CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 161 to 180 of 354

_id ddss9405
id ddss9405
authors Ayeni, Bola
year 1994
title The Design of Decision Support Systems in Urban and Regional Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Planning methodology over the years, has shifted from situations whereby planners think, plan and design for the people to one whereby both people and planners have become important components of the planning process. Consequently, the important urban planning methodology of the last two decades that utilized mathematical models in the planning process is fast becoming obsolete. The paper argues that model building should move to the creation of urban decision support systems for the planning process through the development of expert systems shells that interfaces existing planning models with the knowledge content of planning and planners. The expert system shells as the set of decision rules for determining how existing supply and demand relationships are applied for modelling land use and transportation would be responsible forguiding the development of appropriate geographical information systems, supporting land use and other models in a coordinated manner, for communicating with these other systems componentsand for guiding interactions between them and the user. Furthermore, decision support systems should be designed to bring the whole of the knowledge base to bear on a problem through a flexible and adaptive solution system that makes explicit use of both the analysts models and the decision makers expert knowledge. It is argued that this understanding leads to the development of three crucial issues for the design of decision support systems in urban and regional planning;namely the development of user friendly integrated urban land-use transportation models, the development of expert geographical information systems and the development of expert systemshells for many of the routine tasks planners deal with.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9407
id ddss9407
authors Barrett, P., Baldry, D., Sexton, M. and Stanley, C.
year 1994
title Key Decisions Within a Generic FM Framework
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Based on extensive fieldwork a generic framework for the facilities management function will be presented within wich a comprehensive range of decisions related to key relationships will be identified. Examples will be given of the application of the framework to a wide range of organisation types. The decision types(pricipally strategic v operational) and techniques to identify which is being confronted will be prposed. Examples will be provided of how, in practice, different organisations approach a given type of decision in a variety of ways.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9412
id ddss9412
authors Bradford, John and Will, Barry
year 1994
title The Temple Tutor Teaching System
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Temple Tutor is a multimedia CA! system developed at the University of Hong Kong to help teach architectural design students about certain fundamentals of building design and construction. It uses 3-D Cad models as user orientation and database access devices. This paper will demonstrate the operation of Temple Tutor, and discuss the types of Information and media used in Temple Tutor.
series DDSS
email bradford@hkucc.hku.hk, bfwill@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9418
id ddss9418
authors Chan, Chiu-Shui
year 1994
title Style: Approach From a Cognitive Point of View
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This research sets up a theory about style from a cognitive point of view. It has been observed that the constant applications of some factors in a design process constitute the formation of a style. Those factors included design constraints, search methods, goals, and the sequential order of applying them. A style may result from certain actions and interactions of these factors. And because of the constant applications of the factors, constant forms by which a style is manifested . The contents of the factors determine the expression of a style which can be imitated and changed from time , whereas the quantities of the factors determine the degree of a style. Thus, this theory provides, explanations about the cause, the degree, the change and the imitation of style.
series DDSS
email cschan@iastate.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9419
id ddss9419
authors Choukry, Maha
year 1994
title Knowledge Acquisition by Measurement: The Domain of Building Change
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper presents a study that is aimed at finding a basis for systematic knowledge acquisition. More specifically, it attempts to introduce, knowledge acquisition by measurement: a method thatallows objective evaluation of empirical observations. Measurement has proven to be a significant tool to acquire, evaluate, and upgrade knowledge in some knowledge domains. In other domains,such as the domain of building change, measurement is barely subject of study. Building change knowledge acquisition by measurement seems to become a significant subject of study for several reasons: (i) increase our objective knowledge of previous building changes, (ii) allow systematic monitoring of present changes, and (iii) assist decisions planning for change in new buildings. In current studies, questions such as what were required changes, what were the building elements that fulfilled a change, how often did a building change, and what were the costs related to a change, often get no systematic or objective answers. Hence, to overcome that, I am concerned with finding a method that is to answer the following questions: 1) What is the domain of building change; 2) Is a method of knowledge acquisition by measurement adequate to represent buildingchanges; 3) Can empirical observations of building change be systematically represented and objectively evaluated using this method; and 4) How can this method be applied to assist theunderstanding of previous changes, the control of present changes, and assist planning for building change. The method introduced is based on three modules: (i) domain of building change; (ii) modelling this domain; and (iii) measurement. These three modules enable the formulation of the measurement of building change, namely the change indicator. Multiple change indicators, such as cost change indicator, or occurrence change indicator can measure empirical observations ofbuilding change. Sequential steps that lead to the development of this method start by section 1, where the domain of building change is specified. In section 2 this domain is modelled, and in section 3, knowledge acquisition by measurement method is introduced. A case study, shows how empirical building changes can be measured is explained in section 4. In section 5, three possible applications are introduced, and in section 6, I explain how a computerized prototype would enhance the efficiency of using such applications. Findings and conclusions resulting from this study are summarized in section 7.
series DDSS
email bwrbmc@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0df3
authors Dam, Hanke van
year 1994
title PLAN EVALUATION BY SIMULATION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 15-22
summary The full-scale model in Wageningen was developed some 35 years ago and has been in use ever since. In a recent brochure about our mock-up system you will find four applications of our model: education, research, consultancy and information. In this paper some information about these four subjects will be presented in the sequence just mentioned. First some general information will be given about the system and about the methodological aspects of the use of our model, named 'the Structural Space Planning Method'.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:01

_id af8b
authors Dave, B., Schmitt, G., Faltings, B. and Smith, I.
year 1994
title Case-based design in Architecture
source J.S. Gero and F. Sudweeks (eds.), the proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Design '94, pp.145-162
summary Computational support in the domain of building design is hampered by the need to control generation and search processes both of which are elusive due to the lack of strong domain theories. Case based reasoning paradigm may be useful to overcome some of these difficulties. A case based design system is presented here that enables case adaptation and case combination of design cases to generate new design solutions more efficiently. Some issues in our approach that are different from other projects with similar aims are also discussed.
series other
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 887f
authors Donath, D.
year 1994
title The Reflection of Research in Education CAAD
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 256
summary More and more the education of CAAD has a fixed place in teaching architecture and urban planning students. In this point of view, the influence of research in this field is necessary for a good and high qualitative level of lectures using computer tools.
series eCAADe
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 1998/09/14 14:18

_id ddss9426
id ddss9426
authors Duijvestein, Kees
year 1994
title Integrated Design and Sustainable Building
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In the international student-project "European Environmental Campus 91 TU Delft Dordrecht" 20 students from 13 European countries worked in september 1991, during three weeks on "EcologicalSketches for the Island of Dordrecht". They worked on four different scales: the region isle of Dordt / the district Stadspolders / the neighbourhood I the house and the block. The environmentaltheme's Energy, Water, Traffic & Noise, Landscape & Soil were together with spatial analyses combined with the different scales. This combination was organised following the scheme mentioned below. The characters stand for the students. During the first period they worked in research groups, during the last period more in design groups. For instance: student L works in the beginning with the students B, G and Q in the research group water. In the last period sheworks with K, M, N and 0 in the design group Neighbourhood. Those students worked earlier in the other research-groups and contribute now in the design-group their thematic environmental knowledge. The results were presented to the Dordrecht council, officials and press. In the next project in september and october 1993 we started earlier with the design groups. Ten Dutch and ten "Erasmus" students worked for six weeks on proposals for the Vinex location Wateringenthe Hague. Each morning they worked in the research groups each afternoon in the design groups. The research groups used the EcoDesign Tools, small applications in Excel on Apple Macintoshto quantify the environmental pressure.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cf2009_585
id cf2009_585
authors E. Swarts, Matthew; A. Sheward, Hugo
year 2009
title Using multi-level virtual environments as a medium for conducting design review through a shared IFC dataset
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 585- 597
summary For a long time the Architecture-Engineering-Construction (AEC) community has had difficulty in communicating the content of their work, not only the various specialties involved, but also to their clients. Studies (Doorst and Cross 2001; Bakhtin 1994) suggest the importance of multi-role collaborative environments in supporting design processes. We are developing a Multi Level Design Review Tool for the AEC industry which allows multiple actors to congregate and interact as agents around a central Building Model. It merges real-time virtual 3D visualization technologies with Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) to support both high levels of semantic content and seamless interoperability.
keywords Design review, virtual environment, interoperability
series CAAD Futures
email matthew.swarts@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id ddss9428
id ddss9428
authors Erturk, Scvinc and Erturk, Zafer
year 1994
title Historical Background of the Visual Simulation Models in Architectural Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary It is well known that every sort of visualization model has its own capacity to represent the reality and designers' concepts of space. To the authors' knowledge, there are very few attempts to measure and compare their relative potential power of presentation. Given this lack of academic studies, it would be necessary to give a historical background on the use of visual models. Basically those tools could be divided into two main types : traditional visula techniques such as drawings , scale models and most advance technological tools ranging from basic slidesand films to recentlydeveloped techniquessuch as relatoscope, and computer aided simulation models. This paper covers the historical background of visual models .
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8708
authors Fernández, A., Bustinza, J. and Aranda, E.
year 1994
title The Electronic Aleph: Borges on the Virtual Studio
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 216
summary Current design process and communication in architecture are being challenged by the use of computing techniques.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:10

_id 2775
authors Fuchs, Wladyslaw and Wrona, Stefan K.
year 1994
title Looking for the Best Place for Computer Models in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 43-46
summary In the past, many Schools of Architecture were mastering skill of preparing hand made models and hand drawings as a main technique in design education (e.g. Warsaw School of Architecture). Introduction of CAAD to teaching process brings a new modelling techniques and a new possibilities. The role of computer models in architectural education is very promissing and still not fully recognized. Development of modelling techniques and communication media is much quicker than development of design studio concepts. Many concepts and experiments in this field had place in architectural schools all over the word. A new concept of design studio based on computer modelling techniques as a communication media is the subject of interest of the Warsaw School of Architecture. The virtuality versus reality in teaching concepts is one of the most important issues in our traditional, professionaly oriented school.
series eCAADe
email wrona@arch.pw.edu.pl
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 0c35
authors Gavin, Lesley C.
year 1994
title The Integrated Teaching of CAAD in the School of Architecture at The Robert Gordon University
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 223
summary This paper discusses how the introduction to computers in architecture being integrated into the design studio can create a stimulating environment for the understanding of the fundamentals of computer aided design.
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id cc19
authors Glennie, William L.
year 1994
title Europe '94 - A Visitor's Report on the State of CAAD in Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 262
summary During May, June and July of this year, I had the pleasure of visiting twelve institutions across Europe where computers are being used in the teaching of Architecture. There are as many different approaches to the incorporation of computers in the curriculum as there are places, and they all have some degree of success. My greatest surprise was the large size of these Schools, even in relatively small countries. Dealing with a huge number of students makes any kind of mandatory computer instruction almost impossible. In spite of all difficulties, enthusiasm and willingness to work directly with students was the single most important characteristic in the faculty and staff who are having the greatest success. Support staff dedicated to the maintenance of equipment and software were provided at most of the institutions. For those who do not have this benefit it is critical to relieve the teaching and research faculty of the need for these time-consuming tasks. Formal research activities are not essential to effective education. The process of setting up such efforts is again a distraction from the more important job of teaching. If research projects grow naturally out of the curriculum, they may be pursued without impeding instruction. Most serious of all, there is a substantial lack of communication and cooperation among these schools, and by implication, among all of the other schools in Europe. The mechanism of annual conferences held by ECAADE is insufficient to exchange information and interests. There were several occasions when I mentioned work that was being carried out at one place that would match very nicely with efforts at another. However, it is clearly impossible for any one school to spearhead this kind of collection and coordination of activities. The only appropriate organisation for this kind of exchange would be a centralised service initiated and maintained by the European Community. It is very important that such a body does not attempt to limit or direct the work of individual schools, rather simply serves as a clearinghouse through which the various groups can benefit from each other's work, to the mutual benefit of all.
series eCAADe
email glennie@rpi.edu
last changed 1998/09/14 14:20

_id 2098
authors Goldman, Glenn and Hoon, Michael
year 1994
title Digital Design In Architecture: First Light, Then Motion, and Now Sound
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 27-38
summary If we restricted our idea of architecture to only the traditional and static description of visual space and form, we might not be considering significant characteristics of the places we are designing. If, however, we accepted even a limited definition, as stated by Le Corbusier, that "architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light", we would at least be forced to consider the dimension of time as the ever-changing daylight modifies the way our creations are perceived. However, neither the built nor the natural environments are silent. Sound affects the way we feel about certain events and places, and in turn, places we create can modify or influence the way we hear sounds. As computers become more audio capable, we can expect changes in the ways that architects plan, design, and present their projects. Issues of both objective and nonobjective sound can become significant factors throughout the building delivery process. As the visual sophistication and acoustic expectations of society rise because of the ubiquitous power of electronic multimedia - as well as "cross-media" applications (film, video, television, and scientific visualization) it is inevitable that the architectural design and presentation processes reflect these changes.
series ACADIA
email goldman@njit.edu
last changed 2003/04/17 13:53

_id ddss9432
id ddss9432
authors Goldschmidt, G.
year 1994
title Visual Reference for Design: Analogy, Transformation and the Act of Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary All designers know that it is impossible to infer a design solution from the givens of a task alone, no matter how complete and well presented they are. Therefore, designers seek to complementinformation they receive, and the material they bring into the task environment includes visual images. Images may be gathered from every imaginable source, from domain-specific images (in architecture they are usually classified and pertain to building type, location, period, technology, style or creator) through 'metaphoric' images (art, nature) to eclectic personal favourites. Inaddition, randomly encountered images may find their way into a database of references: a depository of potentially useful images. With the exception of factual information that fills in thetask givens, it is usually far from clear what purpose may be served by images in general, or to what use the specific images aligned for a particular task may be put. We propose that the singlemost significant 'on line' role of visual references during the process of designing is to suggest potential analogies to the entity that is being designed. The process of discovering and exploitingan analogy in design is complex; we shall explain it in terms of Gentner's structure mapping theory, which we adapt to visual structures. We further propose that the abstraction process thatmust take place for the successful identification and mapping from source (visual reference) onto target (designed entity) requires transformations of images, and such transformations are bestachieved through sketching. Sketching facilitates the two way process of movement from the pictorial to the diagrammatic and from the schematic to the figural. Such transformations musttake place to arrive at the match that allows conceptual transfer, mapping of structural relations and insight through analogy.
series DDSS
email arrggO1@technion.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f7b9
authors Goldschmidt, G.
year 1994
title On visual design thinking: the via kids of architecture
source Design Studies 15 (2), pp. 158-174
summary Designers invariably use imagery to generate new form combinations which they represent through sketching. But they also do the reverse: they sketch to generate images of forms in their minds. Common belief regards such activity as non-rational. In contrast, we assert that interactive imagery through sketching is a rational mode of reasoning, characterized by systematic exchanges between conceptual and figural arguments. Cognitive science, strongly dominated by a linguistic paradigm, has yet to recognize the paramount role of visual reasoning in many instances of problem solving; and in design tool-making, computational and otherwise, we must learn to optimize rather than bypass intuitive visuality.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9435
id ddss9435
authors Grimshaw, Robert
year 1994
title Simulation Models and Facility Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The paper is based on a now completed research project funded by SERC and carried out by the author and former colleagues from the University of Salford in a multi-disciplinary team comprising building maintenance experts and operational researchers. The project sought to develop a model to simulate manpower deployment in a building maintenance organisation using a single case study. Although the results of the project were limited in scope, being more concernedwith the development of the methodology to deal with such problems, the work did have useful outcomes including the development of a database which contained detailed information on the hourly deployment of labour on maintenance and facilities work over a 12 month period. The proposed paper will consider the implications of the output from both the database and the simulation model for the planning of facilities and the deployment of labour in developing and maintaining those facilities.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id d7f4
authors Gross, M.D.
year 1994
title Roles for Computing in Schools of Architecture and Planning
source Journal of Architectural Education, Sep. 94, pp. 56-64
summary A successful effort to incorporate computing in a school of architecture and planning must satisfy varying student objectives and encompass a range of computing roles. This article reviews these roles and presents a case study of computing at the College of Architecture and Planning (formerly Environmental Design) at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Three categories of instruction make up the curriculum: Tool-using courses teach specific applications, tool-building courses focus on developing new design software, and design theory and methods courses provide rationale for specific computational approaches. Finally, strategies employed in developing this curriculum are discussed.
series journal paper
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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