CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 347

_id cc90
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 1998
title CAD@HKU
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 16-17
summary Since 1993, we have experimented with Virtual Design Studios (VDS) as an on-going research project that investigates the combination of current computer-aided design (CAD), computer networks (Internet), and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) techniques to bring together studentsat geographically distributed locations to work in a virtual atelier. In 1993 the theme of the first joint VDS project was in-fill housing for the traditional Chinese walled village of Kat Hing Wai in the New Territories north of Hong Kong, and our partners included MIT and Harvard in Boston (USA), UBC in Vancouver (Canada), and Washington University in St. Louis (USA). In 1994 we were joined by Cornell (USA) and Escola Tecnica Superior d’Arquitectura de Barcelona (Spain) to re-design Li Long housing in Shanghai, and 1995 added the Warsaw Institute of Technology (Poland) for the ACSA/Dupont competition to design a Center for Cultural and Religious Studies in Japan. The 1996 topic was an international competition to design a monument located in Hong Kong to commemorate the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. Communication was via e-mail, the WorldWide Web with limited attempts at VRML, and network video. Several teaching and research experiments conducted through these projects have demonstrated the viability and potential of using electronic, telecommunications, and videoconferencing technologies in collaborative design processes. Results of these VDS have been presented at conferences worldwide, explained in journal papers and published in Virtual Design Studio, edited by J. Wojtowicz, published by HKU Press.
series ACADIA
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id ga0231
id ga0231
authors Sparacino, Flavia
year 2002
title Narrative Spaces: bridging architecture and entertainment via interactive technology
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Our society’s modalities of communication are rapidly changing. Large panel displays and screens are be ing installed in many public spaces, ranging from open plazas, to shopping malls, to private houses, to theater stages, classrooms, and museums. In parallel, wearable computers are transforming our technological landscape by reshaping the heavy, bulkydesktop computer into a lightweight, portable device that is accessible to people at any time. Computation and sensing are moving from computers and devices into the environment itself. The space around us is instrumented with sensors and displays, and it tends to reflect adiffused need to combine together the information space with our physical space. This combination of large public and miniature personal digital displays together with distributed computing and sensing intelligence offers unprecedented opportunities to merge the virtual and the real, the information landscape of the Internet with the urban landscape of the city, to transform digital animated media in storytellers, in public installations and through personal wearable technology. This paper describes technological platforms built at the MIT Media Lab, through 1994-2002, that contribute to defining new trends in architecture that mergevirtual and real spaces, and are reshaping the way we live and experience the museum, the house, the theater, and the modern city.
series other
email flavia@media.mit.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4604
authors Laveau, S. and Faugeras, O.
year 1994
title 3D Scene Representation as a Collection of Images and Fundamental Matrices
source INRIA Report
summary The problem we solve in this paper is the following. Suppose we are given N views of a static scene obtained from different viewpoints, perhaps with different cameras. These viewpoints we call reference viewpoints since they are all we know of the scene. We would like to decide if it is possible to predict ano- ther view of the scene taken by a camera from a viewpoint which is arbitrary and a priori di erent from all the reference viewpoints. One method for doing this would be to use these viewpoints to construct a three-dimensional repre- sentation of the scene and reproject this representation on the retinal plane of the virtual camera. In order to achieve this goal, we would have to establish some sort of calibration of our system of cameras, fuse the three-dimensional representations obtained from, say, pairs of cameras thereby obtaining a set of 3-D points, the scene. We would then have to approximate this set of points by surfaces, a segmentation problem which is still mostly unsolved, and then intersect the optical rays from the virtual camera with these sur- faces. This is the most straightforward way of going from a set of images to a new image using the current computer vision paradigm of rst building a three-dimensional representation of the environment from which the rest is derived. We do not claim that there does not exist any simpler way of using the three-dimensional representation than the one we just sketched, but this is just simply not our point. Our point is that it is possible to avoid entirely the explicit three-dimensional reconstruction process: the scene is represented by its images and by some ba- sically linear relations that govern the way points can be put in correspondence between views when they are the images of the same scene-point. These images and their algebraic relations are all we need for predicting a new image. This approach is similar in spirit to the one that has been used in trinocular stereo. Hypotheses of correspondences between two of the images are used to predict features in the third. These predictions can then be checked to validate or inva- lidate the initial correspondence. This approach has proved to be quite e cient and accurate. Related to these ideas are those develo- ped in the photogrammetric community under the name of transfer methods which nd for one or more image points in a given image set, the corresponding points in some new image set.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9467
id ddss9467
authors Murison, Alison
year 1994
title A CAD Interface to Objective Assessment of Design to Support Decision Making in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The Department of Architecture at Edinburgh College of Art, Heriot Watt University, has an on-going project to create useful implementations of the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Prof Bill Hillier at the Bartlett School of Architecture, London. Space Syntax can predict the potential usage of each route through an urban space or large building; some routes will be avoided by most traffic (pedestrian or vehicular), while other routes will become busy thoroughfares. It has been used by Architects and Urban Designers to support proposed developments, whether to show that potential commercial activity ought to be concentrated in an area of high traffic, or to change routes through troubled housing estates, bringing the protection of added traffic to areas previously avoided for fear of mugging. The paper describes how a specially written customized version of AutoCAD enables Post Graduate students of Urban Design and Undergraduate Architecture students to test their designs against the Space Syntax Measures. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that plans may be evaluated during the design process, and decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process, and should be useful to many professionals in urban planning.
series DDSS
email arcamlm@heriot.watt.uk.ac
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4181
authors Sasada, Tsuyoshi Tee
year 1994
title Open Design Environment and Collaborative Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 3-6
summary OpenDesignEnvironment is a concept of a design environment for environmental design. At the same time, OpenDesignEnvironment is a system which was build according to that concept. It uses 3-D models and computer graphics as a communication medium, and aims to make a design process open to the people who are concerned with a design project. OpenDesignEnvironment was used in practical environmental design projects, and worked as presentation tools, design review tools, and design tools. Furthermore, OpenDesignEnvironment is going to be an environment for collaborative design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:14

_id ddss9403
id ddss9403
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A., Dellaert, B. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title A Multi-Purpose Multi-Stop Model Describing Consumers' Choices of Shopping Centres
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Recently, a number of interesting extensions to traditional decompositional and discrete choice models has been introduced that allow one to combine parameters estimated in different phases ofcomplex choice processes. These extensions offer new possibilities to model combinations of choices consumers make if they select shopping centres to visit. This paper will introduce a modelling approach that describes consumer choices of shopping centres involving multiple shopping functions (multi purpose) as well as locations (multi stop). The approach extends traditional decompositional models of single choices to a model of combinations of choices. It uses a recursive scaling procedure that combines attributes related to different shopping functions and to shopping centres at different locations. The model will be tested on data collected on shopping behaviour in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
series DDSS
email t.a.arentze@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 48a7
authors Brooks
year 1999
title What's Real About Virtual Reality
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19, no. 6, Nov/Dec, 27
summary As is usual with infant technologies, the realization of the early dreams for VR and harnessing it to real work has taken longer than the wild hype predicted, but it is now happening. I assess the current state of the art, addressing the perennial questions of technology and applications. By 1994, one could honestly say that VR "almost works." Many workers at many centers could doe quite exciting demos. Nevertheless, the enabling technologies had limitations that seriously impeded building VR systems for any real work except entertainment and vehicle simulators. Some of the worst problems were end-to-end system latencies, low-resolution head-mounted displays, limited tracker range and accuracy, and costs. The technologies have made great strides. Today one can get satisfying VR experiences with commercial off-the-shelf equipment. Moreover, technical advances have been accompanied by dropping costs, so it is both technically and economically feasible to do significant application. VR really works. That is not to say that all the technological problems and limitations have been solved. VR technology today "barely works." Nevertheless, coming over the mountain pass from "almost works" to "barely works" is a major transition for the discipline. I have sought out applications that are now in daily productive use, in order to find out exactly what is real. Separating these from prototype systems and feasibility demos is not always easy. People doing daily production applications have been forthcoming about lessons learned and surprises encountered. As one would expect, the initial production applications are those offering high value over alternate approaches. These applications fall into a few classes. I estimate that there are about a hundred installations in daily productive use worldwide.
series journal paper
email brooks@ai.mit.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0e58
authors Campbell, D.A. and Wells, M.
year 1994
title A Critique of Virtual Reality in the Architectural Design Process, R-94-3
source Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/r-94-3/: 23 May 2001
summary An addition to a building was designed using virtual reality (VR). The project was part of a design studio for graduate students of architecture. During the design process a detailed journal of activities was kept. In addition, the design implemented with VR was compared to designs implemented with more traditional methods. Both immersive and non-immersive VR simulations were attempted. Part of the rationale for exploring the use of VR in this manner was to develop insight into how VR techniques can be incorporated into the architectural design process, and to provide guidance for the implementers of future VR systems. This paper describes the role of VR in schematic design, through design development to presentation and evaluation. In addition, there are some comments on the effects of VR on detailed design. VR proved to be advantageous in several phases of the design. However, several shortcomings in both hardware and software became apparent. These are described, and a number of recommendations are provided.
series other
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4f23
authors Dieberger, Andreas
year 1994
title Navigation in Spatial Information Environments: User Interface Design Issues for Hypertext and VR Systems Posters
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994
summary The Information City project (presented in a poster at Hypertext 93) uses the spatial user interface metaphor of a city to organize and navigate large collections of hypertextual information. As we are used to navigate real life cities the city metaphor -- enriched with magic features -- should help to navigate information structures. A first implementation of the Information City was started in a MUD system. MUDs are networked multi-user text-adventure games which usually make use of a house / city metaphor. MUDs are conceptually similar to hypertext systems and navigational findings in those systems are therefore relevant also to hypertext. While implementing the first parts of the city research into navigation in MUDs was found necessary. This poster presents some results of this navigational study and describes how knowledge in the domains of architecture and city-planning can be used to design an easy to navigate virtual city. Highlights of the results concern magic features and collaboration. Magic features extend the spatial metaphor beyond typical properties of space. An example is the hypertext link which allows tunneling through the spatial structure. Other results concern the richness of spaces (or space-descriptions) and communication between users. It seems the chief benefit of the spatial metaphor of the city is in communication about spatial relationships of information. The findings probably are valuable in designing any information system using spatial metaphors. They are especially useful for hypertext systems realized in some virtual environment -- be it a MUD or an immerse virtual reality system.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a4fe
authors Encarnacao, J. and Goebel, M., Rosenblum, M.
year 1994
title European Activities in Virtual Reality
source Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 14, No. 1, January 1994
summary We survey European activities in virtual reality, with an emphasis on selected efforts in architecture and sound, telepresence, scientific visualization, simulation, software design, and entertainment. This article surveys European activities and funding for VR with two caveats: First, nearly a year separates writing and publication. For most scientific fields, this publication delay for survey material would be minimal: for virtual reality, significant changes might have since occurred in some programs. We took advantage of the revision period to upgrade our information and the references as much as possible. Second, some long standing, significant European efforts go unmentioned as outside the scope of our short survey or as duplicates of others included. Despite the limitations, this sampling of Europe's leading efforts collectively gives an accurate snapshot of current European activity.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f7b9
authors Goldschmidt, G.
year 1994
title On visual design thinking: the via kids of architecture
source Design Studies 15 (2), pp. 158-174
summary Designers invariably use imagery to generate new form combinations which they represent through sketching. But they also do the reverse: they sketch to generate images of forms in their minds. Common belief regards such activity as non-rational. In contrast, we assert that interactive imagery through sketching is a rational mode of reasoning, characterized by systematic exchanges between conceptual and figural arguments. Cognitive science, strongly dominated by a linguistic paradigm, has yet to recognize the paramount role of visual reasoning in many instances of problem solving; and in design tool-making, computational and otherwise, we must learn to optimize rather than bypass intuitive visuality.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 672c
authors Hill, Pamela J. and Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1994
title Virtual Reality in the Architectural Design Studio
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 229-231
summary In 1994, students from Montana State University took part in a student exchange at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The goal of this exchange was to investigate the pedagogical results of using Virtual Reality in the architectural design studio as a tool to create, understand, and describe three-dimensional space. At the conclusion of this project, it was discovered that through VR the students were able to understand the spatial qualities of their own designs much more comprehensively than with threedimensional computer models alone. It was also discovered that the understanding of peer students, design, and technical faculty was enhanced as well.
series ACADIA
email geert.smeltzer@atosorigin.com
last changed 2003/06/04 08:43

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
title CONTEXTUALIZATION AND EMBODIMENT IN CYBERSPACE
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id c4ae
id c4ae
authors Knapp, Robert W. and McCall, Raymond
year 1996
title PHIDIAS II - In Support of Collaborative Design
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 147-154
summary The World Wide Web in combination with Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) create great opportunities for collaboration by distributed design teams. To take advantage of these opportunities, we have begun to create a version of the PHIDIAS hyperCAD system (McCall, Bennett and Johnson 1994) that will support communication and collaboration among designers over the Word Wide Web. PHIDIAS is an intelligent, hypermedia-based system for computer-aided design. Our strategy is to divide PHIDIAS into two parts: 1) a client-side user interface and 2) a server-side hyperCAD database engine. The client-side interface is being implemented using Java and VRML. Implementing the PHIDIAS front-end with Java enables program code distribution via the World Wide Web. VRML provides PHIDIAS with client-side computation and display of 3D graphics.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:35

_id ddss9450
id ddss9450
authors Kohsaka, Hiroyuki
year 1994
title Spatial Decision Support System for Retail Activity
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This presentation proposes an architecture of Spatial Support System (SDSS) for retail activity. This SDSS is made up of four key modules: data, monitoring, spatial analysis/modelling, and map and report generators. In the data module, spatial shopping data are gathered from Point of Sales (POS) Systems as well as trade area surveys. Two examples will be presented to collect spatial shopping data. One is from an ordinal trade area survey and the other is from point IC cards. The monitoring module can represent retail trade areas as three-dimensional surfaces as well as contour maps by using a colour graphics display after a cartographic analysis which consists of gridding and interpolation of these data. As an application example of monitoring module, retail trade area for a store or a shopping street will be shown as a three-dimensional surface. In addition, themonitoring module can describe a retail structure consisting of the trade area of several retail stores to analyze the spatial competition of them. In the spatial analysis/modelling module, optimization methods search for an optimal location of a new store and an impact analysis assesses the locational impacts of the store upon the existing stores. An optimal location of new supermarket will be solved as an example for this module.
series DDSS
email kohsaka@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ab3c
authors Kramer, G.
year 1996
title Mapping a Single Data Stream to Multiple Auditory Variables: A Subjective Approach to Creating a Compelling Design
source Proceedings of the Third International Conferenceon Auditory Display, Santa FO Institute
summary Representing a single data variable changing in time via sonification, or using that data to control a sound in some way appears to be a simple problem but actually involves a significant degree of subjectivity. This paper is a response to my own focus on specific sonification tasks (Kramer 1990, 1993) (Fitch & Kramer, 1994), on broad theoretical concerns in auditory display (Kramer 1994a, 1994b, 1995), and on the representation of high-dimensional data sets (Kramer 1991a & Kramer & Ellison, 1991b). The design focus of this paper is partly a response to the others who, like myself, have primarily employed single fundamental acoustic variables such as pitch or loudness to represent single data streams. These simple representations have framed three challenges: Behavioral and Cognitive Science-Can sonifications created with complex sounds changing simultaneously in several dimensions facilitate the formation of a stronger internal auditory image, or audiation, than would be produced by simpler sonifications? Human Factors and Applications-Would such a stronger internal image of the data prove to be more useful from the standpoint of conveying information? Technology and Design-How might these richer displays be constructed? This final question serves as a starting point for this paper. After years of cautious sonification research I wanted to explore the creation of more interesting and compelling representations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9458
id ddss9458
authors Kurose, Shigeyuki and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title A Comparative Analysis of the Road Networks of Premodern Citiesby Using the First Eigenvector of the Transition Matrix
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a method for comparing road networks from the view point of pedestrian flows. We constructed a type of spatial interaction model where the shopping trip distributions were determined using a partially doubly-constrained type of model. The method for comparing the road networks is based on this model. The method is as follows. The road networks are represented by nodes and links. Then, P, the probability for a pedestrian to move from node i to nodej is expressed by the following equation: Pij = Wj exp (- ßcij) / Wj exp (-ß Cij)where Cij is the distance between node i and j, W, is a measure of attraction of node), and beta is the distance-decay parameter. We proved that V., the first eigenvector of transition matrix, (Pij), indicates the ratio of pedestrian flows at node i at a steady-state condition. By using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix, road networks can be compared. In this paper, a general method for calculating the first eigenvectors of transition matrices will be described and several road networks of premodern cities in Europe, Middle East and Japan will be compared. The results indicate that the method of comparing pedestrian road networks by using the first eigenvector of the transition matrix is useful.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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