CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4181
authors Sasada, Tsuyoshi Tee
year 1994
title Open Design Environment and Collaborative Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 3-6
summary OpenDesignEnvironment is a concept of a design environment for environmental design. At the same time, OpenDesignEnvironment is a system which was build according to that concept. It uses 3-D models and computer graphics as a communication medium, and aims to make a design process open to the people who are concerned with a design project. OpenDesignEnvironment was used in practical environmental design projects, and worked as presentation tools, design review tools, and design tools. Furthermore, OpenDesignEnvironment is going to be an environment for collaborative design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:14

_id 6838
authors Berberidou-Kallivoka, Liana
year 1994
title An Open Daylighting Simulation Environment
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary Various studies have shown that performance simulation tools have not been integrated effec- tively in the architectural design process. The conventional lighting simulation tools have been characterized as decision verification tools rather than design support tools. Particularly in the early design stage, when crucial and often irreversible decisions are made, this evident lack of appropriate lighting simulation environments represents a serious drawback. The "mono-directionality" of the conventional simulation tools can be identified as one of the factors responsi- ble for insufficient integration of computational lighting modeling tools in the design process. In response to this circumstance, this thesis presents the conceptual background and the proto- , typical realization of an "open" daylighting simulation environment (GESTALT) to support architectural lighting design and education. Open simulation environments aim at extension (and inversion) of the design-to-performance mapping mechanisms of the conventional build- ing performance simulation tools. Toward this end, two fully operational versions of GESTALT have been implemented. GESTALT-01 is an explicit implementation based on invertible "fast-response" computational modules. GESTALT-02 is an implicit version that uses a comprehensive computational daylight simulator and investigative projection technique for performance-driven design exploration. Concepts, implementations, case studies, contributions and future directions are presented.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:42

_id 673a
authors Fukuda, T., Nagahama, R. and Sasada, T.
year 1997
title Networked Interactive 3-D design System for Collaboration
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 429-437
summary The concept of ODE (Open Design Environment) and corresponding system were presented in 1991. Then the new concept of NODE. which is networked version of ODE. was generated to make wide area collaboration in 1994. The aim of our research is to facilitate the collaboration among the various people involved in the design process of an urban or architectural project. This includes various designers and engineers, the client and the citizens who may be affected by such a project. With the new technologies of hyper medium, network, and component architecture, we have developed NODE system and applied in practical use of the collaboration among the various people. This study emphasizes the interactive 3-D design tool of NODE which is able to make realistic and realtime presentation with interactive interface. In recent years, ProjectFolder of NODE system, which is a case including documents, plans, and tools to proceed project., is created in the World Wide Web (WWW) and makes hyper links between a 3-D object and a text, an image. and other digital data.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/04/01 18:20

_id 8822
authors Jakimowicz, Adam
year 1994
title Abstract Modelling - Forming and Exploring
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 214
summary Architectural design is always concerned with form to things. It is the sphere or action where meanings are to be expressed and further on - received (by a receiver), felt, understood. "Meanings" mean not only rational information. The matter is to reach the essence and to master ways appropriate to expose and interprete it. Quality of the form decides whether architectural or any work is worth attention or not and to what degree. Form is an attribute of a thing. It is form that "speaks". This linguistic metaphore shows one of natural, inborn features of things and states. However, questions appear: 1. Does everything have form? 2. Is the form an objective term? 3. What limitations of the definition of the form to accept- if any? The friendly environment for creating form consists of conscious intentions plus open mind. Rules are certain, but liquid. Every formal communication system may be widened individually. The only limitation is to be received according to intentions. So, incredibly, the infinite number of combinations, even within one system, may be possible.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id 051a
authors Ng, Edward and Mori, Stefano
year 1994
title The Electronic Hartlib Project
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 108-114
summary One of the many criticisms of early efforts in multimedia based teaching, learning and information systems is that most of the development is focused on constructing closed systems, and that once they are completed, altering their content, especially by third party users, is next to impossible. This leads to two problems. Firstly, in the current funding environment, it is almost impossible to sustain the system. Secondly, the system thereby developed is not very flexible and hence can be difficult to use. In Sheffield, we are trying to address this problem by constructing an open system. Using an interface-less data structuring system, an object oriented technique has been developed to separate the interface from the generic files thereby allowing unlimited posthumous alteration and adaptation. A prototype has been developed in Hypercard and in Director, but the beauty of the system is that it can be adapted to run on almost anything.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:26

_id c95f
authors Petrovic, Ivan and Svetel, Igor
year 1994
title Conversation on Design Action: By Men or by Machines?
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 15-23
summary A design studio of the future shall be based on dislocated, distributed design services, and feature the ‘design by collaboration’ enabled by the computer transmitted information. However, in a collaborative design process, computer may take an additional role, i.e., as an “ultimately structured dynamic communication medium ... based on the notion of commitment and interpretation” (Winograd and Flores 1987). Various models of ‘intelligent’ design systems based on the ideas of ‘open, distributed, artificial intelligence systems’ have shown that the computer-based design agents which act on the object-to-be-designed model could be involved in a “conversation for action” (Winograd and Flores, Ibid.). The aim of the paper is to illustrate a computer-based design system that enables ‘a-kind-of’ conversations by the design agents before the design decisions were made. After the description of a design experiment and the conversation that went on between the design agents, the traits of the applied ‘design design system’ are discussed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:15

_id 6b1d
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1994
title Architectural Briefing Data Representation and Sketch Simulation Computer Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 55-59
summary Reflection about the architectural programme starts with the analysis of its writing, its "style" which bears not only the "griffe" of the programmer but as well the structure, methodology, codes of reading, etc. particular to a programming approach. The programme structure corresponds in most cases to the different levels in the text's format and the composition modes of representing data and their relations. The choice made can either facilitate or impede the reading as interpretation of the programme. The programmer’s aim should be to open the text to reading towards a "synthetic schematic" summary, a sort of cognitive threshold which allows the reader to understand both the client's objectives and the designer's intentions enhanced by his experience. Articulating a designer's experience means focusing on his knowhow and memory. The designer's recollected knowledge and heuristic approaches to the solution of a basic design problem - types, his readings and spatial evaluations permanently feed the knowhow. It is important for the architect to have access to past examples, to the collective memory of his workplace, and a repertoire of readings, notes, sketches, influences and citations. It is therfore equally important that a computer environment also have a multimodal "architect's memory" or "project memory" module in which different forms of representation are classified, and made accessible as memory components. It is also necessary to have the possibility to access at any moment in an interactive manner to the recomposition, addition and adaptation of these mnemonic components. The information coming from the programme, classified as descriptive, prescriptive and quantitative types of data, must be able to be interrogated in different modes of representation : text, matrices, nets, diagrams, and so on, so that the pertinent information can be extraded at any given design process stage. Analysis of competition programmes show that often the description of an activity, for example, the Great Stadium competition in Paris, is described by several pages of text, a circulation diagram with arrows and legend, a topological proximity diagram with legend and as table activity - areas . These different representations, which are supposed to be complementary and give the most pertinent view of the client needs, show in fact after analysis, many description problems, incoherance, and which result in a reading difficulty.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:20

_id 7d6c
authors Chapin, William L., Lacey, T. and Leifer, Larry
year 1994
title DesignSpace: A Manual Interaction Environment for Computer Aided Design DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Reality Multimedia
source Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1994 v.2 pp. 33-34
summary DesignSpace is a computer-aided-design (CAD) system that facilitates dexterous manipulation of mechanical design representations. The system consists of an interactive simulation programmed with a seamless extended model of the designer's physical environment and driven with continuous instrumentation of the designer's physical actions. The simulation displays consistent visual and aural images of the virtual environment without occluding the designer's sensation of the physical surroundings. Developed at Stanford University's Center for Design Research (CDR), DesignSpace serves as an experimental testbed for design theory and methodology research. DesignSpace includes significant contributions from recent CDR development projects: TalkingGlove, CutPlane, VirtualHand, TeleSign, and VirtualGrasp. The current DesignSpace prototype provides modeling facility for only crude conceptual design and assembly, but can network multiple systems to share a common virtual space and arbitrate the collaborative interaction. The DesignSpace prototype employs three head-tracked rear projection images, head-coupled binaural audio, hand instrumentation, and electromagnetic position tracking.
keywords Virtual Environment; Dexterous Manipulation; Interactive Simulation; Presence; Spatial Acoustics; Manual and Gestural Communication; Teleconference; Collaboration
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id cf2009_585
id cf2009_585
authors E. Swarts, Matthew; A. Sheward, Hugo
year 2009
title Using multi-level virtual environments as a medium for conducting design review through a shared IFC dataset
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 585- 597
summary For a long time the Architecture-Engineering-Construction (AEC) community has had difficulty in communicating the content of their work, not only the various specialties involved, but also to their clients. Studies (Doorst and Cross 2001; Bakhtin 1994) suggest the importance of multi-role collaborative environments in supporting design processes. We are developing a Multi Level Design Review Tool for the AEC industry which allows multiple actors to congregate and interact as agents around a central Building Model. It merges real-time virtual 3D visualization technologies with Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) to support both high levels of semantic content and seamless interoperability.
keywords Design review, virtual environment, interoperability
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9447
id ddss9447
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1994
title An Outline of the Requirements for a Computer Supported Collaborative Design System
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) systems have adequately satisfied several needs so far. They have dramatically improved the accuracy and consistency of working drawings, enabled designers to visualize their design ideas in three-dimensions, allowed the analysis of designs through data exchange and integrated databases, and even allowed the designers to evaluate (and in some cases generate) designs based on comparisons to previous cases and/or the formalization of specific rules and grammars. Yet, there is a general consensus that CAAD systems have not yet achieved their full potential. First, most systems employ a single-user approach to solving architectural problems which fails to grapple with the fact that most design work is done through teamwork. Second, current systems still cannot support early design stages which involve client briefing, data collection, building program formulation, and schematic design generation. Thus, if CAAD is to ultimately benefit the design process, it must (1) emulate and support the design team approach to architectural problem solving and (2) be deployed in the earliest possible stages of the design process. This paper seeks to study remedies to both of the afore-mentioned limitations through focusing on the interaction between a set of requirements (the building program) and the architectural solution that satisfies them (the schematic design). The core of this interaction forms the fundamental dialectic and collaborative nature of what is called designing: a concerned social activity that proceeds by creating architectural elements to address a set of requirements and their re-thinking as a result of architectural conjecture. To investigate this relationship, it is proposed to build a computer-supported collaborative design environment using the tools of conceptual modelling (based on the NIAM notation), object-oriented algorithms, and distributed agents. Based on a literature survey and earlier findings on the role of artifacts in collaborative design, this paper outlines the requirements for the above system and reports on initial experiments. Thus, it constitutes the first stage of a research project that will lead to a full implementation of a distributed collaborative computer environment addressing the above issues.
series DDSS
type normal paper
last changed 2008/06/12 14:32

_id ddss9455
id ddss9455
authors Kraria, H. and Bridges, Alan
year 1994
title Building Integration Tools for Collaborative Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary For many years, research in CAAD systems has been mostly oriented towards single environ-ments, thus restricting the designer to a static environment. In reality the activities of user designers constantly interact with other participants activities (i.e. a structural engineer, services engineer, etc.). For instance, the architect is heavily influenced by the nature of the structural engineering process. It defines the character and integration of the basic components in other words, design is a collaborative process carried out by several participants with a single overall objective. The separation of architectural and engineering aspects in building design has brought on isolated computer tools. These tools are not interchangeable, the situation demands for their integration, all the interaction are supported by the social aspect of members of group participa-ting in collaborating work. The benefits of sharing CAD tools and related data between all members of the design team are that everyone works on the same information, co-ordination is easier and more accurate, and there is a reduction in the amount of repetition, as the need to redraw information is eliminated. The result is an increase in the accuracy and speed of the production of drawings. The technological aspects to support collaborative work and in particular the interaction process in design, is the main work issue being carried out at Strathclyde University, Department of Architecture and Building Science, Glasgow, Scotland U.K.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 45f0
authors Coleman, Kim
year 1994
title Synergism and Contingency: Design Collaboration with the Computer
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 209-217
summary The outcome of an architectural project is always contingent, dependent upon conditions or events that are not established at the outset. A university design studio does not easily replicate the state of flux which occurs as an architectural commission proceeds. In developing an architectural project, each new situation, whether it be a building code issue, an engineering issue, or a client reaction, must be viewed as an opportunity to further refine and develop the design rather than a hindrance to the outcome. In the design studio I describe in this paper, students test processes which attempt to take advantage of contingent conditions, opening up the design solutions to new possibilities. As a means to open up the design process to new possibilities, this studio introduces the computer as the primary tool for design exploration. Through the computer interface, the work speculates on the possibilities of synergism, defined as the actions of two or more substances or organisms to achieve an effect of which each is individually incapable.' Three synergetic conditions are explored: that between the designer and the computer, that between the designer with computer and designers of previous works of art or architecture, and that between two or more designers working together with the computer. The lack of a predictable result, one that may be obvious or superficial, is a positive byproduct of the synergetic and contingent circumstances under which the designs are developed.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ddss9456
id ddss9456
authors Kubiak, Bernard and Korowicki, Antoni
year 1994
title Identification And Analysis of the Recreational Behaviour Forms and the Needed Recreational Space Using the Integrated Spatial and Object-Oriented Gis: Concepts and Statements
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper is concerned with how to measure and investigate changes in the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space in Polish seaside recreational areas in last few years. Spatial information is an integral part of the identification and analysis of recreational behaviour and required recreational space. We postulate, therefore, that spatial information should be fully incorporated in integrated object-oriented GIS and Decision Support Technology. We argue in this paper that the existing theoretical approaches with their descriptive and technical basis do not offer directions for its application and evaluation. They do not seek to explain the processes undergone by spatial information, nor define appropriate data models. New approaches to GIS use object-oriented structures and expert systems concepts, and they will become increasingly helpful in understanding GIS. It is not unreasonable to expect that the most important issue is to use a data model or object-oriented models which closely represent the user's concept of the geographic object for representing spatial phenomena. We have discovered that most Polish users in this field are unable to collect the data they require directly. Thus they have to use methods and techniques, which cannot be found in GIS such as SWOT analysis. According to our experiences, the identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space should be defined as a system approach where: (i) recreational space requires an object, (ii) state of recreational space is defined by the set of values of recreational space features, and (iii) the utility of the recreational space is defined by a set of features. The identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour in the presented approach are based on the features/utilities matrix of the recreational space and the computer map. The development of such a system needs many organizational changes. It is shown that in many applications organizational rather than the technical aspects of GIS determine their future and open the way to new spatial analytical techniques.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a9f0
authors Lentz, Uffe
year 1994
title New Tools: New Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 217
summary Our young students have no strong bindings to the tools and methods of our profession. With their open-minded access to the media, they often try to do things, which are surprising and new. Things which would have been impossible to think of without a computer. They are inspired of apparently unknown design-options, which they find in CAD-tools, or they are exploring possibilities in 'strange' combinations of media, not unknown from Television-commercials and music-videos. This Blitz-session will show some students' projects in a very short while. The common thing is, that the students have broken rules, that the teacher never realised were rules, because of his (my) traditional education. One student uses a solid modelling -tool for inspiration, - another uses an auto-tracing tool to generate the concept - and a group of students used a combination of video, grabbing and 3D-modelling to generate new architecture.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/04/01 19:04

_id ddss9486
id ddss9486
authors Smeltzer, Geert
year 1994
title The Application of Virtual Reality Systems in Architectural Design Processes
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper describes the application of virtual reality systems in architectural design processes. It is based upon research on virtual reality technology to develop a more natural interface between men and design systems. It is also based upon the development of an integrated laboratory set-up for an immersive and a desk-top virtual reality system. This set-up should offer possibilities to manipulate 3D design models and to simulate the lighting situation in real time. Finally it is based upon an application of virtual reality technology for a design presentation. The research problem was determined by the question in which way the design process changes under the influence of technology. Other research questions, autonomous as possible, were how natural an interface can be using sensors, how a design model can be using real world features and how a representation can be as realistic as possible, using lighting simulations. The development problem was determined by the fact that the laboratory set-up had to be developed in co-operation with a hardware and a software vendor. This led to the development of two set-ups: one immersive virtual reality system and one desk top system. Another problem for the development of the set-up was that the project had to result in the presentation and demonstration of virtual reality technol-ogy that was not yet generally available to a larger group of organisations or enterprises. The first case study involved the development of a virtual reality presentation of a housing project in the Netherlands. The presentation was meant for people who were interested in the houses and was announced as a virtual open house. A potential buyer could walk through the model and move furniture around. The problem addressed concerned the relationship between the level of detail of the model, the speed of representation and the ease of interface system's. The second case study concerned the use of a virtual reality interface, model and representation for the evaluation of visibility and safety aspects of another housing project. At first this application was meant for the designers and their client. Based upon their evaluation of the design, several design improvements were made. Afterwards, this application was used for internal demonstrations. The application for the evaluation and the demonstrations were developed for an immersive virtual reality system and for a desk top system. The problem addressed was first of all a design problem and secondly a technical problem. This technical problem was related to the difference between the two virtual reality systems in terms of consequences for those applications. In the near future the research project, called the Asterisk project, will also examine and develop the possibilities of the simultaneous use of the system by more than one user, possibly on different locations. This means a development from single user single site to a multi user, a multiple site virtual reality systems. This project will also evaluate the feasibility of the application of virtual reality technology during an architectural design process. This research project will be followed by the development of a prototype of a virtual architecture system demonstrations of this system and an introduction to the market.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 89a8
authors Smeltzer, Geert T.A.
year 1994
title Virtual Reality in Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 244
summary This short presentation will describe the application of a Virtual Reality system for the architectural design process. This is based on the results of research into 6 technology and in particular on the possibilities of a natural interface between a designer and a design system. This description is also based on the development of a laboratory setup for a “fully immersive” (all-round representation) and a “partially immersive” (stereo representation) 6 application. This application offers a designer the possibility of modify-ing and assessing a 3D design model in “Virtual Reality” This presentation is mainly based on the use of Virtual Reality in the course of several case studies. One of these case studies was the making of a presenta-tion of a design to possibly interested parties. The other case study was the use of Virtual Reality in the course of a design process. Finally this publication includes the description of some future and anticipated developments. The research problem is mainly posed by the questions regarding the ways in which the design process changes under the influence of, amongst other factors, the 6 technology. Other questions concern the ways in which the interface between a designer and a design system can be made as natural as possible, the way in which a design model can be made as autonomous as possible, and the way in which a representation can be made as realistic as possible. With regard to these the starting points were respectively the use of sensors, behaviour characteristics and illumination simulations. The development problem is posed by the question regarding the way in which a laboratory setup, in cooperation with a supplier of hardware (Sun Microsystems Nederland BV) and a supplier of software (Autodesk Benelux BV), can be developed. In order to do this use has to be made of their system components, such as workstations and CAD software. Another problem for the development of the laboratory setup is the way in which the project was to be made to lead to presentations and demonstra-tions of 6 technology which was still not yet generally available. The first case study was the development of a 6 presentation of a housing project. This presentation was in the first instance intended for people who had an interest in the project. In addition, naturally, people who really only had an interest in Virtual Reality itself also attended. The presentation was announced as being a first Virtual Open House. Each interested party could wander through the 3D design model and move the furniture. In the course of this case study consideration was above all given to the relationships between the interfaces between the user and the system, the level of detail of the model and the speed of the representation. The second case study was the use of Virtual Reality during a design process. The system is used for the evaluation of visibility and safety aspects of another housing project. The use of the system was initially only intended for the designer and the principal. At the end of the process different design modifications were effected in accordance with their evaluations of the design. After that the system was also used for internal presentations of the applications as well as of the technology. The problem which played a role in the course of these studies was in the first instance a design problem and in the second in-stance a technical problem.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 14:12

_id e4b1
authors Van Acker, S., Verbeke, J. and Verleye, J.
year 1994
title CAAD Education at Sint-Lucas Brussels-Gent
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 229
summary The CAAD group at our Institute decided to use computer and CAAD-software in a creative way. For this reason we choose CAAD-software which is open, flexible and does not impose strict limitations on design exploration. Our primary goal is to investigate the use of the computer in the very first stages of the design process (upstream). Hence we are interested in ways to make CAAD-software more 'architect-minded' (i.e. the operational structure should be as close as possible to the thinking of the architect and the logic of the creative design process) such that it stimulates the creativity of the architect. In order to reach these goals, we try to stimulate the reflection of the students about these items.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id a8c0
authors VoB, A.
year 1994
title Case-based Reasoning in Building Design: Problems of Case Elicitation and Retrieval
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(4), pp. 49-62
summary This article deals with a set of problems that arose in the course of the FABEL project in order to build a system assisting in the design of complex buildings: Task analysis indicated a case-based approach with the subtasks of retrieval, assessment and adaptation of layouts. The idea of first choosing a retrieval method which would then guide the further knowledge elicitation process did not work, because there was no single suitable method. We investigated retrieval methods based on keywords, on vectors, bitmaps, gestalten and on topological structures. As it turned out, each method imposes a particular interpretation on a layout and serves different retrieval purposes. Using multiple methods required an open software architecture providing case management facilities for the various methods. Last not least, the extraction of relevant cases from integrated building models is not trivial at all. Both automatic routines of standard cases and manual extraction of special cases should be available.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

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