CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 141 to 160 of 354

_id 42ff
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1994
title Data for Creation
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 209
summary The need for regional styles to exist in architecture has been broadly and long discussed. In general, regionalisms are socially accepted and they should be employed. Discussions usually become more intensified together with the search for inspiration to create new styles in architecture. In Poland Stanislaw Witkiewicz, arts critic and theoretitian, a painter and a writer, created and developed “the Zakopane style” on the turn of the 19th century. This is the only one architectural style focussed on the regional features that has been preserved until nowadays. It referred both to architecture and industrial forms. It was received by the contemporaries with ambivalent attitude, from the uncritical enthusiasm to emotional negation. One side claimed that the style affected the national consciousness and united the nation without the State. According to the other side, “the Zakopane style”, when outside the Podhale region, shocked with its non-conformity to the surroundings. About 1910 there was an attempt to create the style not exactly regional but rather national. The designs referred to neoclassic Old Polish mansion house with a porch supported by columns and high mansard roof. Between 1915 and 1918 projects to rebuild the Polish villages and little towns were thrown open to competition. Afterwards, neatly published project catalogues presented universal, all-Polish type of architecture. In 1918, after I World War and after Poland regained independence, whole housing estates were built in manorial style. At the same time the described sets of competition projects were used together with the new ones, prepared by eg. Polish Hygenic Society (1936). All the project proposals show the all-Polish type of regionalism. Another intensification of discussion concerning the regional style is linked with the post-modernist ideas. Modernism-lacking ornament, cosmopolitan, without any homely features (by the way, he is jolly smart who knows what this “homeliness” is all about) despite its undeniable achievements has been finally faced with crushing criticism. Together with this reaction the search for inspiration in regional features of architecture has been revived. But then there has been a lack of Witkiewicz’s enthusiasm and stubbornness. We deal with constant attempts to solve the problem of creation in regional style. The situation described allows for the statement that there are two forms of regionalism: one on a narrow, territorial and second on the all-Polish scale. No doubt, “the Zakopane style” was the territorial regionalism, and the manorial architecture-the all-Polish one. The condition and quantity of traditional forms are really varied in Poland. For these still existing objects to serve as “model” and inspiration, they have to be examined, classified and made accessible to the designers. The next step is to extract the most distinct features of sub-regions and to popularize the knowledge of these problems. At the Faculty of Architecture of Bialystok Technical University the relative data base concerning the regional architecture is being created on the basis of Microsoft’s ACCESS. It is still another attempt to preserve and uphold the cultural landscape of Poland.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:50

_id ddss9507
id ddss9507
authors Zimring, C., Do, E., Domeshek, E. and Kolodner, J.
year 1994
title Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation To AID Reflection in ConceptualDesign: Creating a Case-Based Design Aid For Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The design of large complex "real-world" objects such as buildings requires that the intentions of many potentially competing stakeholders be understood and reconciled. The process of conceptual design itself can be understood as a set of discourses among design team participants and between the designer and the design that gradually reveal these intentions and their relationships to design moves. Our goal is to aid this discourse by creating a Case-based Design Aid (CBDA) that provides design team participants access to specific evaluated cases of experience with previous buildings. This represents a merger of two sets of theories and methodologies: case-based reasoning (CBR) in artificial intelligence; and, post-occupancy evaluation (POE) in architectural research. In developing our CBDA, we have focused on several problems in architectural design: understanding the interactions between intentions, and making links between various modes of understanding and communication, and particularly between verbal description and visual representation. This has led to a particular way of parsing experience, and to several modes of entering and browsing the system. For instance, each case is accessible as a specific building, such as the Santa Clara County Hall of Justice, that can be explored much as an architect might browse a magazine article about the building, looking at a brief text description of the building, photos, and plans. However, each plan is annotated with "problematic situations" that are actually hypertext links into the discursive part of the program. By clicking on the button, the users reaches a "story" screen that lists the intentions of various stakeholders relevant to the problematic situation, a fuller text description of the general problematic situation with a diagram, text and diagram for a specific problematic situation as it operates in a specific building, several general design responses showing how one might respond to the problematic situations, and specific design responses from specific buildings. In addition, the user can browse the system by listing his or her interests and moving directly to stories about a given space type such as "courtroom" or issue such as "way finding." In addition, the designer can access brief synopses of key issues in a building type, for a space type, or for an issue. We are currently implementing the system on the Macintosh using Common Lisp and are focusing on libraries and courthouses as initial building types. Initial feedback from designers has been encouraging. We believe that this approach provides a useful alternative to design guidelines, that often tend to be too prescriptive, and the entirely inductive approach of many designers that may miss critical intentions.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6b44
id 6b44
authors Zimring, Craig and Ataman, Osman
year 1994
title Incorporating Guidelines Into a Case-Based Architectural Design Tool
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 87-101
summary This paper discusses an ongoing project called Archie, a collaboration between cognitive scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence and architecture, aimed at creating computer-based aids for conceptual design. Archie is a "case-based design aid" (CBDA): a tool that provides designers flexible access to evaluated examples of past experience that they can use in their own designs. Archie is a "clever" hypermedia database aimed at aiding conceptual design in architecture. It contains about 200 problems, responses, stories, and building descriptions derived from evaluations of six libraries and two courthouses. In this paper we provide a brief history and description of Archie and discuss some issues that have come into focus through developing and initially evaluating the system: how specific architectural case information can be organized; how users can be provided more general information about issues and building types; and how information can be indexed. In each of these we briefly discuss the current state of the system and propose some potential future directions.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/25 16:45

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1262
authors Alshawi, M.
year 1994
title A run time exchange of component information between CAD and object models: A standard interface
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(2), pp. 37-52
summary Integrated computer aided design could only occur in engineering once CAD systems could represent physical features and components rather than graphical primitives. In most dedicated CAD systems, the knowledge of a complete component exists only for the duration of each drawing command and the data stored in the database is simply a set of graphic primitives. This paper proposes an approach for real time information transfer from and to CAD systems based on a high level object representation of the design drawing. Drawing components are automatically identified and represented in an object hierarchy that reflects the 'part-of' relation between the various components including building spaces. Such hierarchies transfer an industry standard CAD system i.e. AutoCAD, into a high level object oriented system that can communicate with external applications with relative ease.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 065b
authors Beitia, S.S., Zulueta, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1995
title The Virtual Cathedral - An Essay about CAAD, History and Structure
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 355-360
summary The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id diss_brewster
id diss_brewster
authors Brewster, S.A.
year 1994
title Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces
source Heslington, York: University of York
summary This thesis provides a framework for integrating non-speech sound into human-computer interfaces. Previously there was no structured way of doing this, it was done in an ad hoc manner by individual designers. This led to ineffective uses of sound. In order to add sounds to improve usability two questions must be answered: What sounds should be used and where is it best to use them? With these answers a structured method for adding sound can be created. An investigation of earcons as a means of presenting information in sound was undertaken. A series of detailed experiments showed that earcons were effective, especially if musical timbres were used. Parallel earcons were also investigated (where two earcons are played simultaneously) and an experiment showed that they could increase sound presentation rates. From these results guidelines were drawn up for designers to use when creating usable earcons. These formed the first half of the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces. An informal analysis technique was designed to investigate interactions to identify situations where hidden information existed and where non-speech sound could be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions were considered in terms of events, status and modes to find hidden information. This information was then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. Several examples of the use of the technique were presented. This technique formed the second half of the structured method. The structured method was evaluated by testing sonically-enhanced scrollbars, buttons and windows. Experimental results showed that sound could improve usability by increasing performance, reducing time to recover from errors and reducing workload. There was also no increased annoyance due to the sound. Thus the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces was shown to be effective when applied to existing interface widgets.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/28 06:34

_id 64c5
authors De Mesa, A., Monedero, J., Redondo, E. and Regot, J.
year 1994
title From Image Space to Model Space and Back Again
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 60-68
summary The paper describes in detail a process of work consisting of merging a virtual model into a real image. This process implies three different kinds of operations: geometric restoration of the real scene, in 3D, from a photograph, rendering a virtual model under similar conditions as the photograph, and merging of the rendered image with the original image. The paper empasises quality and visual precision of results together with a semiautomatization of the entire process. It also refers critically these three different groups of operations to their theoretical background. It concludes with an evaluation of the work from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of architectural visual analysis and from the point of view of a general design methodology.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:21

_id c307
authors Dobbins, John J.
year 1994
title Problems of Chronology, Decoration, and Urban Design in the Forum at Pompeii
source American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 08, no. 4, October, pp. 629-694
summary This article offers an archaeological and structural analysis of the four main buildings on the east side of the forum at Pompeii and challenges widely published and generally accepted views about the forum. Major problems of chronology, decoration, and urban design are emphasized through a methodology that rejects the prevalent building-by-building approach to the forum in favor of an approach that allows the significance of the urban ensemble to reveal itself. Connections with Rome in areas of building type, iconography, and design are stressed. A reexamination of the evidence points to a comprehensive post-earthquake (i.e., post-62) plan for the east side of the forum, a design whose hallmarks are the unification and monumentalization of the urban center. These goals were achieved by blocking streets, linking facades, upgrading building materials, and emphasizing the now more prominent northeastern and southeastern entrances. The concomitant economic implications are significant. Rather than being a symbol of the depressed economic conditions at Pompeii after 62, the forum with its vigorous and ambitious post-earthquake building program reveals both a de- sire to rebuild on a grand scale and an ability (with assistance from Rome?) to carry it out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ga0024
id ga0024
authors Ferrara, Paolo and Foglia, Gabriele
year 2000
title TEAnO or the computer assisted generation of manufactured aesthetic goods seen as a constrained flux of technological unconsciousness
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary TEAnO (Telematica, Elettronica, Analisi nell'Opificio) was born in Florence, in 1991, at the age of 8, being the direct consequence of years of attempts by a group of computer science professionals to use the digital computers technology to find a sustainable match among creation, generation (or re-creation) and recreation, the three basic keywords underlying the concept of “Littérature potentielle” deployed by Oulipo in France and Oplepo in Italy (see “La Littérature potentielle (Créations Re-créations Récréations) published in France by Gallimard in 1973). During the last decade, TEAnO has been involving in the generation of “artistic goods” in aesthetic domains such as literature, music, theatre and painting. In all those artefacts in the computer plays a twofold role: it is often a tool to generate the good (e.g. an editor to compose palindrome sonnets of to generate antonymic music) and, sometimes it is the medium that makes the fruition of the good possible (e.g. the generator of passages of definition literature). In that sense such artefacts can actually be considered as “manufactured” goods. A great part of such creation and re-creation work has been based upon a rather small number of generation constraints borrowed from Oulipo, deeply stressed by the use of the digital computer massive combinatory power: S+n, edge extraction, phonetic manipulation, re-writing of well known masterpieces, random generation of plots, etc. Regardless this apparently simple underlying generation mechanisms, the systematic use of computer based tools, as weel the analysis of the produced results, has been the way to highlight two findings which can significantly affect the practice of computer based generation of aesthetic goods: ? the deep structure of an aesthetic work persists even through the more “desctructive” manipulations, (such as the antonymic transformation of the melody and lyrics of a music work) and become evident as a sort of profound, earliest and distinctive constraint; ? the intensive flux of computer generated “raw” material seems to confirm and to bring to our attention the existence of what Walter Benjamin indicated as the different way in which the nature talk to a camera and to our eye, and Franco Vaccari called “technological unconsciousness”. Essential references R. Campagnoli, Y. Hersant, “Oulipo La letteratura potenziale (Creazioni Ri-creazioni Ricreazioni)”, 1985 R. Campagnoli “Oupiliana”, 1995 TEAnO, “Quaderno n. 2 Antologia di letteratura potenziale”, 1996 W. Benjiamin, “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodizierbarkeit”, 1936 F. Vaccari, “Fotografia e inconscio tecnologico”, 1994
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e933
authors Herbert, Daniel M.
year 1994
title A Critical Analysis of Design Processes and Media: Applications for Computer-Aided Design
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 133-146
summary Architectural designers take part in two complex cultures: a parent culture that affects their overall view of the world, and an architectural subculture that orders the details of their work. With assistance from writings in contemporary philosophy, this paper analyzes aspects of both the parent culture and the subculture as they concern design processes and media. The analysis uncovers assumptions that normally assign such processes and media to a secondary role in which they to a secondary role in which they serve only as neutral and transparent skills. By constructing a set of alternative assumptions, the paper proposes a new, primary, role for design processes and media - a role that enables them to act as intentional and substantial generators of form. These alternative assumptions challenge deeply held beliefs, but examples show that when they are employed experimentally in computer-aided design, they reveal new possibilities unique to digital processes and media.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:31

_id caadria2018_134
id caadria2018_134
authors Kawabe, Akihiro and Watanabe, Shun
year 2018
title An Analysis of Mixed Land Use Toward Designing the Compact City
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 493-502
summary Applying the method of "Land-Use Mix" (Amindabari et al. (2013)) and Focusing on changes in highly mixed land use areas within an extensive survey area and detailed analytical unit, the analysis in this study revealed some trends of distribution of mixed land use areas and their declining patterns in the eastern part of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. For example, among the changing land use patterns of Highly-Mixed-Points-as-of-1994, the pattern that a decreasing mixture index was associated with increasing residential land and decreasing commercial land occurred most often, and the points that changed with that pattern accounted for about 32% of all the Highly Mixed Points, and about 51% of the decrease in mixture index points.
keywords Metropolitan Form Analysis; Land-Use Mix; GIS; Mixed land use; Compact City
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id f59d
authors Koelbl, R., Bruntsch, St. and Knoflacher, H.
year 2003
title Perspective Vienna – A Comparison of Planning Scenarios and Real Development
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary With the suspension of national boarders in unions of nations, cities and their regions gain in significance for the economic, social and cultural development. This is particularly valid for Vienna, which lies close to the eastern boarder of the European Union, which should fall with the enlargement of EU in the near future. Of prominent importance is therefore to obtain a comprehensive understanding between proposed and defined aims for an urban development, the related measures and their extent ofimplementations and their actual or real effects. This paper attempts to give a strategic analysis of the Viennese urban and traffic development programs, from 1962, 1972, 1984 and 1994, on the one hand, and the data analysis of the statistical year books beginning from 1960 until 2000, on the other. The results show that adjustments have been made not only in response to certain trends, but also to a change of philosophy of urban development. It can be seen that certain assumptions of, for example, economic and transport measures can have the opposite outcome in relation to the intended objectives. Hence, one main question remains to beanswered: How should Vienna deal with the challenges ahead, to secure and foster a sustainable development under such circumstances on a long-term basis. In this respect, some measures are given, which should make it possible to overcome successfully these challenges.
series other
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id 6b1d
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1994
title Architectural Briefing Data Representation and Sketch Simulation Computer Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 55-59
summary Reflection about the architectural programme starts with the analysis of its writing, its "style" which bears not only the "griffe" of the programmer but as well the structure, methodology, codes of reading, etc. particular to a programming approach. The programme structure corresponds in most cases to the different levels in the text's format and the composition modes of representing data and their relations. The choice made can either facilitate or impede the reading as interpretation of the programme. The programmer’s aim should be to open the text to reading towards a "synthetic schematic" summary, a sort of cognitive threshold which allows the reader to understand both the client's objectives and the designer's intentions enhanced by his experience. Articulating a designer's experience means focusing on his knowhow and memory. The designer's recollected knowledge and heuristic approaches to the solution of a basic design problem - types, his readings and spatial evaluations permanently feed the knowhow. It is important for the architect to have access to past examples, to the collective memory of his workplace, and a repertoire of readings, notes, sketches, influences and citations. It is therfore equally important that a computer environment also have a multimodal "architect's memory" or "project memory" module in which different forms of representation are classified, and made accessible as memory components. It is also necessary to have the possibility to access at any moment in an interactive manner to the recomposition, addition and adaptation of these mnemonic components. The information coming from the programme, classified as descriptive, prescriptive and quantitative types of data, must be able to be interrogated in different modes of representation : text, matrices, nets, diagrams, and so on, so that the pertinent information can be extraded at any given design process stage. Analysis of competition programmes show that often the description of an activity, for example, the Great Stadium competition in Paris, is described by several pages of text, a circulation diagram with arrows and legend, a topological proximity diagram with legend and as table activity - areas . These different representations, which are supposed to be complementary and give the most pertinent view of the client needs, show in fact after analysis, many description problems, incoherance, and which result in a reading difficulty.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:20

_id 79f8
authors Rieber, L.
year 1994
title Computers Graphics, and Learning
source Brown & Benchmark, Madison
summary The first of the topics begins with an overview of instructional computer graphics. This leads into an overview of the status of instructional visual research including discussions on visual perception, visual cognition, and theories on storing visual information in short-term and long-term memory. More practical application information is found in the next few chapters covering when and how static and animated graphics should be integrated into computer based instruction. The book concludes with a consideration of the role visuals play with multimedia. The useful information of each chapter is delivered with a cautious and wise nature. Rieber introduces his book with the first principle of instructional graphics, which I found to be very insightful. It reads, "There are times when pictures can aid learning, times when pictures do not aid learning but do no harm, and times when pictures do not aid learning and are distracting." The general premise throughout the book is that learning is paramount and should take center stage. He further warns the instructional designer about becoming "technocentric" (this is where technology dictates decision making) and recommends that media decisions not be made untilother instructional decisions are made. Again and again, from chapter to chapter, the reader is reminded of this underlying premise which made this book particularly effective. Another strength was the comprehensive nature of the book. There was an excellent balance of theory, research, and application to ensure the reader will gain the knowledge for appropriate integration of graphics into instructional materials. The theoretical information covers the role of visuals in communication and education, quoting many research sources for validation. There is an overview of three types of instructional graphics (representational, analogical, and arbitrary) and an analysis of their possible use in Gagneís domains of learning. Rieber states that the design of instructional graphics is strongly influenced by the inter-relationships and interdependency of the five domains. To help the reader choose the correct graphic for the job intended, a section describing the five applications of instructional graphics (cosmetic, motivation, attention-gaining, presentation, and practice) is included. It is recognized that these applications originated from Gagne's nine events of instruction.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 9b9e
authors Schofield , Simon
year 1994
title Non-photorealistic rendering : A critical examination and proposed system
source Middlesex University
summary In the first part of the program the emergent field of Non-Photorealistic Rendering is explored from a cultural perspective. This is to establish a clear understanding of what Non-Photorealistic Rendering (NPR) ought to be in its mature form in order to provide goals and an overall infrastructure for future development. This thesis claims that unless we understand and clarify NPR's relationship with other media (photography, photorealistic computer graphics and traditional media) we will continue to manufacture "new solutions" to computer based imaging which are confused and naive in their goals. Such solutions will be rejected by the art and design community, generally condemned as novelties of little cultural worth ( i.e. they will not sell). This is achieved by critically reviewing published systems that are naively described as Non-photorealistic or "painterly" systems. Current practices and techniques are criticised in terms of their low ability to articulate meaning in images; solutions to this problem are given. A further argument claims that NPR, while being similar to traditional "natural media" techniques in certain aspects, is fundamentally different in other ways. This similarity has lead NPR to be sometimes proposed as "painting simulation" - something it can never be. Methods for avoiding this position are proposed. The similarities and differences to painting and drawing are presented and NPR's relationship to its other counterpart, Photorealistic Rendering (PR), is then delineated. It is shown that NPR is paradigmatically different to other forms of representation - i.e. it is not an "effect", but rather something basically different. The benefits of NPR in its mature form are discussed in the context of Architectural Representation and Design in general. This is done in conjunction with consultations with designers and architects. From this consultation a "wish-list" of capabilities is compiled by way of a requirements capture for a proposed system. A series of computer-based experiments resulting in the systems "Expressive Marks" and "Magic Painter" are carried out; these practical experiments add further understanding to the problems of NPR. The exploration concludes with a prototype system "Piranesi" which is submitted as a good overall solution to the problem of NPR. In support of this written thesis are : - * The Expressive Marks system * Magic Painter system * The Piranesi system (which includes the EPixel and Sketcher systems) * A large portfolio of images generated throughout the exploration
keywords Computer Graphics; Visual Representation; Non-photorealistic Rendering; Natural Media Simulations Rendering; Post-processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9401
id ddss9401
authors Akin, Omer
year 1994
title Psychology of Early Design in Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Lately there has been a good deal of emphasis on the early stages of the design process, particularly by developers of computer aids and quantitative design models for both evaluation and generation of designs in a variety of domains. Yet, there is little understanding of the early design-process. While the early design process as manifested by human designers need not be the sole basis of the description of this phase, it certainly represents and important kernel of knowledge, especially for those who are interested in developing models, systems or merely interfaces for such systems. This paper focuses on the characterization of the psychology of the early design phase in architecture. It is described in terms of the general design strategies and problem solving tactics used; and is contrasted against some of the process characteristics that
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 592b
authors Apollonio, F., Carini, A., Farina, R., Nuti, F. and Tolomelli, F.
year 1994
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 71-82
summary The Italian simulation laboratory carries out most of its activity within the experimental programmes promoted by the Ministry of Works. Within this context, we conducted studies based on the topics of EUROPAN competitions for young architects, built models based on EUROREX programme's projects and analyzed experimental projects directly financed by the Ministry (mainly restoration projects).
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:01

_id ddss9403
id ddss9403
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A., Dellaert, B. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title A Multi-Purpose Multi-Stop Model Describing Consumers' Choices of Shopping Centres
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Recently, a number of interesting extensions to traditional decompositional and discrete choice models has been introduced that allow one to combine parameters estimated in different phases ofcomplex choice processes. These extensions offer new possibilities to model combinations of choices consumers make if they select shopping centres to visit. This paper will introduce a modelling approach that describes consumer choices of shopping centres involving multiple shopping functions (multi purpose) as well as locations (multi stop). The approach extends traditional decompositional models of single choices to a model of combinations of choices. It uses a recursive scaling procedure that combines attributes related to different shopping functions and to shopping centres at different locations. The model will be tested on data collected on shopping behaviour in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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