analyzed by a visual impact analysis subsystem to assess their influences on surrounding environments from a visual geometri-cal standpoint. This system is intended to enable architects, landscape architects or urban designers to create and examine design alternatives on a real-time basis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9402
id ddss9402
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title Design of a View-Based DSS For Location Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes the design of a DSS for locating facility networks. The proposed DSS is based on the principle of dynamic data definitions. The declarative and procedural forms of knowledge involved are identified by a logical analysis of planning tasks. The DSS supports an iterating process of adjusting and evaluating plan options. A flexible and interactive problem solving environment is achieved by means of a user defined set of views that captures both forms of knowledge. Each view describes the system to be planned in terms of a set of variables and attached evaluation procedures. The views are dynamic and linked data structures, so that changes in one view automatically lead to updating all linked views. The DSS supports both the specification of the set of views and its application to solve a specific location problem.
series DDSS
email ta.arentze@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddss9410
id ddss9410
authors Bodum, Lars
year 1994
title Hypermedia-aided GIS in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Town planning in Denmark is undergoing major changes from a planning approach focusing on regulation and individual frameworks for town districts, to a planning approach emphasizing the urban characteristics and drawing overall guidelines for planning. At the same time, attention has shifted to urban renewal and urban remodelling. This means that more qualitative data are needed.These new data types such as digital film, are to form part of a future GIS for the town. The digital film will change the impression of what data can profitably be used in a GIS. Even animations and 3D models, which were previously processed with considerable data power can beplayed as digital films. In the course of the next few years, the most ordinary applications will be able to play digital films and together with the progress made in other media, a development towards hypermedia will be a possibility. The paper will give some examples of how this integration may be carried out. In continuation of the preparation of a municipality atlas and in connection with an EC-subsidized urban renewal project, the municipality of Aalborg has chosen to work outa digital catalog which will in time replace the present local planning regulations.
series DDSS
email ibo@i4.auc.dk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9604
id ddssup9604
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1996
title Impact-Analysis of Urban Design Realtime impact-analysis models for urban designers
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The past five years Prof Dr Jr T.M. de Jong, professor in environmental planning and sustainability at the Technical University of Delft, has developed a theoretical foundation for the analysis of urban design on the ecological, technical, economical, cultural and political impacts of morphologic interventions on different levels of scale. From september 1994 Jr AJ. Boelen (Urban Design Scientist and Knowledge Engineer) started a research project at the same university to further explore the possibilities of these theories and to develop impact evaluation models for urban design and development with the theoretical work of De Jong as a starting point. The paper discusses the development of a design and decision support system based on these theories. For the development of this system, techniques like object-orientation, genetic algorithms and knowledge engineering are used. The user interface, the relation between the real world, paper maps and virtual maps and the presentation of design-interventions and impacts caused by the interventions are important issues. The development-process is an interactive step by step process. It consists of the making of a prototype of the system, testing the theory and hypothe-sisses the system is based on, by applying tests end adjusting the theory and hypothesisses where needed. Eventually the system must be able to act as an integrator of many different models already developed or still to be developed. The structure of the system will allow easy future expansion and adjustment to changing insights. The logic used to develop the basic theory on which this system is founded makes it possible to even introduce and maintain rather subjective aspects like quality or appraisal as impacts that can be evaluated. In a previously developed system "Momentum" this was proved to work effectively for the national level. In this project we will - amongst other things - try to prove the effectiveness of impact-evaluation for other levels of scale.
series DDSS
email Aj.Boelen@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9413
id ddss9413
authors Branki, Cherif
year 1994
title Communicative Acts in Cooperative Architectural Design Environments
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The purpose of this paper is to present a scheme, that can be used to support the communication process in cooperative design. Computational aids for design have largely been for a designerworking by himself/herself. These aids have also been supplemented by the widespread use of artificial intelligence approaches. However, design is so complex, and very rarely acted upon by a single designer but many more working towards the same aim. This involves a new paradigm in which designers need to cooperate with each other using a computational medium. A protocol analysis in cooperative design has been carried out and technological support has been proposed.Cooperative design becomes an important paradigm for the next generation of intelligent computer aided design systems. It will be conducted in many forms among several designers and willrequire the support of advanced communication facilities beyond the "passive" transmission of data and messages. Technological advances in communication networks have opened up new ways for cooperative design interaction across several processes of cooperation among designers, designers and computer aided design systems, computer aided design systems and knowledge based systems, and knowledge based systems themselves. In cooperative design environments, aunit of communication among designers is the transfer of a message from one designer (a sender) to another (a receiver). The aim of such communication is to provide the receiver with some information or to have the receiver take certain actions. Inspired by the speech act theory, a branch of the philosophy of language and linguistics, such a unit is called a communicative act. By analogy to architectural design, a communicative act is a performing act in designers communication.
series DDSS
email cos.branki@uk.ac.glasp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9414
id ddss9414
authors Bright, Elise N.
year 1994
title THe "Allots" Model: A PC-Based Approach to Demand Distribution for Siting and Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper reports on the development and application of ALLOT: a user-friendly, flexible computer model which has been designed to help governmental jurisdictions and private landowners throughout the world to achieve more economically efficient and environmentally sound land use and development patterns in a short period of time. ALLOT has the potential to drastically change the way that land use planning is conducted, since it has the capability to allow theincorporation of a wide variety of previously ignored environmental characteristics and up-to-date land use patterns. ALLOT, which is written in the SAS programming language, contains twomajor parts. The first part employs a GIS database to conduct land suitability analyses for the area. It then produces maps showing the most suitable areas for various land use types. The second part appears to be unique in the field of computerized land use planning models. It combines the results of the suitability analysis with forecasted demand for various land use types to produce "optimum" future land use patterns. The model is capable of quickly analyzing a wide variety of forecasts, allowing easy comparison of different growth scenarios; and it can also be modified to reflect community goals and objectives, such as protection of wildlife habitat orattraction of industry. The flexibility, combined with the fact that it runs on any IBM-compatible PC (286 or higher), make it a powerful land use planning tool. The model has been successfully applied in two "real world" situations. First, three alternative future land use patterns were developed for a rural lakeside area. The area had rural characteristics and was lacking infrastructure, but a large influx of people was expected as the lake was filled. The success of this effort led to decision to test it´s use as a method for facility siting (using landfill siting as an example).
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9415
id ddss9415
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title Innovative Expert Systems With Hypertextual User Interfaces: A Special Support for the Building Recovering Project
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper, first of all a short account on the peculiarity of knowledge in the domain of Architectural and Building Project, particularly in the Building Recovering Project is given. Thatmeans to focus the concept of "degree of authority" of different types of knowledge with regard to project: regulations; specialist literature having in practice the value of self-regulation; technical updating; exemplary design cases; warnings; analysis methods; heuristics; orientating references. Consequently, the different roles of two basic design & decision support systems, that is expert systems and hypertexts, are considered. The former seem to be quite fit for representing information and knowledge linked to a clear "authority", the one of experts in a certain domain; the latter seem to be quite fit for illustrating the interdisciplinary complexity, different historicinterpretations, various analogous references, and so on. Afterwards, the limits of expert systems based on the logic "true-false" are underlined, and the perspective of expert systems based on more sophisticated and appropriate rules and metarules is proposed. At last, the possible structure of such an innovative expert system, with a hypertextual interface, in the domain of Building Recovering Project is exemplified.
series DDSS
email wide@inacriai.criai.it
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9422
id ddss9422
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, Philip
year 1994
title Sketch-Trigger: A Specification for a Form Generator and Design Analysis Toolbox for Architectural Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In order to develop design and decision support techniques in the early sketch design phases, weshould (1) experience and (2) observe real behaviour in practice, (3) transform observations intoideas for improvement, (4) develop behaviour models to explain the sketch design activities and(5) to evaluate between the proposals, (6) decide between the alternatives, (7) implement theselected option in a supporting tool. Our paper reports about the results of step 3 in particular inthe first phase of a Ph D project, started this year. Our main objective is to amplify the effects ofthe sketch as a very effective instrument to generate original forms and to stimulate the mind to discover new shapes and meanings in the roughly sketched patterns. Instead of considering the sketch only as a representation of what the designer has in mind as is usually assumed in CAD systems, we see sketching as form activation. Thus, we want also to offer triggering images to spark off the imagination of the designer while generating images which are practically impossibleto create by hand and certainly not at short notice. The main improvement proposed is the use of an evolutionary form breeding system: one or more sketched parent images (either ready-made'partis' or basic schemes drafted by the designer) presented in the centre of the screen, will generate surrounding mutated children as defined at random but constrained by default or customization of the available transformations. By selecting one or more children a next generation will be produced in the same way. At all times the designer can introduce or reduce constraints. To complete the usually offered 'classical' symmetrical, spatial and logical operations,we want to introduce dis-functional operations like dislocation, explosion, deformation, anti-logic etc, in short all kinds of antagonistic operations, among them the transformations applied indeconstructionist and post-modern design. Our expectation is that these operations will correspond roughly to the 'move' pertaining to a design entity as the operational unit most appropriate for design behaviour research, in particular the analysis of the chunking and parsing behaviour of the designer. The applicability of the 'move' approach has been shown experimentally by Habraken and others. Goldschmidt has abandoned the usual typology approach of protocolanalysis based on moves and concentrated on the linking of moves, but has been hampered by the lack of a good representational instrument. This brings us to the representation of moves and linkages as a research instrument. The 'linkograph' approach as proposed by Goldschmidt is a first step towards a graphical representation of the designers associative reasoning mode, necessary for tracking the heuristics of designers at the most basic level, but its practical implementation remained as yet incredibly laborious. What is proposed here is an instrument and approach which makes such registration and analysis possible within a structured software environment.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9423
id ddss9423
authors Dasgupta, Shubhagato
year 1994
title A Decision Support System for Architects in the Rural Housing Situation in India
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Even a conservative estimate of the rural housing shortfall in India, is 20.6 million houses. There are three contexts under which external intervention is necessary, the endemic low housing qualityof the poor and landless, the major development projects where displaced people have to be rehoused, and rehabilitation of victims of natural disasters such as the periodic floods or unprecedented earthquakes like the recent one in Maharashtra, Central India, where we successfully applied this method. Interventions by government agencies or charity organisations, have often failed to achieve a viable sustainable habitat, primarily because of misplaced perceptions in need assessment, resulting in disrupted societies. Tailored to the Indian rural housing scenario, the study developed a participatory interface to aid architects and planners in information gathering and systematization of need assessment for input into the designing and decision-making process. The method based on field tested participatory information collection games consists of threemajor stages. The first stage involves user-interactive documentation of the baseline data. The second, involves participatory group analysis and evaluation of issues coupled with rapid interactive verification of information collected in terms ofspatial organisations and production mechanisms. The third is a tool for rapid systematised retrieval of information, for synthesis into preparation of an "user needs statement".
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9427
id ddss9427
authors Engelen, Guy and White, Roger
year 1994
title A Strategic Planning and Policy Decision Support Tool for Urban Regions
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper we present a Decision Support System developed to assist urban designers, planners and policy makers to explore and evaluate possible urban layouts and their growth patterns. Thecore of the system consists of a modelling shell allowing the user to specify cellular automata based models of urban and regional systems. These models capture the effect of local spatial processes in which the use, or desired use of each parcel or cell of land is determined partly by institutional and environmental factors, and partly by the activities present in its neighbourhood. Since each cell affects every other cell within its neighbourhood, a complex dynamic emerges. Unlike conventional cellular automata, the models are defined with a large neighbourhood --over a hundred cells-- a relatively large number of states --more than a dozen in some applications-- representing socio-economic and natural land-uses. The approach permits the straightforward integration of detailed physical, environmental, and institutional constraints, as well as including the effects of the transportation and communication infrastructure. These models thus permit a very detailed representation of evolving spatial systems. The current version of the system represents urban areas as consisting of up to 10.000 interacting zones, each roughly the size of an individual city block. These models are easy to build and apply, yet empirical tests show that they produce realistic simulations of urban land use dynamics. Consequently, they are well suited to form the heart of the DSS, which provides the user with a number of tools for exploration,analysis and evaluation of alternative futures of the system as they result from policy interventions that are imposed by means of what-if experiments and scenario analysis. For example, the DSS isable to identify areas in which pressure for change in land use restrictions may become critical under particular development strategies. In the DSS, the modelling shell is coupled to a simple,custom-built GIS. In the stand-alone application of the DSS, this stores the detailed geographical qualities of the area being modelled, and allows basic overlay manipulations. It also displays theresults of the model while the simulation proceeds. Alternatively, the GIS can serve as aninterface to more elaborate, commercial GIS systems.
series DDSS
email rwhite@kean.ucs.mun.ca
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ddss9443
id ddss9443
authors Heijs, Wim
year 1994
title Residential Comfort as a Tool for the Design and Evaluation of Dwellings
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The term comfort plays a not inconsiderable role in scientific housing research, for example as a predictor of household energy behaviour and of residential satisfaction. Nevertheless, its meaning is mostly ill-defined and it is unclear which properties of the dwelling are associated with the concept. In an exploratory study the meaning and structure of comfort were established on the basis of an etymological analysis, interviews with occupants and experts, an extensive review of the literature and a survey of 500 respondents in the Netherlands. It is shown that residential comfort is a useful and meaningful concept in housing research. It can be regarded as a variable which represents the totality of properties of a dwelling which are important for the well-being of occupants, including its social and psychological aspects. The structure of comfort is captured in a model that can be used in the designing process and the evaluation of dwellings. The model enables an organized overview of the needs of (intended) groups of occupant, of sub-fields of comfort (e.g. sub-properties of the dwelling) associated with these needs and of possible housing characteristics that are necessary for the presence of the sub-fields. The scheme of analysis appears to be a good instrument for the construction of comparable models for other types of building.
series DDSS
email wmpewh©urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9445
id ddss9445
authors Hillier, B., Penn, A., Dalton, N., Chapman, D. and Redfern, F.
year 1994
title Graphical Knowledge Interfaces: The Extensive and Intensive Useof Precedent Data Bases in Architecture and Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Space syntax' is a family of techniques for the analysis of architectural and urban space which can be used both in research and design mode. This means, for example, that a redevelopment area in an urban context can be researched using space syntax models which can then be turned round and used as the basis for design idea of a 'graphical knowledge interface' (GM) is a further development of this in feeding research into design. It starts from the important role that the analysis and comparison of 'precedents', that is, cases with some similarity of the design problem in hand, often play in design. In a GM, 'precedents' which have already been researched using the space syntax methodology and which are relevant to a particular design problem - say a set of urban areas or a set of housing estates - can be brought into the modelling technique, so that the designer has on hand not simply a space syntax model of the problem in hand but an intelligent 'precedent' in the form of graphical and statistical representations which can be manipulated and interrogated during the design process, in much the same way as discussion of precedent are currently brought into design but with much more complex data and much more powerful theoretical tools. GM can be used as intensive mode, in which many different kinds of data - say on land uses, rents, or crime rates - are added to the model of an area, or in extensive mode where the emphasis is on comparing, say, the structures of a large number of urban areas. The GM will be illustrated through a worked example of a recent major urban design project in which the team has participated.
series DDSS
email b.hillier@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 130d
authors Hoinkes, R. and Mitchell, R.
year 1994
title Playing with Time - Continuous Temporal Mapping Strategies for Interactive Environments
source 6th Canadian GIS Conference, (Ottawa Natura Resources Canada), pp. 318-329
summary The growing acceptance of GIS technology has had far- reaching effects on many fields of research. The recent developments in the area of dynamic and temporal GIS open new possibilities within the realm of historical research where temporal relationship analysis is as important as spatial relationship analysis. While topological structures have had wide use in spatial GIS and have been the subject of most temporal GIS endeavours, the different demands of many of these temporally- oriented analytic processes questions the choice of the topological direction. In the fall of 1992 the Montreal Research Group (MRG) of the Canadian Centre for Architecture mounted an exhibition dealing with the development of the built environment in 18th- century Montreal. To aid in presenting the interpretive messages of their data, the MRG worked with the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to incorporate the interactive capabilities of the CLR's PolyTRIM research software with the MRG's data base to produce a research tool as well as a public- access interactive display. The interactive capabilities stemming from a real- time object- oriented structure provided an excellent environment for both researchers and the public to investigate the nature of temporal changes in such aspects as landuse, ethnicity, and fortifications of the 18th century city. This paper describes the need for interactive real- time GIS in such temporal analysis projects and the underlying need for object- oriented vs. topologically structured data access strategies to support them.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9447
id ddss9447
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1994
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer Supported Collaborative Design System
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of specific rules and grammars. Yet, there is a general consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still cannot support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. Thus, if CAAD is to ultimately benefit the design process, it must (1) emulate and support the design team approach to architectural problem solving and (2) be deployed in the earliest possible stages of the design process. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the interaction between a set of requirements (the building program) and the architectural solution that satisfies them (the schematic design). The core of this interaction forms the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modelling (based on the NIAM notation), object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on a literature survey and earlier findings on the role of artifacts in collaborative design, this paper outlines the requirements for the above system and reports on initial experiments. Thus, it constitutes the first stage of a research project that will lead to a full implementation of a distributed collaborative computer environment addressing the above issues.
series DDSS
type normal paper
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2008/06/12 14:32

_id 0726
authors Kadysz, Andrzej
year 1994
title CAD the Tool
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 212
summary What is the role of CAAD as a tool of architectural form creation ? We used to over-estimate the role of computer as significant factor of design process. In fact it serves only to produce technical documentation and to visualise designed buildings. We usually use CAAD to record ideas, not to create designs. We use it like more complex pencil. But it is unsuitable for conceptual design , with imperceptible influence on idea definition. Its practical usefulnes is limited. I would like to consider and find out reasons of that state, present some conclusions and ideas on computer aided architectural form creation. Many tools were invented to extend posibilities of human body or intellect. Microscop and telescop are extensions of human eye. Which organ is extended by computer (especially by CAAD)? CAAD with high developed function of visualising of the object beeing designed seems to be an extension of architect's imagination. It is beeing used to foresee visual efects, to check designed forms, to see something what we are not able to imagine. It performes the role of electronic modeler. Real model and virtual model - the medium of presentation is diferent but ways of using them are similar . Dislocation of place where we build model is not a big achievement, but potential possbilities of CAAD in modeling are almost unlimited (?). What are special features of CAAD as a modeling tool? First we have to consider what is indispensible when building a model: to embody idea. To do this we need space, substance and tools. In architectural design practice space is a real site with definite climate, neigbourhood, orientation. Substance that we shape is an archiectural form composed of many difrent elements: walls, windows, roof, entry, ... , proportions, rhythm, emotions, impresions... The tool is: our knowledge, imagination, talent, experience, norms, law and drawing equipment. Working with the computer, making virtual model, we have many of mentioned elements given in structure of CAAD program and interpreted by it. But many of them have different character. Making traditional dummy of building we operate on reality which is manually accessible. In case of computer model we operate on information. Space, substance and tool (- program) are informations, data. Human being is not an abstract data processor, but creature that lives non stop in close, direct, sensual contact with nature. By this contact with enviroment collects experiences. Computer can operate on digital data that is optionally selected and given by user, independent upon enviromental conditions. Usually architecture was created on basis of enviroment, climate, gravity. But these do not exist in CAAD programs or exist in the symbolic form. Character of these conditions is not obvious. We can watch demeanour of objects in gravity but it can be also antigravity. In theory of systems everything is considered as a part of biger system. In "virtual" reality (in computer space) we deal with accurences which are reduced to abstract level, free upon terms or connections. We work with our CAAD software using geometric space whithout any other principle.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:04

_id ddss9448
id ddss9448
authors Kane, Andy and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1994
title Intuitive Analysis as Mediator Between Concept and Representation
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Representation in Computer Aided Architectural Design Systems has to date largely focused on the presentation of the end product of design activity, namely the ultimate built form. In thisrespect, 3-dimensional representations traditionally associated with CAAD visualization have relied heavily upon verisimilitude for their efficacy, and have therefore necessitated high levels of dimensional accuracy together with exhaustive description, both of which are absent in the early stages of design formulation. This paper investigates the desired structure of a computational design formulation system which is based, not upon the representation (or presentation) of ultimate form, but instead upon the representation of architectonic ideas resident in the designer's mind, which are central to the organization and generation of proposals. These ideas are of two kinds: conceptual generators, both poetic and architectonic, and the organizational parti or schematic proposals, which embody them. The representation of ideas rather than end form has two primaryobjectives. Firstly, it enables the designer's realization and clarification of concept or parti, and secondly, but most importantly, it enables the designer to critically assess these ideas in relation tothe contextual situation and brief. The computational representation must be structured in a manner which supports the designer's intuitive critical assessment of it, to in turn induce a modification and development of the initial design ideas. Repeated transformation, representation, and intuitive analysis, can then continue in a cyclical manner until an end proposal is achieved. Intuitive analysis, which becomes the mediator between idea and representation, is itself computationally supported by the dual methodologies of comparative and modal superimposition. Superimposition of previous with present representation (either in two or three dimensions)enhances comparative assessment of design developments. Modal analysis, on the other hand, facilitates the superimposition of schematic representations of modes of design thought (circulationpattern with volumetric arrangement, say) in order to intuitively assess their interaction or conflict.
series DDSS
email p.szalapaj@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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