CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 354

_id ddss9446
id ddss9446
authors Horgen, Turid
year 1994
title Post Occupancy Evaluation as a Strategy to Develop an Improved Work Environment
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary A post-occupancy evaluation is a formal way of finding out whether a recently occupied, remodelled, or built environment is performing, as was intended in its programming or design, and a term which has been developed in the professional field in the United States over the last 20 years. The Scandinavian approach to the same question has emphasised surfacing the values of the users of the work environment as a tool for a more comprehensive approach to space planning and design. A recent case-study of the Taubman Building at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government was aimed at blending the two strategies for evaluation, defined postoccupancy evaluation as a dialogue with the client, as a process to help the client reflect on spatial and technological improvements, or alternate strategies for organisational locations in buildings, and offers an interesting example of a possible future direction for POE's. Sheila Sheridan, Director of Facilities and Services at the Kennedy School, commissioned the case-study, and has been using it result in her daily work. Jacqueline Vischer, who has developed a survey of seven key dimensions of work-place comfort for commercial office buildings throughout eastern North America, and Turid Horgen, who has developed tools for participatory environmental evaluation and programming, widely used in Scandinavia, carried out the study and facilitated the evaluation process. The study is also done in the context of the ongoing research on these issues in the design Inquiry Group at the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT, which is involved in a larger program for developing strategies and tools for more effective programming and management of corporate space. This research defines the workplace environment as the interaction between four dimensions: space, technology, organisation and finance. Our approach is to integrate programming and evaluation with organisational planning and organisational transformation.Post occupancy evaluation is seen as a way to inform the client about his organisational culture as he manages the fit between a facility and its uses, and as one of several tools to bridge the frameworks and viewpoints and the many "languages" which are brought into the decision making process of designing the built environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
title CONTEXTUALIZATION AND EMBODIMENT IN CYBERSPACE
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id 2ccd
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1994
title 3D Visualization in Design Education
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 177-184
summary It has been said that "The beginning of architecture is empty space." (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, "These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer." (1979)

series ACADIA
email lnk@email.psu.edu
last changed 2000/03/13 19:27

_id e8b9
authors Kesler, Beatrice
year 1994
title PROGRAMME OF HABITAT WISHES - A TOOL FOR COMMUNICATION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 23-30
summary How to develop an attractive built environment with the desired housing and well kept outdoor conditions? As long as experts do not ask lay-people for their needs and wants, we must not be surprised that people are not interested in their environment and show a lack of care. The contribution of (future) inhabitants in the planning process can have a material and a social impact on building, improving and maintaining a neighbourhood. One of the problems that have to be solved is the question how to improve the communication between non-professionals and professionals, between inhabitants and designers (architects). Inhabitants express themselves in a simple language about the number of rooms, cupboards, size of the garden and parking place. Architects communicate in drawings of designs and talk in a technical language about functions, forms, spacial structures, light and expression. It can be helpful - is the fundamental idea in Wageningen - to develop a shared language, to start talking about activities and to use scale models in a structured process. The participation process is a sort of exploratory expedition. Good communication is a must for a successful participation process. A clear expression of the 'programme of habitat wishes' is the first step in the dialogue between inhabitants and architect. The Structural Space Planning Method is a structured process to develop a 'programme of habitat wishes' for the built environment. It can be related to all sorts of objects: houses, co-housing projects, institutions, playgrounds, streets or neighbourhoods. Full scale and scale models are part of the Structural Space Planning Method, as described by Van Dam (these proceedings). This contribution describes some practical experiences with the development of the 'programme of habitat wishes' and the effects on the participation process.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 08:59

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id b9c4
authors Kim, Inhan
year 1994
title Data representations in an integrated architectural design environment
source University of Strathclyde, Dept. of Architecture and Building Science
summary The architectural design process is very complex and involves cross-disciplinary communication among many related fields. Given the further problems arising from the technological advances in building materials and construction methods, an integrated design environment becomes a central design issue. There have been many attempts to analyse and structure the design process as a uniform hierarchical framework. Most of the attempts resulted in a vague and inappropriate outcome due to the lack of understanding of architectural design complexity and inconsistent design data control sequence. A design problem cannot be comprehensively stated because the design problem has a multi-disciplinary nature and the design problem itself evolves as solutions are attempted by the designer. Therefore, an ideal CAAD system should have the capability to accommodate the multi-disciplinary nature of design and should not prescribe or restrict design concepts and design knowledge. A well designed integrated design environment provides more information and invokes creative imagination for each design stage, and therefore creative decision making by the designer can be achieved. This thesis proposes a prototype architectural design environment, Hybrid Integrated Design Environment [HIDE], which aims to integrate all applications for designing a building. Within the object-oriented design environment, a unified data model and a data management system have been implemented to seamlessly connect all applications. Development of the environment needs to consider the fundamental interaction between each module. Devising a data structure that is appropriate to an effective data communication among the various design stages is essential in a totally integrated CAAD system. The suggested unified data model organizes the structure of the design data to keep the design consistent throughout the design and construction process. By means of the unified data model, integrated CAAD systems could represent and exchange design information at a semantic level, i.e. the user’s way of thinking, such as exchanging components and features of a building rather than graphical primitives. In consequence, the unified data model reduces the misunderstandings and communication problems among the multiple disciplines of architectural design. The suggested data management system supports the consistent and straight forward mechanisms for controlling the data representation through the inter-connected modules. It is responsible for creating, maintaining, and viewing a consistent database of the design description. It also helps to perform effective data communication among the various design stages to ensure quality and time saving in the final construction of the building. To support inter-disciplinary communication of design concepts and decisions, the integrating of relevant CAAD tools is essential. In the environment, the integration of CAAD tools has been performed on the basis of how well computerized design tools can assist designers to develop better solutions, enabling them to manipulate and appraise varying solutions quickly and with a minimum of effort in an environment conducive to creative design. A well designed user interface system can also benefit the seamless working environment. The proposed user friendly interface system allows a user to explore the environment in a highly interactive manner. From the development of the early data model to the final design, a user could benefit from the prototypes and methods of the user interface system. The ultimate goal of the prototype environment is to suggest a future design environment which helps the architect to have minimum discontinuity in his creativity and make the design process similar to the natural design process with the help of a set of design assistance modules. A prototype version of HIDE has been implemented and a demonstration of the environment is part of this thesis.
series thesis:PhD
email ihkim@khu.ac.kr
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ddss9451
id ddss9451
authors Kolli, R., Hennessey, J. and Stuyver, R.
year 1994
title A Conceptual Sketching Device for the Early Phase of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Computer tools are still not popular among designers during early phases of design. Existing mouse-based software applications provide excellent features for constructing precise drawings and illustrations, but they are cumbersome to use during conceptual design phase for rapid free form sketching. We propose a user interface concept for a new pen-based computer device calledIDEATOR. The functions and user interface style for IDEATOR were derived from our studies of industrial designers. Because of its simplicity and ease of use, we believe that the device will beof potential interest to architects, graphic designers, user interface designers and fashion designers as well. We interviewed practising industrial designers and several creative professionals at theirwork places to get an insight into user behaviour and work practices that are characteristic of the initial ideation phase [1]. Based on our observations, we envisaged a schematic user environment where several devices and systems support the various needs of designers. In a focused effort on sketching activity, we studied sketchbooks related to an entire project and video tapes of designers during sketching phase. From these, we derived the functional requirements for a sketching device [2]. In this paper, we describe the conceptual product form and user interface for IDEATOR which is based on LCD tablet technology and cordless electronic pens. We illustrate through our video prototypes, how it could be intuitively used to perform various ideation functions: sketching rapidly in colour, making quick collages of photographs, animating sketches and annotatinganimations or video. We are currently in the process of evaluating the concept prototype with several industrial designers.
series DDSS
email r.kolli@io.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9452
id ddss9452
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Recognition and Retrieval in Visual Architectural Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The development of visual architectural databases is heavily constrained by two technically, practically and conceptually intricate problems, input and retrieval. Input of visual images indifferent forms and from a variety of sources results into computer documents which can only be reproduced and disseminated. Any other use requires extensive annotation of the images with respect to indexing terms and other conceptual structures that make the images identifiable. The bulk of even modest visual databases and the complexity of the images and of the conceptual schemes means that interactive processing is labour-intensive and unreliable. Retrieval also relies on the same processes of annotation and indexing, which make possible the correlation of database contents with user queries. The paper presents the potential of automated recognition for inputting architectural floor plans into visual databases. An optically digitized image is segmented and each segment recognized as an instance of a building element (wall, door, window, etc.). The array ofrecognized elements is then controlled for recognition and segmentation errors. Further processing allows identification of spaces in the floor plan and of their interrelationships. The output of the process is a symbolic array that is much more compact than the original pixel array and also amenable to abstract and /or specific user queries, such as "How many doors are there in the floorplan" or "Which floor plans contain a double loaded corridor". These queries can be input verbally or graphically. Identification of building and spatial elements in a floor plan also allows use of vocabulary control in retrieval: user queries are checked against a thesaurus of architectural terms for accuracy and precision. The user is then presented with options for the improvement of the query before proceeding with identifying relevant entries in the database. Use ofvocabulary control as a search intermediary improves performance and reduces user frustration by making explicit the relevance of a query.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9453
id ddss9453
authors Krafta, Romulo
year 1994
title Urban Configuration, Attraction And Morphology
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Spatial Interaction (SI), based on the principle of attraction, has set up a powerful way of looking at the behaviour of urban systems. Within-place activities generate and/or attract trips, due to their inner fragmentary nature; several activities articulate a system of locations and flows which is supposed to be regulated by concentration of those activities and distance between them'. SI has been criticized for having a poor theory and little regard to spatial specifics. In general terms, planners and large-scale urban scientists have been more comfortable with it than designers and urban morphologists, whose questions about space configuration are awkwardly dealt with in such a framework. Recently, Space Syntax (SS) has been suggested as an alternative to describe possible roles of space in the urban system. Its theory looks very complex - a deep cultural, anthropological connection between man and space, an atavistic impulse driving the shaping of space. Teklenburg et al have shown, however, that it is, in fact, very simple and not far from the rude assumptions of SI: a matter of distance and orientation3. Hence, what does look new is just its way of describing orientation, through the axiallity of public space. Axial lines retain the fundamental issue of connectivity; so they describe space more efficiently than the traditional zones or links used in SI models. SI says little about configuration, SS says little about interaction between spaces and activities, and both say nothing about morphology, or the configurational development of urban systems. An alternative approach is suggested: (i) urban spatial configurati-on (urban grid and built form) strongly conditions activity location and flows, in the short term. In this way, a convenient description of such a configuration should denounce its potential to housing activities and generate flows. This required description should take the grid axiallity as a measure of connectivity and orientation, as in SS, as well as the built form as a measure of attraction, as in SI; (ii) activity location and flows strongly conditions urban spatial configuration change, in the long run. Location and flow patterns create values that are expressed by an increasing conflict between rising land values and declining building values. As a result, configuration is taken as a particular state of a morphology whose transformation rules are an economic expression of spatiality. Flows are cause and effect in the lagged process of mutual transformation which shapes the urban space.
series DDSS
email krafta@vortex.ufrgs.br
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9454
id ddss9454
authors Krantz, Birgit
year 1994
title Post-Occupancy Evaluation in the Swedish Context: Some Critical Aspects
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Evaluation theory and methodology will be discussed by focusing two issues: (i) the traditional evaluation in Sweden, considered as an established research activity; (ii) the contributions of recent POE and its theoretical and methodological implications. An important and crucial question is how the outcome of the different approaches can serve design and planning practice. The Swedish experiences are concentrated to the fields of housing, quality of life and social care.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9455
id ddss9455
authors Kraria, H. and Bridges, Alan
year 1994
title Building Integration Tools for Collaborative Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary For many years, research in CAAD systems has been mostly oriented towards single environ-ments, thus restricting the designer to a static environment. In reality the activities of user designers constantly interact with other participants activities (i.e. a structural engineer, services engineer, etc.). For instance, the architect is heavily influenced by the nature of the structural engineering process. It defines the character and integration of the basic components in other words, design is a collaborative process carried out by several participants with a single overall objective. The separation of architectural and engineering aspects in building design has brought on isolated computer tools. These tools are not interchangeable, the situation demands for their integration, all the interaction are supported by the social aspect of members of group participa-ting in collaborating work. The benefits of sharing CAD tools and related data between all members of the design team are that everyone works on the same information, co-ordination is easier and more accurate, and there is a reduction in the amount of repetition, as the need to redraw information is eliminated. The result is an increase in the accuracy and speed of the production of drawings. The technological aspects to support collaborative work and in particular the interaction process in design, is the main work issue being carried out at Strathclyde University, Department of Architecture and Building Science, Glasgow, Scotland U.K.
series DDSS
email CCAV9O@VAXA.STRATH.AC.UK
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9458
id ddss9458
authors Kurose, Shigeyuki and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title A Comparative Analysis of the Road Networks of Premodern Citiesby Using the First Eigenvector of the Transition Matrix
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a method for comparing road networks from the view point of pedestrian flows. We constructed a type of spatial interaction model where the shopping trip distributions were determined using a partially doubly-constrained type of model. The method for comparing the road networks is based on this model. The method is as follows. The road networks are represented by nodes and links. Then, P, the probability for a pedestrian to move from node i to nodej is expressed by the following equation: Pij = Wj exp (- ßcij) / Wj exp (-ß Cij)where Cij is the distance between node i and j, W, is a measure of attraction of node), and beta is the distance-decay parameter. We proved that V., the first eigenvector of transition matrix, (Pij), indicates the ratio of pedestrian flows at node i at a steady-state condition. By using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix, road networks can be compared. In this paper, a general method for calculating the first eigenvectors of transition matrices will be described and several road networks of premodern cities in Europe, Middle East and Japan will be compared. The results indicate that the method of comparing pedestrian road networks by using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix is useful.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e3ac
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 1994
title Reflections on Computer Mediated Architectural Design
source IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol 37 number 4, December 1994, pp. 226-230
summary The application of computer tools to mediating and promoting collaborative design efforts between mutually distant parties has become feasible. Technology is again ahead of practice and problems of assimilation have only begun to be explored. This paper postulates some requirements of environments for computer mediated collaborative design in architectural practice; drawing upon experiences of design collaboration between schools of architecture in three continents; supplementing these with enquiries into design excellence in practice
keywords CSCW; Professional Practice; Architectural Design; Computer-Aided Design
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id ddss9459
id ddss9459
authors Langelaan, Willem
year 1994
title Sequential and Concurrent Cad Layering
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Most CAD software allows graphical and text objects to be grouped into layers. There are two fundamentally different methods for layering: sequential layering and concurrent layering. With sequential layering, layers are attributes of the CAD database and objects are attributes of a layer. With concurrent layering, objects are attributes of the CAD database and a layer is an attribute of an object. Sequential layering emulates the pinbar drafting technique. As a result, it is output oriented. Only one layer at a time can be edited. Concurrent layering is uniquely a computer based layering method which has no manual equivalent. User specified sets of layers can be edited concurrently. It makes it possible to organize the infrastructure of the CAD database which equally facilitates input, i.e. editing design information, and output, i.e. presenting construction information on paper. Specification levels are related to design levels and to construction phases. Specification levels can serve as interfaces between input and output. In particular, a concurrently layered CAD database can be structured in layers which conform to specification levels. Furthermore, the layers can be subdivided by sub-system such as construction discipline, and by partial-system such as room finish schedules. It is demonstrated how a concurrently layered environment for computer aided design can be developed which permits deductive and inductive design activities. The appendix provides a detailed example of a concurrently layered CAD file with a default input and output environment of layers and layer groups. The environment was developed to coordinate the design and production activities of an architectural practice. The connections between layers and layer groups are illustrated in a 22 x 32 matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a9f0
authors Lentz, Uffe
year 1994
title New Tools: New Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 217
summary Our young students have no strong bindings to the tools and methods of our profession. With their open-minded access to the media, they often try to do things, which are surprising and new. Things which would have been impossible to think of without a computer. They are inspired of apparently unknown design-options, which they find in CAD-tools, or they are exploring possibilities in 'strange' combinations of media, not unknown from Television-commercials and music-videos. This Blitz-session will show some students' projects in a very short while. The common thing is, that the students have broken rules, that the teacher never realised were rules, because of his (my) traditional education. One student uses a solid modelling -tool for inspiration, - another uses an auto-tracing tool to generate the concept - and a group of students used a combination of video, grabbing and 3D-modelling to generate new architecture.
series eCAADe
email uffe.lentz@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/04/01 19:04

_id 8c8d
authors Li, Andrew I Kang and Tsou, Jin Yeu
year 1996
title Using Virtual Models to Teach Traditional Chinese Wood Construction
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 119-130
summary In this paper we discuss our experience in using virtual models to teach traditional Chinese wood construction. Although our approach is technically simple – we use a kit of model parts made with the Solid Modeler of AutoCAD, Release 12 (now Release 13), and customized commands in AutoLISP – we have had excellent results. This is because of the remarkable match between the modelling medium and the highly systematized nature of traditional Chinese wood construction. It is this crucial – and interesting – characteristic that we want students to understand and appreciate. In our first teaching experience, in the fall term, 1994-95, despite unexpected drawbacks, our approach succeeded. In fact, our students, all Hong Kong Chinese, were surprisingly enthusiastic and even took pride in the sophistication of this uniquely Chinese construction system. In 1995-96, we have used the same kit of parts in two courses: an introduction to Chinese architecture (spring term) and an advanced course in Song dynasty wood construction (fall term). We first discuss briefly the theoretical basis for our approach. We then describe the assignments, the kit of parts, and supporting materials used in our teaching experiences. Finally, we discuss our findings and consider directions for the future development and improvement of our approach.
series CAADRIA
email andrewili@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id ddss9462
id ddss9462
authors Liggett, Robert S. and Jepson, William H.
year 1994
title Implementing an Integrated Environment for Urban Simulation CAD, Visualization and GIS
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Using technology which has been adapted from military flight simulation hardware and software, researchers at UCLA's Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning are currently developing an integrated computing environment for Urban Simulation which includes a high-level visual simulation package, an industry standard CAD system, and a traditional two dimensional geographic information system and data bases. The focal point of the integrated system is a visual simulation engine which has been developed using Silicon Graphics' IRIS Performer application development environment. With this system, aerial photographs can be combined with street level video to efficiently create a realistic (down to plants, street signs and the graffiti on the walls) model of an urban neighbourhood which can then be used for interactive fly and walk-through demonstrations. Links have been established between this visual simulation system and AutoCAD to allow models (at varying levels of detail) to be generated using the CAD system and translated into the form required for the visualization system. Links between the GIS system (in this case ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW) and the visual simulation system provide the capability for dynamic query and display of information from the GIS data base in a real-time 3-dimensional format. Links between the CAD and GIS systems allow common base maps to be used for the GIS and modelling systems as well as automatic generation of 3-d form. While an earlier paper by the authors discussed proposed strategies for such an Urban Simulation System, this paper focuses on the results of actual implementation of these strategies, as well as the use of the system for modelling, exploration and display of alternative physical environments.
series DDSS
email robin@gsaup.ucla.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 28f5
authors Lloyd, P. and Scott, P.
year 1994
title Discovering the design problem
source Design Studies, Vol 15, No 2, 125-140
summary The design disciplines of architecture, engineering, and computer science have provided three distinct models of the design process. We hypothesize that these models merely indicate three approaches to design, and that fragments of all three models will be found in any one discipline. To discuss this issue we present a discipline-independent cognitive framework which we then apply to a protocol analysis study of five engineering designers. Our results indicate that the designer's experience plays a key role in determining the design process.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9463
id ddss9463
authors Lucardie, Larry
year 1994
title A Functional Framework For Conceptual Modelling
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary A conceptual model is not only indispensable for the design and implementation of knowledge based systems, but also for their validation, modification, maintenance and enhancement. Experience indicates, however, that in many cases reality is not well reflected in a full-fledged conceptual model. What is systematically lacking in the prevailing conceptualization methods is a well-developed theory of knowledge that underlies conceptualization methods: a theory that precedes the process of forming meaningful classifications and that precedes the specification of a conceptual model. To date, conceptualization methods are based on the probabilistic assumption that, in essence, all conditions necessary for creating a classification, are provided initially and can easily be revealed by utilizing mathematical measures of similarity. Another frequently occurring prototypical assumption is that for creating a classification, necessary conditions are sufficient. Furthermore, it is assumed that the categories of conditions are a priori fixed and unconditional. That conceptualizing takes place without any explicit background knowledge about goals of classifications and without contextual influences and that categorizations have an unconditional status are not viewed as problems. In contrast to these approaches, the functional view states that relevant descriptive attributes are not necessarily a priori given but should be acquired through knowledge about goals of classifications and about contexts. It is also asserted that an explicit concern for necessary conditions will not suffice for capturing the dynamics of reality. Furthermore, the functional view puts forward that a goal- and context-oriented strategy leads to the reconstruction of new attributes and categorizations with a dynamic status. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretic and practical merits of the functional view compared to the probabilistic and prototype approaches. Conceptual models developed in the Computer Integrated Manufacturing-Project will serve as illustrations for the main ideas.
series DDSS
email leg@bouw.tno.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6f6a
authors Lyons, Arthur and Doidge, Charles
year 1994
title The Animation of Dynamic Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 233
summary The most valuable resource in education is student time and the greatest asset is the ingenuity of student minds. CAD technology now offers enormous potential to education, but limitations in time and funding, prevent its use to the extent possible within practice. Therefore, after dealing with 'awareness', 'attitude' and 'limited applications', our most important role in education is to encourage innovation. The third year of the honours option course at De Montfort University takes this as its theme and challenges students to explore and exploit innovative applications. One particular area of development has been exploring the dynamic aspects of architectural design which go much further than the well-established 'fly-through' sequences. A great deal of architectural design and design development depends upon dynamic issues which range from movement joints to construction sequence. A visual understanding of these dynamic issues drawn from appropriate computer animations can now be an effective factor in design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:18

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