CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 354

_id 0574
authors Alison Murison and James Gray
year 1994
title Spatial Analysis for Museum Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 201-206
summary The paper describes how a specially written customisation of AutoCAD enables students of Architecture to use the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Professor Bill Hillier of the Bartlett School of Architecture, London, to examine a number of existing museums, to compare the findings against other criteria, and to draw conclusions about the strategy adopted in museum design. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that they may be evaluated during the design process, with decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0ecc
authors Anh, Tran Hoai
year 1994
title APPLICATION OF FULL-SCALE MODELLING IN VIETNAM: AN OUTLINE FOR DISCUSSION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 59-70
summary This paper discusses the possibility of applying full-scale modelling in Vietnam, a non-western so called developing country. It deals with two main questions: 1) Is the application of full-scale modelling to be restricted to the West only? 2) what are the possibilities, constraints and fields of application - with attention to the methodological validity and technical solution for full-scale modelling in Vietnam? It is argued that since full-scale modelling is based on people-environment interaction, it should, in principle, apply to studies about people–environment relation anywhere on earth. On the methodological validity, it is discussed that application of full-scale modelling in Vietnam faces similar methodological problems as encountered in European applications (such as people's behaviour in experiment, ability to understand the abstraction of models, etc.) although at another level as this paper will make clear. However, it would be needed to design a modelling kit that is of low costs and adapted to the availability of local materials and suitable for the climatic condition of Vietnam. Two fields of application are projected as most applicable in Vietnam: modelling in architectural education and research investigation. Application for user's participation in the design process will depend on the development of building policy in the country.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:00

_id ddss9404
id ddss9404
authors Arima, Takafumi and Sato, Seiji
year 1994
title Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: A Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ca51
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1994
title CAFE: Composition for Architects - Forms and Emotions
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 249
summary In the architectural creation process there has always been an inclination to improve the methods of designing in the way of ,,objectivization" of designing process. Objectivization which would explain why we do design in this way and not the other. In spite of the trend to the total objectivization (Vitruvius, Alberti, Palladio), the results appeared to be still subjective, i.e. they included methods of designing typical of the one and only architect. This fact made them completely useless in the designing practice. On the other hand one cannot underestimate their meaning as to this very practice. Because it is just thanks to them that the development of designing studies has taken place. We do learn not only watching works of great architects, but also studying their opinions concerning problems of form, function and construction. That is why it seems to be useful to collect experiences concerning the classic theory of architectural composition, which have been gathered through centuries, as well as to try once again to objectivize the process. Composition information arranged in the form of data-base would create the ground for proper functioning of an expert system uniting diagnostic and planning functions. Study of that kind, not claiming design applications could be an excellent educational equipment in teaching architectural composition. In the proposed teaching system attempts have been made to look at the architectural composition theory in the light of the perception of the form, and - emerging in this process - emotional and aesthetic evaluations. In order to define which evaluations have been most often expressed during the perception process of architectural forms, the students of Architecture Faculty in Bialystok Technical University have been polled on the subject: ,,Which words are most commonly used in the descriptions of architecture works?"

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9406
id ddss9406
authors Bakel, Anton P.M. van
year 1994
title Assesing Strategy Questionnaire for Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD)
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper the first results will be discussed that were obtained by the Assessing Strategy Questionnaire For Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD). This questionnaire was developed specifically for the assessment of architectural design strategies. The construction of the questionnaire will be discussed in light of previous protocol research on strategic styles of designing. With this questionnaire, we developed a tool to assess an architects design strategy in a faster, easier and more reliable way than used to be the case with conventional protocol studies and other knowledge eliciting techniques like Card Sorting, and Repertory Grid. This questionnairewas submitted in a pilot study to 10 experienced Dutch architects. R.esults show that architects do indeed have preferences for different design situations. Moreover results indicate that they havea preference with respect to their responses within such specific situations. Though the generalizability coefficient was calculated for no more than 10 architects with a value of .57 (generalizing across situations), we feel that this is reason enough to assume that the questionnaire can be used to assess design strategies of architects. These results will be discussed with respect to the development of new design and decision support tools. The fact that designers have preferences for specific design problems and that they respond differently should be considered in the implementation of user interfaces and data base technology where possible.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9409
id ddss9409
authors Beekman, Solange and Rikhof, Herman G.A.
year 1994
title Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
series DDSS
email h.g.a.rikhof@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ee23
authors Bille, Pia
year 1994
title A Study of Color
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 185-190
summary Color courses are traditionally based on exercises carried out with either water color or colored paper. Use of the computer as a tool for teaching color theory and analyzing color in architecture was the topic of a course given at the School of Architecture and Planning at the State University of New York at Buffalo, USA where I was an exchange faculty in the academic year 1993/94. The course was structured into 3 topics: color theory, color perception and application of color.
series eCAADe
email pia bille@mail.a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9411
id ddss9411
authors Bouillé, Francois
year 1994
title Mastering Urban Network Intersection And Superimposition, in an Object-oriented Knowledge System Integrating Rules, Neurons and Processes
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many networks cover the urban texture, either superimposed at a variable distance, or really intersecting, or even in interconnection. We briefly recall the HBDS model, working on persistent abstract data types associated to graphical representations and carrying algorithms expressing conditions to be verified and/or actions to be performed. HBDS is an integrated system too, including database, expert system dealing with fuzzy rules and facts, discrete simulation engine, and neural engine; it has a general purpose programming language. Any urban network is associated to a given prototype, according to the same scheme named prototype with more specific components. These prototypes allow to build the different thematic structures instantiations of the prototypes. All possible cases of arc intersection or "pseudo-intersection" (simple superimposition)or interconnection are obtained by, owing to new prototypes. Moreover, such (pseudo)-intersections are automatically recognized and processed without a human intervention, owing to classes ofconstraints and classes of rules. They deal with particular constraints concerning the location of some urban furniture, and rules concerning the way a cable or a pipe must follow according to thepre-existing other networks in a given area, the minimal distances, minimal or maximal depths, and some required equipments. Urban classes of (pseudo-)intersections inserted in the hyperciass"neuron", inheriting of neural features, may be used for automated learning of urban knowledge; owing to their "behavior", these neurons can communicate and perform actions on other components. Urban classes inserted in the hyperciass "process" may be used for building very large models simulating complex urban phenomenons, thus allowing a better understanding of the real phenomenons. As a conclusion, we emphasize the methodological aspects of object-oriented integration for an efficient processing of the urban context, based on prototyping and mixing rules, neurons and processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0e58
authors Campbell, D.A. and Wells, M.
year 1994
title A Critique of Virtual Reality in the Architectural Design Process, R-94-3
source Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/r-94-3/: 23 May 2001
summary An addition to a building was designed using virtual reality (VR). The project was part of a design studio for graduate students of architecture. During the design process a detailed journal of activities was kept. In addition, the design implemented with VR was compared to designs implemented with more traditional methods. Both immersive and non-immersive VR simulations were attempted. Part of the rationale for exploring the use of VR in this manner was to develop insight into how VR techniques can be incorporated into the architectural design process, and to provide guidance for the implementers of future VR systems. This paper describes the role of VR in schematic design, through design development to presentation and evaluation. In addition, there are some comments on the effects of VR on detailed design. VR proved to be advantageous in several phases of the design. However, several shortcomings in both hardware and software became apparent. These are described, and a number of recommendations are provided.
series other
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9417
id ddss9417
authors Chan, Chiu-Shui
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Tutoring for Multimedia Tasks
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Using a computer or a software package involves procedural knowledge, or knowledge of a series of instructions. When a user recognizes the appropriate computer commands (the method) in acertain application, it is assumed that the user is capable of doing a computer-related or computeraided task. Based on this assumption, the current project explores methods of developing a computer tutoring system to convey know-how efficiently. The purpose of the project is to make novices familiar with machines and with techniques of handling multimedia for presenting design concepts. A teaching tool is designed that combines images, sounds, and movements to create an effective learning environment. The tool is a hypermedia system consisting of different software and hardware components implemented in the HyperCard. How to manipulate different media will be taught by means of cross-references, graphic display, text explanations, and background music. Hopefully, this project will suggest some useful methods for teaching CAD to novice computer users.
series DDSS
email cschan@iastate.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9420
id ddss9420
authors Christie, Colin Ian
year 1994
title User Interfaces and Systems for Remote Design Working on ISDN Systems
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper will discuss the requirements and possible configurations of user interfaces suitable for remote working multi-disciplinary design practices. Telecom companies throughout Europe are making heavy investments in digital communication technology (ISDN). The networks being created will form a standard method of high speed data transfer which can be readily accessed by any computer hardware platform. There are great opportunities for remote working by design groups, not simply sharing data but also interactive working and video communications. Digital communications provide the electronic arterial system to the new field of remote computing,whilst cheap and effective hardware and software support systems provide readily usable platforms on which to build remote multi-disciplinary design practices where the exploitation of specialistknowledge and skills is not limited by traditional methods of communication. ISDN networks allow real time video, voice and design software interaction - indeed, everything except the designer's physical presence. However as with all computer technology and indeed communications technology the user interface which gives access and control is vitally important. The user interface should provide the following features: be transparent to the user and simple and reliable to operate; allow an interactive window/s into the remote site's design information whatever the type of application being dealt with; carry out data compression, file transfer and file management procedures with minimum input from the user; cause no conflicts with design software or secondary applications;be able to access different platforms.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 45f0
authors Coleman, Kim
year 1994
title Synergism and Contingency: Design Collaboration with the Computer
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 209-217
summary The outcome of an architectural project is always contingent, dependent upon conditions or events that are not established at the outset. A university design studio does not easily replicate the state of flux which occurs as an architectural commission proceeds. In developing an architectural project, each new situation, whether it be a building code issue, an engineering issue, or a client reaction, must be viewed as an opportunity to further refine and develop the design rather than a hindrance to the outcome. In the design studio I describe in this paper, students test processes which attempt to take advantage of contingent conditions, opening up the design solutions to new possibilities. As a means to open up the design process to new possibilities, this studio introduces the computer as the primary tool for design exploration. Through the computer interface, the work speculates on the possibilities of synergism, defined as the actions of two or more substances or organisms to achieve an effect of which each is individually incapable.' Three synergetic conditions are explored: that between the designer and the computer, that between the designer with computer and designers of previous works of art or architecture, and that between two or more designers working together with the computer. The lack of a predictable result, one that may be obvious or superficial, is a positive byproduct of the synergetic and contingent circumstances under which the designs are developed.

series ACADIA
email kcoleman@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ddss9421
id ddss9421
authors Daru, Roel and Adams, Wim
year 1994
title Matchmaker: An Instrument for Matching Demand for and Supply of Buildings and Revealing Specific Discrepancies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary To match supply and demand of buildings, various approaches are possible. While artificial intelligenceis favoured by some, we think that a less 'heavy' approach can be more cost and time efficient. The casewe have chosen to exemplify our approach concerns architectural heritage. To match supply and demandwhile at the same time respecting the constraints imposed by cultural heritage, it is necessary to bringthem together and to effectuate feasibility studies in the shortest possible time. The feasibility study shouldbe served by tools allowing the various partners to communicate on the level of the match between them, translated in terms of spatial organisation and building constraints. In the past years, our designmorphology group has developed and tested a graphic-based reordering tool which has been applied to large governmental buildings, both existing and new. The same tool can be used for weighted objectives ranking and evaluation, to have a synthetic view of the combined basic preferences and differences of the involved parties as for example in a jury wise evaluation and ranking of alternative proposals. The proposed tool is the electronic and graphic version of the data and association matrices, which have been for a long time recommended for use in the preliminary phases of design. But as long as these instruments could only be drawn and redrawn on paper they were much too ineffectual and found little real application. The developed tool is connected by sub-routines to a computer aided design package, within which the spatial patterns are translated into plans and attached data bases. The matching takes place in a number of steps. The first is to describe the organisation (the demanding party) as functional units which can be made corresponding with spatial units. The prescription of spatial needs can take place in both quantitative and qualitative manners. The Matchmaker tools offer the possibility of interactive clustering of spatial needs. Another step, which can be taken concurrently, is to describe the monument in spatial units and distance relationships. The input can be generated directly within the matrix, but it is much easier, more self evident and realistic to generate this automatically from the draughted plan. The following step is the input of constraints originating from heritage preservation objectives, expressed in levels of authorised intervention. Again, the Matchmaker tools offer here the possibility of visual clustering of spatial units, their relationships and associated properties. In the next step, the matching takes place. In this step the actual positions, properties and constraints of existing spaces in the monument are compared (and visualised by discrepancies views) to the optimised and clustered spatial needs of the end user. In the following phase, the feasibility in terms of space, building fabric and costs can be appraised. Once a compromise has been attained, preliminary proposals can be designed and laid down in terms of drawings. The spatialdesigns can then again be translated into matrix views and evaluated.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9424
id ddss9424
authors Dave, Bharat and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1994
title Information Systems for Spatial Data
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes a continuing research project aimed at the development of a prototype information system to represent and manipulate models of urban settlements. This inter-disciplinaryproject involves researchers and teachers in the fields of urban design, photogrammetry and CAD. Based upon the requirements identified by the urban design team, the photogrammetry teamused aerial imagery to produce accurate digital models of various features of urban settlements. The models comprise natural features like terrain data, water and vegetation systems, and man made features like transportation networks, land parcels, and built-up volumes. These data are represented in the three dimensions, and they are further linked with nongraphic attributes stored in an external database schemata. The architecture of the system under development has been described previously. In this paper, we focus on the generation of thematic abstractions. The working hypothesis for our current work is that (i) to enable reliable decision-making in urbandesign contexts, we require digital models that are complete and accurate at a certain degree of resolution, and (ii) during various stages in the decision-making, we need useful abstractionswhich encode only the salient information and no more. In more specific terms, we are interested in finding computational means to automatically generate schematic generalizations of data that succinctly represent some information without recomputing or displaying all the vectrs and other details. In this papar we present some of the strategies that we employ to support such operations in our system and also present graphic examples that demonstrate the potential andlimitations of our approach.
series DDSS
email dave@arch.ethz.ch, schmitt@erch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9425
id ddss9425
authors Deguchi, Atsushi and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title Integration System for Urban Design from Planning Management to Visalization
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Advanced tools based on CAD or GIS systems and simulation methods have recently been introduced to support the many aspects of urban planning (design, analysis, evaluation, presentation). This research aims at constructing a system by integrating these support tools and linking GIS and simulation tools. The major purpose of this system are to manage the geographical data base of the target urban area, utilize the digital information of the area for planning and analysis,evaluate the impact of alternative proposals on the physical environment such as sunlight and daylight, visualize the results of analysis, and support the management of urban redevelopment /development projects. This paper shows some applications to illustrate usefulness of the system. These examples are concerned with a contemporary problem in urban planning of Tokyo: redevelopment of low-rise high-density residential districts and high-rise development in the central business districts. Urban redevelopment for the high-density urban areas in Japan requiresa evaluation of alternative plans by visualizing their environmental impact. This system enables the quantitative analysis of the environmental impact by using 3-dimensional geographical data andsimulation methods. In general, the merit and effect of planning support systems are recognized in terms of the "efficiency" of the planning process. The primary function of GIS is thought to bethe unification and management of various pieces of information. In addition, this research indicates the effectiveness of the integrated system in terms of utilizing the geographical information and visualizing the image of the future environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 4f23
authors Dieberger, Andreas
year 1994
title Navigation in Spatial Information Environments: User Interface Design Issues for Hypertext and VR Systems Posters
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994
summary The Information City project (presented in a poster at Hypertext 93) uses the spatial user interface metaphor of a city to organize and navigate large collections of hypertextual information. As we are used to navigate real life cities the city metaphor -- enriched with magic features -- should help to navigate information structures. A first implementation of the Information City was started in a MUD system. MUDs are networked multi-user text-adventure games which usually make use of a house / city metaphor. MUDs are conceptually similar to hypertext systems and navigational findings in those systems are therefore relevant also to hypertext. While implementing the first parts of the city research into navigation in MUDs was found necessary. This poster presents some results of this navigational study and describes how knowledge in the domains of architecture and city-planning can be used to design an easy to navigate virtual city. Highlights of the results concern magic features and collaboration. Magic features extend the spatial metaphor beyond typical properties of space. An example is the hypertext link which allows tunneling through the spatial structure. Other results concern the richness of spaces (or space-descriptions) and communication between users. It seems the chief benefit of the spatial metaphor of the city is in communication about spatial relationships of information. The findings probably are valuable in designing any information system using spatial metaphors. They are especially useful for hypertext systems realized in some virtual environment -- be it a MUD or an immerse virtual reality system.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

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