CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9427
id ddss9427
authors Engelen, Guy and White, Roger
year 1994
title A Strategic Planning and Policy Decision Support Tool for Urban Regions
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper we present a Decision Support System developed to assist urban designers, planners and policy makers to explore and evaluate possible urban layouts and their growth patterns. Thecore of the system consists of a modelling shell allowing the user to specify cellular automata based models of urban and regional systems. These models capture the effect of local spatial processes in which the use, or desired use of each parcel or cell of land is determined partly by institutional and environmental factors, and partly by the activities present in its neighbourhood. Since each cell affects every other cell within its neighbourhood, a complex dynamic emerges. Unlike conventional cellular automata, the models are defined with a large neighbourhood --over a hundred cells-- a relatively large number of states --more than a dozen in some applications-- representing socio-economic and natural land-uses. The approach permits the straightforward integration of detailed physical, environmental, and institutional constraints, as well as including the effects of the transportation and communication infrastructure. These models thus permit a very detailed representation of evolving spatial systems. The current version of the system represents urban areas as consisting of up to 10.000 interacting zones, each roughly the size of an individual city block. These models are easy to build and apply, yet empirical tests show that they produce realistic simulations of urban land use dynamics. Consequently, they are well suited to form the heart of the DSS, which provides the user with a number of tools for exploration,analysis and evaluation of alternative futures of the system as they result from policy interventions that are imposed by means of what-if experiments and scenario analysis. For example, the DSS isable to identify areas in which pressure for change in land use restrictions may become critical under particular development strategies. In the DSS, the modelling shell is coupled to a simple,custom-built GIS. In the stand-alone application of the DSS, this stores the detailed geographical qualities of the area being modelled, and allows basic overlay manipulations. It also displays theresults of the model while the simulation proceeds. Alternatively, the GIS can serve as aninterface to more elaborate, commercial GIS systems.
series DDSS
email rwhite@kean.ucs.mun.ca
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss2004_d-49
id ddss2004_d-49
authors Polidori, M. and R. Krafta
year 2004
title Environment – Urban Interface within Urban Growth
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 49-62
summary This work presents the synthesis of a model of urban growth dedicated to accomplish simulations of urban spatial dynamics, based on integrated urban and environmental factors and promoting simultaneity among external and internal growth. The city and surrounding environment are captured and modeled in computational ambient, by application of the centrality / potential model (Krafta, 1994 and 1999), with support of graph theory, cellular automata, GIS and geocomputation. The model assumes the city as a field of opportunities for obtaining income, mediated by the space, which is composed of urban and environmental attributes, that work as attractors or as resistances for the urban growth. The space configuration and the distribution of those attributes generate tensions that differentiate qualitatively and quantitatively the space, through the centrality measure (built with the support of graphs techniques), coming to provoke growth in places with larger potential of development (built with the help of techniques of CA – cellular automata). Growths above environmental thresholds are considered problems, generated and overcome in the same process of production of the urban space. Iterations of that process offer a dynamic behaviour to the model, allowing to observe the growth process along the time. The model presents several possibilities: a) urban - natural environment integration; b) internal and external growth integration; c) variety in the scale; d) GIS integration and geocomputation; e) user interface; f) calibration; g) theoretical possibilities; and h) practical possibilities.
keywords Environment, Urban Growth, Urban Morphology, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss9421
id ddss9421
authors Daru, Roel and Adams, Wim
year 1994
title Matchmaker: An Instrument for Matching Demand for and Supply of Buildings and Revealing Specific Discrepancies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary To match supply and demand of buildings, various approaches are possible. While artificial intelligenceis favoured by some, we think that a less 'heavy' approach can be more cost and time efficient. The casewe have chosen to exemplify our approach concerns architectural heritage. To match supply and demandwhile at the same time respecting the constraints imposed by cultural heritage, it is necessary to bringthem together and to effectuate feasibility studies in the shortest possible time. The feasibility study shouldbe served by tools allowing the various partners to communicate on the level of the match between them, translated in terms of spatial organisation and building constraints. In the past years, our designmorphology group has developed and tested a graphic-based reordering tool which has been applied to large governmental buildings, both existing and new. The same tool can be used for weighted objectives ranking and evaluation, to have a synthetic view of the combined basic preferences and differences of the involved parties as for example in a jury wise evaluation and ranking of alternative proposals. The proposed tool is the electronic and graphic version of the data and association matrices, which have been for a long time recommended for use in the preliminary phases of design. But as long as these instruments could only be drawn and redrawn on paper they were much too ineffectual and found little real application. The developed tool is connected by sub-routines to a computer aided design package, within which the spatial patterns are translated into plans and attached data bases. The matching takes place in a number of steps. The first is to describe the organisation (the demanding party) as functional units which can be made corresponding with spatial units. The prescription of spatial needs can take place in both quantitative and qualitative manners. The Matchmaker tools offer the possibility of interactive clustering of spatial needs. Another step, which can be taken concurrently, is to describe the monument in spatial units and distance relationships. The input can be generated directly within the matrix, but it is much easier, more self evident and realistic to generate this automatically from the draughted plan. The following step is the input of constraints originating from heritage preservation objectives, expressed in levels of authorised intervention. Again, the Matchmaker tools offer here the possibility of visual clustering of spatial units, their relationships and associated properties. In the next step, the matching takes place. In this step the actual positions, properties and constraints of existing spaces in the monument are compared (and visualised by discrepancies views) to the optimised and clustered spatial needs of the end user. In the following phase, the feasibility in terms of space, building fabric and costs can be appraised. Once a compromise has been attained, preliminary proposals can be designed and laid down in terms of drawings. The spatialdesigns can then again be translated into matrix views and evaluated.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 130d
authors Hoinkes, R. and Mitchell, R.
year 1994
title Playing with Time - Continuous Temporal Mapping Strategies for Interactive Environments
source 6th Canadian GIS Conference, (Ottawa Natura Resources Canada), pp. 318-329
summary The growing acceptance of GIS technology has had far- reaching effects on many fields of research. The recent developments in the area of dynamic and temporal GIS open new possibilities within the realm of historical research where temporal relationship analysis is as important as spatial relationship analysis. While topological structures have had wide use in spatial GIS and have been the subject of most temporal GIS endeavours, the different demands of many of these temporally- oriented analytic processes questions the choice of the topological direction. In the fall of 1992 the Montreal Research Group (MRG) of the Canadian Centre for Architecture mounted an exhibition dealing with the development of the built environment in 18th- century Montreal. To aid in presenting the interpretive messages of their data, the MRG worked with the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to incorporate the interactive capabilities of the CLR's PolyTRIM research software with the MRG's data base to produce a research tool as well as a public- access interactive display. The interactive capabilities stemming from a real- time object- oriented structure provided an excellent environment for both researchers and the public to investigate the nature of temporal changes in such aspects as landuse, ethnicity, and fortifications of the 18th century city. This paper describes the need for interactive real- time GIS in such temporal analysis projects and the underlying need for object- oriented vs. topologically structured data access strategies to support them.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2fc4
authors Linzer, H., Martens, B. and Voigt, A.
year 1994
title The Integration of Virtual and Full-Scale Modelling
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 147-151
summary Practically every design- and planning activity aims at its ultimate realization in the built environment. Any respective decisions are generally taken on the basis of substitutes of the original. Yet, the true spatial dimensions and proportions can be conceived on a 1:1 scale "without any mental detour". Moreover, the interaction of light, colour and material is best represented in the 1:1 model. One of the main reasons why physical 1:1 models are rarely constructed is certainly the unbalanced economic relation between expenditure and resulting use. Therefore, representation by means of less expensive virtual models has taken a preeminent position. However, a balanced combination of physical and virtual models in full-scale according to area- and problem-type, degree of details and scale is likely to become increasingly important in the future. It is not the aim of Simulation Aided Architectural Design (SAAD) and Simulation Aided City Development (SACD) to do completely away with existing working procedures and planning techniques, but to act supplements promoting the integration of traditional and new simulation techniques by an-ticipating "realities" aimed at the best-suited design of a common living space. Furthermore, the generation of visions and utopian schemes may add to an enhancement as far as spatial development and design are regarded within the issue of falsification and verification of spatial developments.
series eCAADe
email linzer@www.ifoer.tuwien.ac.at, b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/
last changed 2001/02/11 17:59

_id caadria2018_134
id caadria2018_134
authors Kawabe, Akihiro and Watanabe, Shun
year 2018
title An Analysis of Mixed Land Use Toward Designing the Compact City
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 493-502
summary Applying the method of "Land-Use Mix" (Amindabari et al. (2013)) and Focusing on changes in highly mixed land use areas within an extensive survey area and detailed analytical unit, the analysis in this study revealed some trends of distribution of mixed land use areas and their declining patterns in the eastern part of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. For example, among the changing land use patterns of Highly-Mixed-Points-as-of-1994, the pattern that a decreasing mixture index was associated with increasing residential land and decreasing commercial land occurred most often, and the points that changed with that pattern accounted for about 32% of all the Highly Mixed Points, and about 51% of the decrease in mixture index points.
keywords Metropolitan Form Analysis; Land-Use Mix; GIS; Mixed land use; Compact City
series CAADRIA
email s1720498@s.tsukuba.ac.jp
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9422
id ddss9422
authors Daru, Roel and Snijder, Philip
year 1994
title Sketch-Trigger: A Specification for a Form Generator and Design Analysis Toolbox for Architectural Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In order to develop design and decision support techniques in the early sketch design phases, weshould (1) experience and (2) observe real behaviour in practice, (3) transform observations intoideas for improvement, (4) develop behaviour models to explain the sketch design activities and(5) to evaluate between the proposals, (6) decide between the alternatives, (7) implement theselected option in a supporting tool. Our paper reports about the results of step 3 in particular inthe first phase of a Ph D project, started this year. Our main objective is to amplify the effects ofthe sketch as a very effective instrument to generate original forms and to stimulate the mind to discover new shapes and meanings in the roughly sketched patterns. Instead of considering the sketch only as a representation of what the designer has in mind as is usually assumed in CAD systems, we see sketching as form activation. Thus, we want also to offer triggering images to spark off the imagination of the designer while generating images which are practically impossibleto create by hand and certainly not at short notice. The main improvement proposed is the use of an evolutionary form breeding system: one or more sketched parent images (either ready-made'partis' or basic schemes drafted by the designer) presented in the centre of the screen, will generate surrounding mutated children as defined at random but constrained by default or customization of the available transformations. By selecting one or more children a next generation will be produced in the same way. At all times the designer can introduce or reduce constraints. To complete the usually offered 'classical' symmetrical, spatial and logical operations,we want to introduce dis-functional operations like dislocation, explosion, deformation, anti-logic etc, in short all kinds of antagonistic operations, among them the transformations applied indeconstructionist and post-modern design. Our expectation is that these operations will correspond roughly to the 'move' pertaining to a design entity as the operational unit most appropriate for design behaviour research, in particular the analysis of the chunking and parsing behaviour of the designer. The applicability of the 'move' approach has been shown experimentally by Habraken and others. Goldschmidt has abandoned the usual typology approach of protocolanalysis based on moves and concentrated on the linking of moves, but has been hampered by the lack of a good representational instrument. This brings us to the representation of moves and linkages as a research instrument. The 'linkograph' approach as proposed by Goldschmidt is a first step towards a graphical representation of the designers associative reasoning mode, necessary for tracking the heuristics of designers at the most basic level, but its practical implementation remained as yet incredibly laborious. What is proposed here is an instrument and approach which makes such registration and analysis possible within a structured software environment.
series DDSS
email bwauab@urc.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4f23
authors Dieberger, Andreas
year 1994
title Navigation in Spatial Information Environments: User Interface Design Issues for Hypertext and VR Systems Posters
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994
summary The Information City project (presented in a poster at Hypertext 93) uses the spatial user interface metaphor of a city to organize and navigate large collections of hypertextual information. As we are used to navigate real life cities the city metaphor -- enriched with magic features -- should help to navigate information structures. A first implementation of the Information City was started in a MUD system. MUDs are networked multi-user text-adventure games which usually make use of a house / city metaphor. MUDs are conceptually similar to hypertext systems and navigational findings in those systems are therefore relevant also to hypertext. While implementing the first parts of the city research into navigation in MUDs was found necessary. This poster presents some results of this navigational study and describes how knowledge in the domains of architecture and city-planning can be used to design an easy to navigate virtual city. Highlights of the results concern magic features and collaboration. Magic features extend the spatial metaphor beyond typical properties of space. An example is the hypertext link which allows tunneling through the spatial structure. Other results concern the richness of spaces (or space-descriptions) and communication between users. It seems the chief benefit of the spatial metaphor of the city is in communication about spatial relationships of information. The findings probably are valuable in designing any information system using spatial metaphors. They are especially useful for hypertext systems realized in some virtual environment -- be it a MUD or an immerse virtual reality system.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id da71
id da71
authors Horne, Margaret
year 2004
title Visualisation of Martyr’s Square, Beirut
source CONVR2005 5th Conference of Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, ADETTI/ISCTE, Durham, UK, 12-13 September 2005
summary Solidere, a Lebanese joint-stock company, was created by government decree in 1994 to reconstruct Beirut city-centre. The company, a form of public-private partnership, has a majority share holding of former owners and tenants of city-centre property. Several projects are underway, including the redevelopment of Place des Martyrs, once the bustling heart of Beirut but badly damaged during the war. Urban planners in Beirut have recently developed a 3D computer model to visually describe the spatial characteristics of Martyr’s Square and its context, prior to inviting design proposals for an international competition. This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of the model to meet the needs of urban designers and town planners. It also considers potential future uses of the simulation, outlining areas for further research and development.
keywords Beirut, 3D Modelling, Visual Simulation, Town Planning
series other
type normal paper
email m.horne@unn.ac.uk
last changed 2006/06/08 20:10

_id a887
authors Kaplan, Nancy and Moulthrop, Stuart
year 1994
title Where No Mind Has Gone Before: Ontological Design for Virtual Spaces Papers
source Proceedings of the ECHT'94 European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies 1994 pp. 206-216
summary Hypermedia designers have tried to move beyond the directed graph concept, which defines hypermedia structures as aggregations of nodes and links. A substantial body of work attempts to describe hypertexts in terms of extended or global spaces. According to this approach, nodes and links acquire meaning in relation to the space in which they are deployed. Some theory of space thus becomes essential for any advance in hypermedia design; but the type of space implied by electronic information systems, from hyperdocuments to "consensual hallucinations," requires careful analysis. Familiar metaphors drawn from physics, architecture, and everyday experience have only limited descriptive or explanatory value for this type of space. As theorists of virtual reality point out, new information systems demand an internal rather than an external perspective. This shift demands a more sophisticated approach to hypermedia space, one that accounts both for stable design properties (architectonic space) and for unforeseen outcomes, or what Winograd and Flores call "breakdowns." Following Wexelblat in cyberspace theory and Dillon, McKnight, and Richardson in hypermedia theory, we call the domain of these outcomes semantic space. In two thought experiments, or brief exercises in interface design, we attempt to reconcile these divergent notions of space within the conceptual system of hypermedia.
keywords Spatial Hypertext; Interface Design; Information Mapping; Navigation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ddss9453
id ddss9453
authors Krafta, Romulo
year 1994
title Urban Configuration, Attraction And Morphology
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Spatial Interaction (SI), based on the principle of attraction, has set up a powerful way of looking at the behaviour of urban systems. Within-place activities generate and/or attract trips, due to their inner fragmentary nature; several activities articulate a system of locations and flows which is supposed to be regulated by concentration of those activities and distance between them'. SI has been criticized for having a poor theory and little regard to spatial specifics. In general terms, planners and large-scale urban scientists have been more comfortable with it than designers and urban morphologists, whose questions about space configuration are awkwardly dealt with in such a framework. Recently, Space Syntax (SS) has been suggested as an alternative to describe possible roles of space in the urban system. Its theory looks very complex - a deep cultural, anthropological connection between man and space, an atavistic impulse driving the shaping of space. Teklenburg et al have shown, however, that it is, in fact, very simple and not far from the rude assumptions of SI: a matter of distance and orientation3. Hence, what does look new is just its way of describing orientation, through the axiallity of public space. Axial lines retain the fundamental issue of connectivity; so they describe space more efficiently than the traditional zones or links used in SI models. SI says little about configuration, SS says little about interaction between spaces and activities, and both say nothing about morphology, or the configurational development of urban systems. An alternative approach is suggested: (i) urban spatial configurati-on (urban grid and built form) strongly conditions activity location and flows, in the short term. In this way, a convenient description of such a configuration should denounce its potential to housing activities and generate flows. This required description should take the grid axiallity as a measure of connectivity and orientation, as in SS, as well as the built form as a measure of attraction, as in SI; (ii) activity location and flows strongly conditions urban spatial configuration change, in the long run. Location and flow patterns create values that are expressed by an increasing conflict between rising land values and declining building values. As a result, configuration is taken as a particular state of a morphology whose transformation rules are an economic expression of spatiality. Flows are cause and effect in the lagged process of mutual transformation which shapes the urban space.
series DDSS
email krafta@vortex.ufrgs.br
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9610
id ddssup9610
authors Krafta, Romulo
year 1996
title Built form and urban configuration development simulation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The "centrality/potential" model, proposed by Krafta (1994), for configurational development, aims at the simulation of inner city built form growth. This is generally achieved by simulating the uneven distribution of floor area increments, resulting from replacement of old buildings, considered "devalued capital" form new ones. The model considers two main variables - public urban space system and built form - and treats them unevenly; the former is extensively disaggregated whereas the latter is not. This feature enables the model to make just a rough account of intra-urban built form development. The issue of built form simulation is then taken further in the following way: a) Urban built form is disaggregated by types. Buildings are classified by a cross combination of scale, purpose, age and quality standard; b) The city is itself considered as a set of intertwined typologic cities. This means that each unit of public space is identified by its dominant built form type, producing a multilayered-discontinuous city. Each one has its own market characteristics: rentability, technological availability and demand size; c) The market constraints determine which layer-city has priority over the others, as well as each one's size of growth. References to rentability and demand size gives each built form type priorities for development d) Spatial conditions, in the form of particular evaluation of centrality and spatial opportunity measures, regulates the distribution of built form increments and typological succession. Locational values, denoted by centrality and spatial opportunity measures, area differently accounted for in each layer-city simulation. e) Simulation is obtained by "running" the model recursively. Each built form type is simulated separately and in hyerarquical order, so that priority and replacement of built form types is acknowledged properly.
series DDSS
email kraffa@vortex.ufrgs.br
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9461
id ddss9461
authors Leusen, Marc van
year 1994
title System of Types in the Domain of Residential Buildings
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary At the early stages of the architectural design process, general decisions are made with respect to a building's spatial organization. These concern its overall shape and size, as well as its internal organization. Characteristics of a building's spatial organization, however vaguely and incomplete-ly described at those stages, may have serious consequences for various aspects of its performan-ce. Those consequences are often difficult to determine in advance and emerge only during time-consuming elaboration of the design or even not before the actual building is in operation. A designer's ability of foreseeing them is much dependent on his knowledge of existing buildings. More particularly, it depends on his understanding of the performances of types rather than specific precedents. In general terms, the present study aims at supporting design decisions at the early stages by improving the awareness and understanding of types. Many architectural handbooks particularly those in the domain of housing attempt to support access to and acquisition of such knowledge through so-called typologies, in which types are described by means of graphical descriptions, and illustrated with one or more precedents. The effectiveness of such books as design supporting tools is limited by the fact, among others, that type descriptions are not based upon a well-defined representation of spatial organization. This leads to uncertainty as to the handbook's completeness and to unreliability of performances associated with types. The present study explores the possibilities of dealing with these shortcomings. It is limited to the domain of the complex residential building. After a review of existing work in the area of housing typology, the study presents and discusses the following products: (i) a type-representation of basic arrangements of dwellings, that is, a representation which retains only the most general characteristics of spatial organization, (ii) a demonstration of the potential of this representation; this demonstration involves the enumeration and limited exploration of certain ranges of type descriptions.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9466
id ddss9466
authors Moore, Kathryn
year 1994
title Abstract Into Reality
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Skills associated with the art of design, imagination, intuition, visual, spatial and perceptual thinking, have generally been ignored by the educational system. These imaginal skills have been considered insignificant within a predominately positivist culture, disregarded as a valid measure of intelligence. Culturally, therefore, they remain relatively underdeveloped. A narrowly defined type of logic, reason and rationality has been regarded as the preferred form of knowledge, and as a consequence, significant and complementary ways of understanding and thinking have been neglected. This affects how we regard design, design processes and design theory. It is suggested that it also explains the divergence between design theory and design practice. This paper explores the relationship between the imaginal skills and design. Whereas the imaginal skills are often regarded as subjective and elusive, it is argued that the imaginal skills are cognitive abilities that can be taught, and that in doing so confidence is developed in different ways of thinking. This encourages qualitative or sensory understanding of space and place, a more comprehensive understanding of the vocabulary of design, and the ability to make connections between design expression and conceptual thinking. It considers the pedagogical programme of the undergraduate course in landscape architecture UCE, which aims to develop understanding of different ways of thinking as an integral, complementary part of the design process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id eaea2005_133
id eaea2005_133
authors Weber, Ralf
year 2006
title Urban space and architectural scale - Two examples of empirical research in architectural aesthetics
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 133-149
summary As one of the oldest schools of architecture in Germany, Dresden has a long and continuous tradition in the field of architectural aesthetics and building composition. Architects such as Fritz Schumacher initiated research and teaching in the field in the 1920s, and this was revitalised during the 1950s by Otto Schubert who laid the foundations for a scientific description of the correlation between optics and architectural design, and also worked towards a comprehensive theory of architectural composition. As a result of the architectural ideology of the East German regime, such studies were consigned to near oblivion and the main concern became interior decoration. With the appointment of Professor Ralf Weber, the institute was reestablished in 1994 under its original name, the Institute of Spatial Design (Raumgestaltung). Its new research agenda originated from Weber’s book “On the Aesthetics of Architectural Form - A Psychological Approach to the Structure and the Order of Perceived Architectural Space” (Ashgate 1994). In order to verify some of the hypotheses advanced in the book empirically, members of the institute have been carrying out a number of studies in the areas of oculomotor research and the perceptual foundations of design, and have been addressing issues that would help formulate principles of good architectural form and space applicable to the everyday practice of architectural design. Currently, the Institute of Spatial Design focuses on the further development of the psychological bases of experiencing architecture, as well as on theories of aesthetics and their application in practice. Specifically, attention is paid, on the one hand, to the perception and experience of architecture, i.e. aesthetics, and on the other, to the assemblage of various parts into an overall whole in a building, city or landscape – in other words, architectural composition. These two aspects are naturally inextricably intertwined: the one concerns the reception of architecture, the other, its production. Under these headings, various other areas of interest, such as architectural tectonics, systems of order and proportions, or the issue of scale in architecture, are tackled through dissertations, research projects and seminars. The institute has been cooperating on several studies with the Cognitive & Biological Psychology Unit at the University of Leipzig and the intention is eventually to establish an interdisciplinary research unit for architectural aesthetics.
series EAEA
type normal paper
email r.weber@mailbox.tu-dresden.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
email jean.winem@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9505
id ddss9505
authors Wyatt, Ray
year 1994
title Strategic Decision Support: Using Neural Networks to Enhance and Explore Human Strategizing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper focuses on a mechanism by which planners and designers are thought to reduce complexity. The mechanism involves choosing a potentially profitable direction of search, or choosing potentially profitable set of aims to pursue, within which a detailed solution might be found, and rejecting all potentially unprofitable directions of search. The literature of psychology, planning and operations research is drawn upon to argue that designers base such initial choice of direction on their candidate aims' relative scores for eight key parameters: probability, returns for effort, delay, robustness, difficulty, present satisfaction and dependence. The paper then describes a piece of decision support software which, by eliciting any user's scores for their candidate aims on the eight key parameters, is able to order such aims into a strategic plan. Such software also incorporates a simulated neural network which attempts to "learn", from users' recorded responses to the software-suggested strategies, how users actually weight the relative importances of the eight key parameters. That is, it is hoped that the neural network will "converge' to some prototypical pattern(s) of weightings. Having such a tool would certainly constitute an advance in the state of the art of computer-aided strategy development. Alternatively, if the network never converges, the use of neural networks in computer-aided planning is perhaps not advisable. Accordingly, a test was conducted in which a group of planners used the software to address a typical spatial problem. The results, in terms of whether or not the neural network converged, will be reported.
series DDSS
email raywyatt@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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