CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 354

_id a887
authors Kaplan, Nancy and Moulthrop, Stuart
year 1994
title Where No Mind Has Gone Before: Ontological Design for Virtual Spaces Papers
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994 pp. 206-216
summary Hypermedia designers have tried to move beyond the directed graph concept, which defines hypermedia structures as aggregations of nodes and links. A substantial body of work attempts to describe hypertexts in terms of extended or global spaces. According to this approach, nodes and links acquire meaning in relation to the space in which they are deployed. Some theory of space thus becomes essential for any advance in hypermedia design; but the type of space implied by electronic information systems, from hyperdocuments to "consensual hallucinations," requires careful analysis. Familiar metaphors drawn from physics, architecture, and everyday experience have only limited descriptive or explanatory value for this type of space. As theorists of virtual reality point out, new information systems demand an internal rather than an external perspective. This shift demands a more sophisticated approach to hypermedia space, one that accounts both for stable design properties (architectonic space) and for unforeseen outcomes, or what Winograd and Flores call "breakdowns." Following Wexelblat in cyberspace theory and Dillon, McKnight, and Richardson in hypermedia theory, we call the domain of these outcomes semantic space. In two thought experiments, or brief exercises in interface design, we attempt to reconcile these divergent notions of space within the conceptual system of hypermedia.
keywords Spatial Hypertext; Interface Design; Information Mapping; Navigation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ddss9450
id ddss9450
authors Kohsaka, Hiroyuki
year 1994
title Spatial Decision Support System for Retail Activity
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This presentation proposes an architecture of Spatial Support System (SDSS) for retail activity. This SDSS is made up of four key modules: data, monitoring, spatial analysis/modelling, and map and report generators. In the data module, spatial shopping data are gathered from Point of Sales (POS) Systems as well as trade area surveys. Two examples will be presented to collect spatial shopping data. One is from an ordinal trade area survey and the other is from point IC cards. The monitoring module can represent retail trade areas as three-dimensional surfaces as well as contour maps by using a colour graphics display after a cartographic analysis which consists of gridding and interpolation of these data. As an application example of monitoring module, retail trade area for a store or a shopping street will be shown as a three-dimensional surface. In addition, themonitoring module can describe a retail structure consisting of the trade area of several retail stores to analyze the spatial competition of them. In the spatial analysis/modelling module, optimization methods search for an optimal location of a new store and an impact analysis assesses the locational impacts of the store upon the existing stores. An optimal location of new supermarket will be solved as an example for this module.
series DDSS
email kohsaka@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9456
id ddss9456
authors Kubiak, Bernard and Korowicki, Antoni
year 1994
title Identification And Analysis of the Recreational Behaviour Forms and the Needed Recreational Space Using the Integrated Spatial and Object-Oriented Gis: Concepts and Statements
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper is concerned with how to measure and investigate changes in the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space in Polish seaside recreational areas in last few years. Spatial information is an integral part of the identification and analysis of recreational behaviour and required recreational space. We postulate, therefore, that spatial information should be fully incorporated in integrated object-oriented GIS and Decision Support Technology. We argue in this paper that the existing theoretical approaches with their descriptive and technical basis do not offer directions for its application and evaluation. They do not seek to explain the processes undergone by spatial information, nor define appropriate data models. New approaches to GIS use object-oriented structures and expert systems concepts, and they will become increasingly helpful in understanding GIS. It is not unreasonable to expect that the most important issue is to use a data model or object-oriented models which closely represent the user's concept of the geographic object for representing spatial phenomena. We have discovered that most Polish users in this field are unable to collect the data they require directly. Thus they have to use methods and techniques, which cannot be found in GIS such as SWOT analysis. According to our experiences, the identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space should be defined as a system approach where: (i) recreational space requires an object, (ii) state of recreational space is defined by the set of values of recreational space features, and (iii) the utility of the recreational space is defined by a set of features. The identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour in the presented approach are based on the features/utilities matrix of the recreational space and the computer map. The development of such a system needs many organizational changes. It is shown that in many applications organizational rather than the technical aspects of GIS determine their future and open the way to new spatial analytical techniques.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9460
id ddss9460
authors Lee, Bing-Huei
year 1994
title Graphic Data Comprehension In Design Thinking
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary There exist several kinds of data qualities when we see a graphic. In such a procedure, we rarely describe all the qualities by language. This is an interesting phenomenon. We are doing something that we understand but we cannot tell when we are thinking or drawing a graphic. A problem like this touches the central point related to the understanding of drawing in design. It is the purpose of this study. A series of experiments is conducted to compare two sets of data: design by drawing and design without drawing. The major result of this experiment is that the type without drawing contains less design contents and is easy to reassemble. The drawing type contains much richer design contents which easily disappeared when reassembled through the descriptions. We believe there exist two major characters of visual data: nameable and unnameable. Nameable data may be designed and communicated without drawing. For the unnameable one, we may proceed when its qualities show out. According to this study, we conclude that the mental representation of visual data is basically prepositional rather than picture-like. But, in design procedures, the picture-like one may appear when the figure comes out of the mental world, with lots of unnameable qualities.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9467
id ddss9467
authors Murison, Alison
year 1994
title A CAD Interface to Objective Assessment of Design to Support Decision Making in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The Department of Architecture at Edinburgh College of Art, Heriot Watt University, has an on-going project to create useful implementations of the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Prof Bill Hillier at the Bartlett School of Architecture, London. Space Syntax can predict the potential usage of each route through an urban space or large building; some routes will be avoided by most traffic (pedestrian or vehicular), while other routes will become busy thoroughfares. It has been used by Architects and Urban Designers to support proposed developments, whether to show that potential commercial activity ought to be concentrated in an area of high traffic, or to change routes through troubled housing estates, bringing the protection of added traffic to areas previously avoided for fear of mugging. The paper describes how a specially written customized version of AutoCAD enables Post Graduate students of Urban Design and Undergraduate Architecture students to test their designs against the Space Syntax Measures. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that plans may be evaluated during the design process, and decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process, and should be useful to many professionals in urban planning.
series DDSS
email arcamlm@heriot.watt.uk.ac
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id b127
authors Oliveira, A.L., Santiago, A.G. and Mittmann, R.
year 1999
title Digital Floripa - CD-ROM of the City
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 399-403
summary The graduation course of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Santa Catarina makes use of informatic tecnology in several teaching and research activities. This technology supports initial data proccessing, analysis, evaluations, simulations, and project development both in architecture and urban fields. Aiming to stimulate and improve the use of computer techniques in graduation courses, the INFOARQ group, belonging to the 'LABMICRO' developed the project 'Digital Floripa'. This project is an CD image data basis, with digital aerophotographs Florianópolis’ city taken, from the aerophotogrametric data of 1994. This project aims to facilitate image's access to teachers, students and researchers, to allow use of photos and scales, and to make possible the development of new alternatives interventions. A navegator program called 'DIGITAL INDEX'supports the user in the image's search and creates a same graphic interface. This project also acts as basis for research development wich aims to analyse and develop tutorial proceedures to access the utilization of the data images basis.
keywords Digital Patrimony, Digital Reconstruction, Virtual Worlds
series SIGRADI
email andrelim@arq.ufsc.br, alina@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id ddss9471
id ddss9471
authors Oxman, Robert
year 1994
title The Reflective Eye: Visual Reasoning in the Sketch
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Despite recent advances in our understanding of design thinking, we still lack a comprehensive theoretical approach to cognitive processes in design and particularly to visual reasoning. Of scientific interest in its own right, understanding non-verbal reasoning is also relevant to a wide range of subjects in the area of visual data resources for designers. This paper presents research into visual reasoning through the study of cognitive acts and processes associated with design drawing. Employing case studies in the design sketch, a vocabulary is defined for describing phenomena of visual reasoning in design as they are revealed in the sketch. Classes of reasoning processes are proposed as strings of graphic acts of state transformation. A theoretical schema is developed which relates the individual act of visual reasoning manifested in the sketch, of sketch sequences, with larger global cognitive phenomena such as analogical or associative reasoning in design. Based upon this schema, a symbol system for these acts and processes is proposed as a coding technique in the observation, analysis and recording of non-verbal processes in design.
series DDSS
email R.M.Oxman@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 61a4
authors Parsons, Peter W.
year 1994
title Craft and Geometry in Architecture: An Experimental Design Studio Using the Computer
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 171-176
summary Craft is one of the main aspects of architecture that accounts for its strong corporeal presence. The Computer used as a geometry machine lacks such tectonics. The predominant means for bringing a sense of materiality to its geometric constructions is through rendering, and in this respect the computer is not significantly different from geometric drawing. One need only recall the beautifully rendered drawings of the Beaux-Arts for a comparison. With the rise of modern architecture such 'paper' architecture was voraciously denounced in the cause of relating architectural production more closely with crafted production. Even now the interest in craft has persisted despite postmodern criticism. Therefore, a means for bringing a greater sense of craft to computer-aided design seems desirable. The architectural studio discussed in this paper was initiated partly for this purpose by intentionally confronting the computer's proclivity to move its users away from craft toward geometry, while at the same time taking advantage of its capabilities as a geometry machine. Craft can best be understood by practicing it. Consider, for example, the use of a chisel in woodwork. As one applies force with it, one can feel the resistance of the material. Carving with the grain feels differently than carving against or across it. Carving a piece of maple feels differently than carving a piece of pine. If one presses too hard on the chisel or does not hold it at the precise angle, there is a great risk of creating an unwanted gouge. Gradually with practice the tool feels as if it is an extension of the hand that holds it. it becomes an extension of the body. One can feel the physical qualities of the wood through it. Like a limb of the body its presence can become transparent and one can learn about what one feels through it. It can imprint a memory in the mind that comes to the brain, not through the eyes alone, but through the tactile senses. On the other hand it is tiring to use a chisel for an extended period of time. One's body begins to ache and, as the body tires, the risks of making an unwanted mistake increase. Furthermore, because a tool becomes wedded to the body, it is almost impossible to use more than one tool at a time unless they are being used in conjunction with one another as one might use two limbs of the body together. On a computer one can never 'feel' an object, the image of which is on the screen, in the same manner that one can feel with a chisel the material upon which one is working. One becomes particularly aware of this when creating a 3D computer model of a hand tool. One wants to hold it, not just look at it. Thus the artifice of the object created by means of the computer becomes very apparent, because the 'tool' has not yet taken on the qualities of a tool, although it has taken on the appearance of one.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:34

_id db56
authors Robbins, E.
year 1994
title Why Architects Draw
source The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts
summary For nearly twenty years Edward Robbins, an anthropologist, has been studying and writing about the system of architectural education and practice in the United States and abroad. In this book he examines the social uses of architectural drawing: how drawing acts to direct both the conception and the production of architecture; how it helps architects set an agenda, define what is important about a design, and communicate with their colleagues and clients; and how it embodies claims about the architect's role, status, and authority. The centerpiece of Robbins's provocative investigation consists of case study narratives based on interviews with nine architects, a developer-architect, and an architectural engineer. The narratives are illustrated by the architects' drawings from projects in Japan, England, Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and the United States, from conception through realization. Included are orthographic and axonometric projections, perspectives, elevations, plans, sections, working drawings, sketches, schematics, construction, and finished drawings. Drawings and interviews with: Edward Cullinan, Spencer de Grey, Jorge Silvetti, Renzo Piano, Alvaro Siza, John Young, Itsuko Hasegawa, William Pedersen, Rafael Moneo, Rod Hackney, Peter Rice.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id aca9
authors Saund, E. and Moran, T.P.
year 1994
title A Perceptually- Supported Sketch Editor
source Proc. UIST 94, Marina del Rey, CA 175-184
summary The human visual system makes a great deal more of images than the elemental marks on a surface. In the course of viewing, creating, or editing a picture, we actively construct a host of visual structures and relationships as components of sensible interpretations. This paper shows how some of these computational processes can be incorporated into peneptuallysupported image editing tools, enabling machines to better engage users at the level of their own percepts. We focus on the domain of freehand sketch editors, such as an electronic whiteboard application for a pen-based computer. By using computer vision techniques to perform covert recognition of visual structure as it emerges during the course of a drawingkditing session, a perceptually supported image editor gives users access to visual objects as they are perceived by the human visual system. We present a flexible image interpretation architecture based on token grouping in a multiscale blackboard data structure. This organization supports multiple perceptual interpretations of line drawing data, domain-specific knowledge bases for interpretable visual structures, and gesture-based selection of visual objects. A system implementing these ideas, called Per-Sketch, begins to explore a new space of WYPIWYG (What Your Perceive Is What You Get) image editing tools.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9483
id ddss9483
authors Shyi, Gary C.-W. and Huang, Tina S.-T.
year 1994
title Constructing Three-Dimensional Mental Models from Two-Dimensional Displays
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In the present study we adopted the tasks and the experimental procedures used in a recent series of study by Cooper (1990, 1991) for the purpose of examining how we utilized two-dimensional information in a line-drawing of visual objects to construct the corresponding three-dimensional mental structure represented by the 2-D displays. We expected that the stimulus materials we used avoided some of the problems that Cooper's stimuli had, and with that we examined the effect of complexity on the process of constructing 3-D models from 2-D displays. Such a manipulation helps to elucidate the difficulties of solving problems that require spatial abilities. We also investigated whether or not providing information representing an object viewed from different standpoints would affect the construction of the object's 3-D model. Some researchers have argued that 3-D models, once constructed, should be viewer-independent or viewpoint-invariant, while others have suggested that 3-D models are affected by the viewpoint of observation. Data pertinent to this issue are presented and discussed.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9488
id ddss9488
authors Solans, Joan Antoni and Fargas, Josep
year 1994
title Towards Hybrid Technologies for Urban Design: Balancing Reliability, Power and Speed in Decision Support
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper constructs a theory of decision support system design, based on the three independent concepts of reliability, power and speed borrowed from epistemology. We say that a system is reliable if a large part of its performance is useful or correct, that it is powerful if it performs in a useful way in a variety of situations of interest, and that it is fast if its behaviour is consistently dynamic. An arithmetic calculator, for example, is more reliable than a mathematician, but the latter is more powerful. A programming language is as reliable as a calculator, but the calculator is faster. We use this framework to argue that a successful deployment of decision support technology must take into account the balance between reliability power and speed. We illustrate this approach with the case of a hybrid system for studying urban transportation issues in the Greater Barcelona Region based on land use, contrasting it with more conventional tools such as traditional geographic information systems or traffic analysis software. The hybrid system is shown to sacrifice the reliability and speed characteristic of commercially available software for a powerful set of computational tools developed specifically for the problem at hand. This tradeoff process is formalized using an analysis based on second-order reliability, power and speed concepts. We show that micro-level sacrifices of one of these properties are often inversely correlated with the same characteristics at the macro level. For example, the relatively slow performance of in-house software components on a given project can result in a high level of dynamism in addressing several related projects. We extend the design theory outlined above to a methodology for characterizing decision support systems in general, and argue that the hybrid technologies approach is more likely to result in systems reflecting the user's domain knowledge and skills.
series DDSS
email jfargas@athena.mit.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9495
id ddss9495
authors Tombre, Karl and Paul, Jean-Claude
year 1994
title Document Analysis: A Way To Integrate Existing Paper Information In Architectural Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In any domain, the use of information systems leads to the problem of converting the existing archives of paper documents into a format suitable the computerized system. In this area, most attention has probably been given to structured document analysis, i.e. the automated analysis of business documents such as letters, forms, documentation, manuals etc., including the well-known area of character recognition. But document analysis is also a powerful tool in technical domains such as architecture, where large quantities of drawings of various kinds are available on paper. In this paper, we shortly present the state of the art in technical drawing analysis and propose some techniques suitable for the specific application of the conversion from paper to architectural databases.
series DDSS
email tombre@loria.fr
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a8c0
authors VoB, A.
year 1994
title Case-based Reasoning in Building Design: Problems of Case Elicitation and Retrieval
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(4), pp. 49-62
summary This article deals with a set of problems that arose in the course of the FABEL project in order to build a system assisting in the design of complex buildings: Task analysis indicated a case-based approach with the subtasks of retrieval, assessment and adaptation of layouts. The idea of first choosing a retrieval method which would then guide the further knowledge elicitation process did not work, because there was no single suitable method. We investigated retrieval methods based on keywords, on vectors, bitmaps, gestalten and on topological structures. As it turned out, each method imposes a particular interpretation on a layout and serves different retrieval purposes. Using multiple methods required an open software architecture providing case management facilities for the various methods. Last not least, the extraction of relevant cases from integrated building models is not trivial at all. Both automatic routines of standard cases and manual extraction of special cases should be available.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
email jean.winem@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 20ab
authors Yakeley, Megan
year 2000
title Digitally Mediated Design: Using Computer Programming to Develop a Personal Design Process
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture
summary This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left in many cases to chance. This thesis describes a new course taught by the author at MIT for the last three years whose aim is to teach the design process away from the complexities inherent in the studio system. This course draws a parallel between the design process and the Constructionist view of learning, and asserts that the design process is a constant learning activity. Therefore, learning about the design process necessarily involves learning the cognitive skills of this theoretical approach to education. These include concrete thinking and the creation of external artifacts to develop of ideas through iterative, experimental, incremental exploration. The course mimics the Constructionist model of using the computer programming environment LOGO to teach mathematics. It uses computer programming in a CAD environment, and specifically the development of a generative system, to teach the design process. The efficacy of such an approach to architectural design education has been studied using methodologies from educational research. The research design used an emergent qualitative model, employing Maykut and Morehouses interpretive descriptive approach (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) and Glaser and Strausss Constant Comparative Method of data analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Six students joined the course in the Spring 1999 semester. The experience of these students, what and how they learned, and whether this understanding was transferred to other areas of their educational process, were studied. The findings demonstrated that computer programming in a particular pedagogical framework, can help transform the way in which students understand the process of designing. The following changes were observed in the students during the course of the year: Development of understanding of a personalized design process; move from using computer programming to solve quantifiable problems to using it to support qualitative design decisions; change in understanding of the paradigm for computers in the design process; awareness of the importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal communication skills; change in expectations of, their sense of control over, and appropriation of, the computer in the design process; evidence of transference of cognitive skills; change from a Behaviourist to a Constructionist model of learning Thesis Supervisor: William J. Mitchell Title: Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cbed
authors Yakubu, G.S.
year 1994
title Maximising the Benefits of CAD Systems in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 228
summary The positive impact of Computer Aided Design (CAD) in professional architectural practice has been in focus in recent times but relatively little has been written on its significance in the education of the contemporary architect. It is common knowledge that the profession of architecture is currently undergoing enormous strains as it battles to keep abreast of trends and developments in a period of series of rapid advancement in science, technology and management (RIBA, 1992). Whilst attempts are being made to redress the shortcomings of the profession in the above context, the requirements for architectural education are yet to forge a coherent strategy for the implementation of CAD/IT in the curriculum of schools of architecture. In almost every other field, including engineering, medicine and the humanities, computing application to problem-solving and decision-making is seen as a way forward as we move into 21st century. Architectural education must integrate CAD/IT into the teaching of core modules that give the architect distinctive competence: studio design. That is one of the best ways of doing justice to the education of the architect of today and the future. Some approaches to the teaching of CAD in schools of architecture have been touched upon in the recent past. Building upon this background as well as an understanding of the nature of design teaching/learning, this paper examines ways of maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education and of bringing computer aided designing into the studio not only to enhance design thinking and creativity but also to support interactive processes. In order to maximise or optimise any function, one approach is to use the hard systems methodology which utilises analytic, analogic and iconic models to show the effect of those factors which are significant for the purposes being considered. The other approach is to use the soft systems methodology in which the analysis encompasses the concept of a human activity system as a means of improving a situation. The use of soft systems methodology is considered more appropriate for dealing with the problem of design which is characterised by a flux of interacting events and ideas that unroll through time. The paper concludes that the main impediment to maximising the benefits of CAD systems in architectural education is not only the inappropriate definition of the objectives for the implementation of CAD education but also that the control subsystems are usually ill-structured and relatively poorly defined. Schools must attempt to define a coherent and consistent policy on the use of CAD systems as an integral part of studio design and evolve an in-house strategic and operational controls that enable the set objectives to be met. Furthermore, it is necessary to support the high level of productivity from CAD systems with a more efficient management system, especially in dealing with communication, data sharing via relational database, co-ordination and integration. Finally, the use of soft systems methodology is recommended as the way forward to optimising CAD systems in design education as it would provide continuous improvements while maintaining their productive value.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:16

_id dda4
authors Yezioro, Abraham
year 1994
title Form and Performance in Intelligent CAAD Systems for Early Stages in Solar Design Building
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary Great care should be taken at the initial design stages to determine the principles and solution schemes for climate and energy-conscious buildings. The present study deals with supporting the designer's efforts at the early stages to lay down the appropriate principles for a conceptual and geometric design of energy-preserving buildings, which are also thermally comfortable and adapted to local climatic conditions. For years, especially during the last decade, important data concerning climate-conscious construction has been compiled, but the information has not been utilized by designers, due to its inaccessibility. It is significant, though, that solutions based on this knowledge could be found and assessed at the preliminary design steps. A correct climate-conscious design conceived at the initial stages may guarantee that during later phases of the project's development no problems calling for essential and drastic changes in the basic design will crop up. The meaning of such changes at later stages may require sometimes a redesigning of the entire project. It is vital, therefore, to understand at the pre-conceptual phase, what are the correct climatic-solar design strategies which satisfy the requirements of the local conditions, and enable the attainment of thermal comfort conditions, while consuming the least possible energy. The present study proposes a computer-aided passive solar design system (PASYS) which enables the handling of entire designing process, and its general, conceptual aspects, as well as the preliminary designing steps and their particular, practical aspects. The system is based both on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning solar-climatic construction in the form of rules of thumb, and on precise procedural models which enable finding solutions suited to the local climatic conditions. The proposed system is an intelligent CAAD system which equips the designer who is aware of the constraints of climate and energy, with a tool to achieve a better design. PASYS was developed as a universal system to deal with the various activities involved in the initial – pre-conceptual and conceptual - design stages. The system supports the following design activities of each stage of this kind: analysis, synthesis, documentation, assessment and decision making. It is capable of analyzing given conditions, thus helping the designer understand which are the significant preliminary design stages that have a bearing on thermal comfort conditions in a given climate. The system is also capable of proposing solutions corresponding with the particular design phase, and assess their adequacy. These solutions take into account the constraints determined both by the designer and by the system itself, owing to the knowledge base it contains. The system can also document the various solutions that have been found and selected, so that may be further developed at later stages. This documentation is carried out by a graphic interface, developed as part of the system, as well as by an interface devised for existing CAD software. This study highlights the interaction between form and performance. The system is able to assess the performance of a proposed design by considering a given geometry (form), or viceversa, it is able to recommend a solution that can deliver desired and required performances. The study comprises three parts: (a.) Development of the conceptual model of a knowledge based design process. (b.) Further development of the initial stages of the afore mentioned process, including the pre-conceptual and conceptual stages. (c.) Demonstration of the mode of work with the PASYS system. // The first part of the study deals with the definition of the design process, the definition of the various design steps and their characteristics, and the definition of the activities involved in each design step. This part of the work also presents the kinds of knowledge bases affecting the design process, and shows how this knowledge is an inseparable part of the design process. The second part deals with the development of the initial design stages - the pre-conceptual and the conceptual - which are based on knowledge. This part also contains compiled knowledge that is relevant to the design stage, and a knowledge storage and retrieval method that was developed so as to make the knowledge available and accessible on demand. This part further presents precise procedural methods, developed to find solutions adapted to the specific given conditions, and to precisely assess the performance of the proposed solution. A case in point is the module of the SHADING system which enables a precise assessment of the mutual shading of buildings, and an examination of the exposure of the southern elevation to the sun, which is necessary in order to determine the effective solar absorption area in a proposed project in given environment conditions. The third part of the study demonstrates the solar-climatic design process put into action and supported by the system that was developed. This system enables the designer, even at the preliminary design stages, to determine which properties relating to local climatic conditions he will introduce into the building. This important, seemingly natural act, is usually performed during more advanced stages, when it might generate significant changes in the design, at a juncture when changes are hard to make. A PASYS-aided design environment ensures that from the beginning of the designing process, the project will be designed correctly and efficiently as far as energy is concerned.
keywords Knowledge Base; Design Process; Form; Performance; CAAD Systems
series thesis:PhD
email array01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/03/03 10:58

_id e751
id e751
authors Clayton, M.J., Kunz, J.C., Fischer, M.A. and Teicholz, P.
year 1994
title First Drawings, Then Semantics
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 13-26
summary The Semantic Modeling Extension (SME) prototype implements a unique approach to integrated architectural CAD that places the drawing act first in the design process. After drawing a design idea using a computer graphic system, the designer interprets the design, providing semantic content to the graphic entities. An interpretation expresses the meaning of the design with respect to a particular issue, such as structural sufficiency, energy consumption, or requirements for egress, and provides reasoning to evaluate the design addressing that issue. A design may have many interpretations to express the multiple issues that are relevant in a design project. The designer may add or delete interpretations of the design as issues change during the course of the project. Underlying the SME prototype are the concepts of form, function and behavior. In the prototype, evaluation of a design is done by deriving behavior from the graphically represented forms and relating the behavior to stated functions or requirements. The concepts of interpretations and form, function and behavior together establish a virtual product model for design. In contrast to component based approaches to product modeling that tightly bind form representations to their behavior and function, a virtual product model allows the designer to manipulate the relations among these three descriptors of a design, and thus manipulate the semantics of the design entities. By distinguishing between the act of proposing a design by drawing the conceived form and the act of assigning meaning to the form, the virtual product model approach supports both graphic thinking for design synthesis and symbolic reasoning for design evaluation. This paper presents a scenario of the use of the SME prototype in building design; provides an analysis of the design process and computational support described in the scenario; contrasts a virtual product model approach with a component-oriented product model approach; describes the software implementation of SME; and presents implications and conclusions regarding design process and technical integration.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2003/12/06 07:49

_id b110
id b110
authors Abadi Abbo, Isaac and Cavallin Calanche, Humerto
year 1994
title Ecological Validity of Real Scale Models
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 31-40
summary Space simulation is a technique employed by architects, urban designers, environmental psychologists and other related specialists. It is used for academic and research purposes, as an aid to evaluate the impact that the built environment or that to be built would yield in potential or real users. Real Scale Model is organized as one of the models which represents more reliable spatial characteristics in space simulations. However, it is necessary to know the ecological validity of the simulations carried out, that is the degree in which laboratory results could be taken as reliable and representative of real situations. In order to discover which variables of the model used are relevant so that their perception results ecologically valid in respect to reality, a research has been designed in which simulations of specific spaces are appraised both in real space and in the real scale model. The results of both evaluations were statistically analyzed and it shows no significative differences in psychological impressions between the evaluation of real spaces and real scale model. These ecological validation of the real scale model could be of great use to estimate the validity of the results obtained in spaces simulated in the laboratory.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2006/06/24 07:29

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