CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 359

_id c5a9
authors Batty, M. and Longley, P.
year 1994
title Fractal Cities - A Geometry of Form and Function
source Academic Press, London
summary Fractal Cities is a pioneering study of the development and use of fractal geometry for understanding and planning the physical form of cities, showing how this geometry enables cities to be simulated through computer graphics. It shows how cities evolve and grow in ways that at first sight appear irregular, but which, when understood in terms of fractals, illustrate an underlying order that reveals their complexity and diversity. The book contains sixteen pages of stunning computer graphics and explanations of how to construct them, as well as new insights into the complexity of social systems. The authors provide a gentle and intelligible introduction to fractal geometry as well as an exciting visual understanding of the form of cities, thus providing one of the best introductions to fractal geometry available for non-mathematicians and social scientists. Fractal Cities can be used as a text for courses on geographic information systems, urban geography, regional science and fractal geometry. Planners and architects will also find that there are many aspects of fractal geometry in this book relevant to their own interests. Furthermore, those involved in fractals and chaos, computer graphics, and systems theory will find important methods and examples that are germane to their work.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9404
id ddss9404
authors Arima, Takafumi and Sato, Seiji
year 1994
title Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: A Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a3ef
authors Garcia, F., Fernandez, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1994
title Discovering Fractal Geometry in CAAD
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 69-74
summary Fractal geometry provides a powerful tool to explore the world of non-integer dimensions. Very short programs, easily comprehensible, can generate an extensive range of shapes and colors that can help us to understand the world we are living. This shapes are specially interesting in the simulation of plants, mountains, clouds and any kind of landscape, from deserts to rain-forests. The environment design, aleatory or conditioned, is one of the most important contributions of fractal geometry to CAAD. On a small scale, the design of fractal textures makes possible the simulation, in a very concise way, of wood, vegetation, water, minerals and a long list of materials very useful in photorealistic modeling.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:21

_id ddssup9610
id ddssup9610
authors Krafta, Romulo
year 1996
title Built form and urban configuration development simulation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The "centrality/potential" model, proposed by Krafta (1994), for configurational development, aims at the simulation of inner city built form growth. This is generally achieved by simulating the uneven distribution of floor area increments, resulting from replacement of old buildings, considered "devalued capital" form new ones. The model considers two main variables - public urban space system and built form - and treats them unevenly; the former is extensively disaggregated whereas the latter is not. This feature enables the model to make just a rough account of intra-urban built form development. The issue of built form simulation is then taken further in the following way: a) Urban built form is disaggregated by types. Buildings are classified by a cross combination of scale, purpose, age and quality standard; b) The city is itself considered as a set of intertwined typologic cities. This means that each unit of public space is identified by its dominant built form type, producing a multilayered-discontinuous city. Each one has its own market characteristics: rentability, technological availability and demand size; c) The market constraints determine which layer-city has priority over the others, as well as each one's size of growth. References to rentability and demand size gives each built form type priorities for development d) Spatial conditions, in the form of particular evaluation of centrality and spatial opportunity measures, regulates the distribution of built form increments and typological succession. Locational values, denoted by centrality and spatial opportunity measures, area differently accounted for in each layer-city simulation. e) Simulation is obtained by "running" the model recursively. Each built form type is simulated separately and in hyerarquical order, so that priority and replacement of built form types is acknowledged properly.
series DDSS
email kraffa@vortex.ufrgs.br
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 01ef
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title From Real to Virtual Building Behaviours: “Expert Hypertexts” in the Design Studio
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 243
summary Starting from the refuse of the most impressive, on fashion performances of the so called Virtual Reality, I hypothize for the architectural education of the next decade a strategy based on the following scenario: ()- as regards the form of the virtual studio, it should result from the synergy of many moments and opportunities: telematic interaction; students working at home; students training through assistant design tools in the university venue, with or without teachers’ supervision; informal discussion teachers-students about such training; traditional teachers’ lectures as introductions or resumes; (-) as regards the function of the virtual studio, it should realize the awareness of building behaviours, by teaching architectural design through the critical analysis of positive and - even more important - negative “precedents”.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id e751
id e751
authors Clayton, M.J., Kunz, J.C., Fischer, M.A. and Teicholz, P.
year 1994
title First Drawings, Then Semantics
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 13-26
summary The Semantic Modeling Extension (SME) prototype implements a unique approach to integrated architectural CAD that places the drawing act first in the design process. After drawing a design idea using a computer graphic system, the designer interprets the design, providing semantic content to the graphic entities. An interpretation expresses the meaning of the design with respect to a particular issue, such as structural sufficiency, energy consumption, or requirements for egress, and provides reasoning to evaluate the design addressing that issue. A design may have many interpretations to express the multiple issues that are relevant in a design project. The designer may add or delete interpretations of the design as issues change during the course of the project. Underlying the SME prototype are the concepts of form, function and behavior. In the prototype, evaluation of a design is done by deriving behavior from the graphically represented forms and relating the behavior to stated functions or requirements. The concepts of interpretations and form, function and behavior together establish a virtual product model for design. In contrast to component based approaches to product modeling that tightly bind form representations to their behavior and function, a virtual product model allows the designer to manipulate the relations among these three descriptors of a design, and thus manipulate the semantics of the design entities. By distinguishing between the act of proposing a design by drawing the conceived form and the act of assigning meaning to the form, the virtual product model approach supports both graphic thinking for design synthesis and symbolic reasoning for design evaluation. This paper presents a scenario of the use of the SME prototype in building design; provides an analysis of the design process and computational support described in the scenario; contrasts a virtual product model approach with a component-oriented product model approach; describes the software implementation of SME; and presents implications and conclusions regarding design process and technical integration.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2003/12/06 07:49

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 0726
authors Kadysz, Andrzej
year 1994
title CAD the Tool
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 212
summary What is the role of CAAD as a tool of architectural form creation ? We used to over-estimate the role of computer as significant factor of design process. In fact it serves only to produce technical documentation and to visualise designed buildings. We usually use CAAD to record ideas, not to create designs. We use it like more complex pencil. But it is unsuitable for conceptual design , with imperceptible influence on idea definition. Its practical usefulnes is limited. I would like to consider and find out reasons of that state, present some conclusions and ideas on computer aided architectural form creation. Many tools were invented to extend posibilities of human body or intellect. Microscop and telescop are extensions of human eye. Which organ is extended by computer (especially by CAAD)? CAAD with high developed function of visualising of the object beeing designed seems to be an extension of architect's imagination. It is beeing used to foresee visual efects, to check designed forms, to see something what we are not able to imagine. It performes the role of electronic modeler. Real model and virtual model - the medium of presentation is diferent but ways of using them are similar . Dislocation of place where we build model is not a big achievement, but potential possbilities of CAAD in modeling are almost unlimited (?). What are special features of CAAD as a modeling tool? First we have to consider what is indispensible when building a model: to embody idea. To do this we need space, substance and tools. In architectural design practice space is a real site with definite climate, neigbourhood, orientation. Substance that we shape is an archiectural form composed of many difrent elements: walls, windows, roof, entry, ... , proportions, rhythm, emotions, impresions... The tool is: our knowledge, imagination, talent, experience, norms, law and drawing equipment. Working with the computer, making virtual model, we have many of mentioned elements given in structure of CAAD program and interpreted by it. But many of them have different character. Making traditional dummy of building we operate on reality which is manually accessible. In case of computer model we operate on information. Space, substance and tool (- program) are informations, data. Human being is not an abstract data processor, but creature that lives non stop in close, direct, sensual contact with nature. By this contact with enviroment collects experiences. Computer can operate on digital data that is optionally selected and given by user, independent upon enviromental conditions. Usually architecture was created on basis of enviroment, climate, gravity. But these do not exist in CAAD programs or exist in the symbolic form. Character of these conditions is not obvious. We can watch demeanour of objects in gravity but it can be also antigravity. In theory of systems everything is considered as a part of biger system. In "virtual" reality (in computer space) we deal with accurences which are reduced to abstract level, free upon terms or connections. We work with our CAAD software using geometric space whithout any other principle.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:04

_id 2ccd
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1994
title 3D Visualization in Design Education
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 177-184
summary It has been said that "The beginning of architecture is empty space." (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, "These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer." (1979)

series ACADIA
email lnk@email.psu.edu
last changed 2000/03/13 19:27

_id ddss9482
id ddss9482
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N.
year 1994
title Interaction with Architectural Cases in a Virtual Design Environment
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The prime business of architecture is change through design. While most architects will welcome any tool which supports this activity with minimal effort, they will not embrace a tool which either seems to automate design or requires major efforts to understand and use. Conventional databases - be it in the form of books or computer applications - are normally in a serving function to support the activity of design and to provide reference. Visual databases have a long history in architecture in the form of drawings, photographs and, more recently, computer-captu-red or computer-generated images. Whereas the first computer-based image libraries closely followed the existing paradigm of existing paper-based libraries, new developments both in software and in computing media offer different opportunities. Knowledge-based and case-based descriptions of architectural features increasingly replace the traditional, passive representations. While in the past these images were subject to more or less random interpretations, the new computer-based images are only one representation of a model which includes many other aspects. The visual aspects of a building are thus no longer restricted to the finished drawing, but new representations of the abstractions of a building become possible. True and direct interaction with visually presented objects thus becomes a reality. The paper presents a prototype of a visual database in a virtual design environment in its critical aspects: (i) the architectural content and representation of such a database and the criteria for the cases in it, (ii) the enabling computing and software environment, and (iii) three practical applications. The prototype is presently being implemented in the Architectural Space Laboratory (ASL) in the Department of Architecture at ETh Zurich.
series DDSS
email schmitt@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9497
id ddss9497
authors Venemans, P., Daru, R. and Wagenberg, A. van
year 1994
title Orientation in and Around Large Buildings: Guidelines and Architects
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Wayfinding and orientation problems for visitors of large buildings such as hospitals and offices are still prevalent in spite of a long tradition of research on spatial cognition. Analysis of suchproblems indicates that the characteristics of the building mainly cause these problems. These problems can be prevented by a design tool that aims at improving the orientation of users in large buildings, as changing a building afterwards is often expensive and impractical. As a base for such a design tool, guidelines are derived from the research on wayfinding and orientation. However, guidelines are only part of the solution. This design tool should be structured and presented in a form useful to architectural designers. In order to enhance its usefulness, architects of large public buildings studied a draft version of the tool and were interviewed about: (i) presentation form preferred for the tool and the guidelines, as well as the guideline contents; (ii) the function of the design tool with regard to the architects' design style; (iii) typical design solutions which specifically support or conflict with the guidelines; (iv) possible conflicts resulting from the guideline suggestions, in relation to other goals of the client or the architect. In the paper we discuss the results of the interviews and present our conclusions. We also demonstrate a prototype of the design tool.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id dda4
authors Yezioro, Abraham
year 1994
title Form and Performance in Intelligent CAAD Systems for Early Stages in Solar Design Building
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary Great care should be taken at the initial design stages to determine the principles and solution schemes for climate and energy-conscious buildings. The present study deals with supporting the designer's efforts at the early stages to lay down the appropriate principles for a conceptual and geometric design of energy-preserving buildings, which are also thermally comfortable and adapted to local climatic conditions. For years, especially during the last decade, important data concerning climate-conscious construction has been compiled, but the information has not been utilized by designers, due to its inaccessibility. It is significant, though, that solutions based on this knowledge could be found and assessed at the preliminary design steps. A correct climate-conscious design conceived at the initial stages may guarantee that during later phases of the project's development no problems calling for essential and drastic changes in the basic design will crop up. The meaning of such changes at later stages may require sometimes a redesigning of the entire project. It is vital, therefore, to understand at the pre-conceptual phase, what are the correct climatic-solar design strategies which satisfy the requirements of the local conditions, and enable the attainment of thermal comfort conditions, while consuming the least possible energy. The present study proposes a computer-aided passive solar design system (PASYS) which enables the handling of entire designing process, and its general, conceptual aspects, as well as the preliminary designing steps and their particular, practical aspects. The system is based both on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning solar-climatic construction in the form of rules of thumb, and on precise procedural models which enable finding solutions suited to the local climatic conditions. The proposed system is an intelligent CAAD system which equips the designer who is aware of the constraints of climate and energy, with a tool to achieve a better design. PASYS was developed as a universal system to deal with the various activities involved in the initial – pre-conceptual and conceptual - design stages. The system supports the following design activities of each stage of this kind: analysis, synthesis, documentation, assessment and decision making. It is capable of analyzing given conditions, thus helping the designer understand which are the significant preliminary design stages that have a bearing on thermal comfort conditions in a given climate. The system is also capable of proposing solutions corresponding with the particular design phase, and assess their adequacy. These solutions take into account the constraints determined both by the designer and by the system itself, owing to the knowledge base it contains. The system can also document the various solutions that have been found and selected, so that may be further developed at later stages. This documentation is carried out by a graphic interface, developed as part of the system, as well as by an interface devised for existing CAD software. This study highlights the interaction between form and performance. The system is able to assess the performance of a proposed design by considering a given geometry (form), or viceversa, it is able to recommend a solution that can deliver desired and required performances. The study comprises three parts: (a.) Development of the conceptual model of a knowledge based design process. (b.) Further development of the initial stages of the afore mentioned process, including the pre-conceptual and conceptual stages. (c.) Demonstration of the mode of work with the PASYS system. // The first part of the study deals with the definition of the design process, the definition of the various design steps and their characteristics, and the definition of the activities involved in each design step. This part of the work also presents the kinds of knowledge bases affecting the design process, and shows how this knowledge is an inseparable part of the design process. The second part deals with the development of the initial design stages - the pre-conceptual and the conceptual - which are based on knowledge. This part also contains compiled knowledge that is relevant to the design stage, and a knowledge storage and retrieval method that was developed so as to make the knowledge available and accessible on demand. This part further presents precise procedural methods, developed to find solutions adapted to the specific given conditions, and to precisely assess the performance of the proposed solution. A case in point is the module of the SHADING system which enables a precise assessment of the mutual shading of buildings, and an examination of the exposure of the southern elevation to the sun, which is necessary in order to determine the effective solar absorption area in a proposed project in given environment conditions. The third part of the study demonstrates the solar-climatic design process put into action and supported by the system that was developed. This system enables the designer, even at the preliminary design stages, to determine which properties relating to local climatic conditions he will introduce into the building. This important, seemingly natural act, is usually performed during more advanced stages, when it might generate significant changes in the design, at a juncture when changes are hard to make. A PASYS-aided design environment ensures that from the beginning of the designing process, the project will be designed correctly and efficiently as far as energy is concerned.
keywords Knowledge Base; Design Process; Form; Performance; CAAD Systems
series thesis:PhD
email array01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/03/03 10:58

_id ddss9409
id ddss9409
authors Beekman, Solange and Rikhof, Herman G.A.
year 1994
title Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
series DDSS
email h.g.a.rikhof@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 4f23
authors Dieberger, Andreas
year 1994
title Navigation in Spatial Information Environments: User Interface Design Issues for Hypertext and VR Systems Posters
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994
summary The Information City project (presented in a poster at Hypertext 93) uses the spatial user interface metaphor of a city to organize and navigate large collections of hypertextual information. As we are used to navigate real life cities the city metaphor -- enriched with magic features -- should help to navigate information structures. A first implementation of the Information City was started in a MUD system. MUDs are networked multi-user text-adventure games which usually make use of a house / city metaphor. MUDs are conceptually similar to hypertext systems and navigational findings in those systems are therefore relevant also to hypertext. While implementing the first parts of the city research into navigation in MUDs was found necessary. This poster presents some results of this navigational study and describes how knowledge in the domains of architecture and city-planning can be used to design an easy to navigate virtual city. Highlights of the results concern magic features and collaboration. Magic features extend the spatial metaphor beyond typical properties of space. An example is the hypertext link which allows tunneling through the spatial structure. Other results concern the richness of spaces (or space-descriptions) and communication between users. It seems the chief benefit of the spatial metaphor of the city is in communication about spatial relationships of information. The findings probably are valuable in designing any information system using spatial metaphors. They are especially useful for hypertext systems realized in some virtual environment -- be it a MUD or an immerse virtual reality system.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ddss9434
id ddss9434
authors Grant, M.
year 1994
title Urban Gis - The Application of the Information Technologies to Urban Management
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many cities in the UK and indeed throughout the developed world are characterised by the all too familiar symptoms of urban blight caused by insensitive intervention in the environment. The common denominator within this class of problem is the lack of a coordinated, integrated approach to the planning, design and maintenance of our cities. The cycle of development and redevelopment calls for input from a diverse range of disciplines relating to architecture, civilengineering, transport engineering, and the management of city utilities. This lack of a common up datable information base renders access to a global view of the city difficult, if not impossible.This problem has provided the motivation to move towards an integrated philosophy regarding information collection, collation and dissemination. The impetus is provided primarily through theincreasing complexity of urban management but also through central governments policy to progress towards decentralisation of services. Fiscal pressure to increase efficiency, lower manpower resources and arrive at speedier judgements all point to an increasing reliance on the information technologies. Current work at ABACUS within Strathclyde University addresses research whose objective is to identify, and then prototype, a relevant urban information system. It is proposed that by attributing a geometrical framework with those physical quantities thatare relevant to the formal and functional evaluation of the urban environment, the means of evaluating the qualities and quantities of the buildings aswell as the social and economic prospects may be realised.
series DDSS
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9441
id ddss9441
authors Hammond, Barbara
year 1994
title Computer Aided Urban Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The product of the Urban Design process in the public sector in the UK is usually a briefing document of some kind which communicates design ideas in outline both to the lay public and to private developers. The problem with briefing effectively is that outline expression of ideas does not provide a strong basis for negotiation with developers; the temptation therefore is to work up one proposal in detail and to present it as the only option. This type of prescriptive briefing may be successful in situations where the public body has control over the land, the economy is buoyant and the site has a simple context. Its problems are that it is labour intensive, so some areas are covered in detail, others not at all; it is seen as restrictive by developers, so may create a climate of conflict rather than certainty; it is not responsive to change; it covers specific sites thoroughly but does not deal well with large, complex areas; on large sites it tends towards a homogeneous environment whereas the nature of towns and cities is pluralistic and heterogeneous; it confines the Urban Designer to site specific work rather than allowing concentration on the whole urban system. Urban Designers at the London Docklands Development Corporation felt that CAD might present some answers to these problems in facilitating an iterative, interactive briefing process which could respond quickly to change; whereby varying options for development could be investigated fully but quickly and resource-efficiently; which could be used to communicate design ideas effectively to non-professionals; which could help to make negotiation with developers more effective, less confrontational; which could deal with large, complex sites effectively. The idea was that a piece of city could be modeled on the computer and an urban design study would then be carried out on it which would test varying options for development, resulting in an outline, but three dimensional, model for an area which could be used in three ways: as a briefing tool, as part of a marketing exercise and as a tool to aid effective negotiation and consultation at the planning stage. A pilot project was carried out on a set of development sites at East India Dock and, following the success of this, a full study was carried at Surrey Quays Centre. The paper describes these projects and discusses both their products and their effect on the developmentprocess as aids in decision making.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f59d
authors Koelbl, R., Bruntsch, St. and Knoflacher, H.
year 2003
title Perspective Vienna – A Comparison of Planning Scenarios and Real Development
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary With the suspension of national boarders in unions of nations, cities and their regions gain in significance for the economic, social and cultural development. This is particularly valid for Vienna, which lies close to the eastern boarder of the European Union, which should fall with the enlargement of EU in the near future. Of prominent importance is therefore to obtain a comprehensive understanding between proposed and defined aims for an urban development, the related measures and their extent ofimplementations and their actual or real effects. This paper attempts to give a strategic analysis of the Viennese urban and traffic development programs, from 1962, 1972, 1984 and 1994, on the one hand, and the data analysis of the statistical year books beginning from 1960 until 2000, on the other. The results show that adjustments have been made not only in response to certain trends, but also to a change of philosophy of urban development. It can be seen that certain assumptions of, for example, economic and transport measures can have the opposite outcome in relation to the intended objectives. Hence, one main question remains to beanswered: How should Vienna deal with the challenges ahead, to secure and foster a sustainable development under such circumstances on a long-term basis. In this respect, some measures are given, which should make it possible to overcome successfully these challenges.
series other
email stefan.bruntsch@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ddss9458
id ddss9458
authors Kurose, Shigeyuki and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title A Comparative Analysis of the Road Networks of Premodern Citiesby Using the First Eigenvector of the Transition Matrix
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a method for comparing road networks from the view point of pedestrian flows. We constructed a type of spatial interaction model where the shopping trip distributions were determined using a partially doubly-constrained type of model. The method for comparing the road networks is based on this model. The method is as follows. The road networks are represented by nodes and links. Then, P, the probability for a pedestrian to move from node i to nodej is expressed by the following equation: Pij = Wj exp (- ßcij) / Wj exp (-ß Cij)where Cij is the distance between node i and j, W, is a measure of attraction of node), and beta is the distance-decay parameter. We proved that V., the first eigenvector of transition matrix, (Pij), indicates the ratio of pedestrian flows at node i at a steady-state condition. By using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix, road networks can be compared. In this paper, a general method for calculating the first eigenvectors of transition matrices will be described and several road networks of premodern cities in Europe, Middle East and Japan will be compared. The results indicate that the method of comparing pedestrian road networks by using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix is useful.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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