CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 347

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
email l-degelman@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1262
authors Alshawi, M.
year 1994
title A run time exchange of component information between CAD and object models: A standard interface
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 2(2), pp. 37-52
summary Integrated computer aided design could only occur in engineering once CAD systems could represent physical features and components rather than graphical primitives. In most dedicated CAD systems, the knowledge of a complete component exists only for the duration of each drawing command and the data stored in the database is simply a set of graphic primitives. This paper proposes an approach for real time information transfer from and to CAD systems based on a high level object representation of the design drawing. Drawing components are automatically identified and represented in an object hierarchy that reflects the 'part-of' relation between the various components including building spaces. Such hierarchies transfer an industry standard CAD system i.e. AutoCAD, into a high level object oriented system that can communicate with external applications with relative ease.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ddss9404
id ddss9404
authors Arima, Takafumi and Sato, Seiji
year 1994
title Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: A Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9405
id ddss9405
authors Ayeni, Bola
year 1994
title The Design of Decision Support Systems in Urban and Regional Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Planning methodology over the years, has shifted from situations whereby planners think, plan and design for the people to one whereby both people and planners have become important components of the planning process. Consequently, the important urban planning methodology of the last two decades that utilized mathematical models in the planning process is fast becoming obsolete. The paper argues that model building should move to the creation of urban decision support systems for the planning process through the development of expert systems shells that interfaces existing planning models with the knowledge content of planning and planners. The expert system shells as the set of decision rules for determining how existing supply and demand relationships are applied for modelling land use and transportation would be responsible forguiding the development of appropriate geographical information systems, supporting land use and other models in a coordinated manner, for communicating with these other systems componentsand for guiding interactions between them and the user. Furthermore, decision support systems should be designed to bring the whole of the knowledge base to bear on a problem through a flexible and adaptive solution system that makes explicit use of both the analysts models and the decision makers expert knowledge. It is argued that this understanding leads to the development of three crucial issues for the design of decision support systems in urban and regional planning;namely the development of user friendly integrated urban land-use transportation models, the development of expert geographical information systems and the development of expert systemshells for many of the routine tasks planners deal with.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9409
id ddss9409
authors Beekman, Solange and Rikhof, Herman G.A.
year 1994
title Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
series DDSS
email h.g.a.rikhof@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddss9410
id ddss9410
authors Bodum, Lars
year 1994
title Hypermedia-aided GIS in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Town planning in Denmark is undergoing major changes from a planning approach focusing on regulation and individual frameworks for town districts, to a planning approach emphasizing the urban characteristics and drawing overall guidelines for planning. At the same time, attention has shifted to urban renewal and urban remodelling. This means that more qualitative data are needed.These new data types such as digital film, are to form part of a future GIS for the town. The digital film will change the impression of what data can profitably be used in a GIS. Even animations and 3D models, which were previously processed with considerable data power can beplayed as digital films. In the course of the next few years, the most ordinary applications will be able to play digital films and together with the progress made in other media, a development towards hypermedia will be a possibility. The paper will give some examples of how this integration may be carried out. In continuation of the preparation of a municipality atlas and in connection with an EC-subsidized urban renewal project, the municipality of Aalborg has chosen to work outa digital catalog which will in time replace the present local planning regulations.
series DDSS
email ibo@i4.auc.dk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssup9604
id ddssup9604
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1996
title Impact-Analysis of Urban Design Realtime impact-analysis models for urban designers
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The past five years Prof Dr Jr T.M. de Jong, professor in environmental planning and sustainability at the Technical University of Delft, has developed a theoretical foundation for the analysis of urban design on the ecological, technical, economical, cultural and political impacts of morphologic interventions on different levels of scale. From september 1994 Jr AJ. Boelen (Urban Design Scientist and Knowledge Engineer) started a research project at the same university to further explore the possibilities of these theories and to develop impact evaluation models for urban design and development with the theoretical work of De Jong as a starting point. The paper discusses the development of a design and decision support system based on these theories. For the development of this system, techniques like object-orientation, genetic algorithms and knowledge engineering are used. The user interface, the relation between the real world, paper maps and virtual maps and the presentation of design-interventions and impacts caused by the interventions are important issues. The development-process is an interactive step by step process. It consists of the making of a prototype of the system, testing the theory and hypothe-sisses the system is based on, by applying tests end adjusting the theory and hypothesisses where needed. Eventually the system must be able to act as an integrator of many different models already developed or still to be developed. The structure of the system will allow easy future expansion and adjustment to changing insights. The logic used to develop the basic theory on which this system is founded makes it possible to even introduce and maintain rather subjective aspects like quality or appraisal as impacts that can be evaluated. In a previously developed system "Momentum" this was proved to work effectively for the national level. In this project we will - amongst other things - try to prove the effectiveness of impact-evaluation for other levels of scale.
series DDSS
email Aj.Boelen@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0e89
authors Bradford, J.W., Cheng, N. and Kvan, Thomas
year 1994
title Virtual Design Studios
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 163-167
summary Beginning in 1993, small groups of students of architectural design at different institutions around the world participated in collaborative design projects using a variety of tools, including CAD, Internet and teleconferencing. This programme, known as the "Virtual Design Studio" (VDS), allows students to work collectively with colleagues from different cultures and climates who are thousands of kilometres and in different time zones. Most recently, in February 1994, four institutions in N. America, one in Europe, and one in S E Asia participated in VDS’94. This paper explains the operation of the VDS and explores the future of the VDS as a potential tool for architectural design education. In particular, we review what we have learned in employing computer tools to extend the teaching in design studios into a "virtual" experience.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2010/07/01 05:20

_id ddss9413
id ddss9413
authors Branki, Cherif
year 1994
title Communicative Acts in Cooperative Architectural Design Environments
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The purpose of this paper is to present a scheme, that can be used to support the communication process in cooperative design. Computational aids for design have largely been for a designerworking by himself/herself. These aids have also been supplemented by the widespread use of artificial intelligence approaches. However, design is so complex, and very rarely acted upon by a single designer but many more working towards the same aim. This involves a new paradigm in which designers need to cooperate with each other using a computational medium. A protocol analysis in cooperative design has been carried out and technological support has been proposed.Cooperative design becomes an important paradigm for the next generation of intelligent computer aided design systems. It will be conducted in many forms among several designers and willrequire the support of advanced communication facilities beyond the "passive" transmission of data and messages. Technological advances in communication networks have opened up new ways for cooperative design interaction across several processes of cooperation among designers, designers and computer aided design systems, computer aided design systems and knowledge based systems, and knowledge based systems themselves. In cooperative design environments, aunit of communication among designers is the transfer of a message from one designer (a sender) to another (a receiver). The aim of such communication is to provide the receiver with some information or to have the receiver take certain actions. Inspired by the speech act theory, a branch of the philosophy of language and linguistics, such a unit is called a communicative act. By analogy to architectural design, a communicative act is a performing act in designers communication.
series DDSS
email cos.branki@uk.ac.glasp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id diss_brewster
id diss_brewster
authors Brewster, S.A.
year 1994
title Providing a Structured Method for Integrating Non-Speech Audio into Human-Computer Interfaces
source Heslington, York: University of York
summary This thesis provides a framework for integrating non-speech sound into human-computer interfaces. Previously there was no structured way of doing this, it was done in an ad hoc manner by individual designers. This led to ineffective uses of sound. In order to add sounds to improve usability two questions must be answered: What sounds should be used and where is it best to use them? With these answers a structured method for adding sound can be created. An investigation of earcons as a means of presenting information in sound was undertaken. A series of detailed experiments showed that earcons were effective, especially if musical timbres were used. Parallel earcons were also investigated (where two earcons are played simultaneously) and an experiment showed that they could increase sound presentation rates. From these results guidelines were drawn up for designers to use when creating usable earcons. These formed the first half of the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces. An informal analysis technique was designed to investigate interactions to identify situations where hidden information existed and where non-speech sound could be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions were considered in terms of events, status and modes to find hidden information. This information was then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. Several examples of the use of the technique were presented. This technique formed the second half of the structured method. The structured method was evaluated by testing sonically-enhanced scrollbars, buttons and windows. Experimental results showed that sound could improve usability by increasing performance, reducing time to recover from errors and reducing workload. There was also no increased annoyance due to the sound. Thus the structured method for integrating sound into interfaces was shown to be effective when applied to existing interface widgets.
series thesis:PhD
email stephen@dcs.gla.ac.uk
more http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/publications.shtml
last changed 2003/11/28 06:34

_id 5dff
authors Bricken, M.
year 1994
title Virtual Worlds: No Interface to Design
source Cyberspace - First Steps, M.Benedikt ed, MIT Press
summary In a virtual world, we are inside an environment of pure information that we can see, hear, and touch. The technology itself is invisible, and carefully adapted to human activity so that we can behave naturally in this artificial world. We can create any imaginable environment and we can experience entirely new perspectives and capabilities within it. A virtual world can be informative, useful, and fun; it can also be boring and uncomfortable. The difference is in the design. The platform and the interactive devices we use, the software tools and the purpose of the environment are all elements in the design of virtual worlds. But the most important component in designing comfortable, functional worlds is the person inside them. Cyberspace technology couples the functions of the computer with human capabilities. This requires that we tailor the technology to people, and refine the fit to individuals. We then have customized interaction with personalized forms of information that can amplify our individual intelligence and broaden our experience. Designing virtual worlds is a challenging departure from traditional interface design. In the first section of this chapter I differentiate between paradigms for screen-based interface design and paradigms for creating virtual worlds. The engineer, the designer, and the participant co-create cyberspace. Each role carries its own set of goals and expectations, its own model of the technology's salient features. In the second section of the chapter I address these multiple perspectives, and how they interrelate in the cooperative design process. In conclusion, I consider broader design issues, including control, politics, and emergent phenomena in cyberspace.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 48a7
authors Brooks
year 1999
title What's Real About Virtual Reality
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19, no. 6, Nov/Dec, 27
summary As is usual with infant technologies, the realization of the early dreams for VR and harnessing it to real work has taken longer than the wild hype predicted, but it is now happening. I assess the current state of the art, addressing the perennial questions of technology and applications. By 1994, one could honestly say that VR "almost works." Many workers at many centers could doe quite exciting demos. Nevertheless, the enabling technologies had limitations that seriously impeded building VR systems for any real work except entertainment and vehicle simulators. Some of the worst problems were end-to-end system latencies, low-resolution head-mounted displays, limited tracker range and accuracy, and costs. The technologies have made great strides. Today one can get satisfying VR experiences with commercial off-the-shelf equipment. Moreover, technical advances have been accompanied by dropping costs, so it is both technically and economically feasible to do significant application. VR really works. That is not to say that all the technological problems and limitations have been solved. VR technology today "barely works." Nevertheless, coming over the mountain pass from "almost works" to "barely works" is a major transition for the discipline. I have sought out applications that are now in daily productive use, in order to find out exactly what is real. Separating these from prototype systems and feasibility demos is not always easy. People doing daily production applications have been forthcoming about lessons learned and surprises encountered. As one would expect, the initial production applications are those offering high value over alternate approaches. These applications fall into a few classes. I estimate that there are about a hundred installations in daily productive use worldwide.
series journal paper
email brooks@ai.mit.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 01ef
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title From Real to Virtual Building Behaviours: “Expert Hypertexts” in the Design Studio
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 243
summary Starting from the refuse of the most impressive, on fashion performances of the so called Virtual Reality, I hypothize for the architectural education of the next decade a strategy based on the following scenario: ()- as regards the form of the virtual studio, it should result from the synergy of many moments and opportunities: telematic interaction; students working at home; students training through assistant design tools in the university venue, with or without teachers’ supervision; informal discussion teachers-students about such training; traditional teachers’ lectures as introductions or resumes; (-) as regards the function of the virtual studio, it should realize the awareness of building behaviours, by teaching architectural design through the critical analysis of positive and - even more important - negative “precedents”.
series eCAADe
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 28f1
authors Carrara, Gianfranco, Kalay, Yehuda E. and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1994
title Knowledge-Based Computational Support for Architectural Design
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 5-12
summary The process of architectural design aims to define a physical form that will achieve certain functional and behavioral objectives in a particular context. It comprises three distinct, but highly interrelated, operations: (1) Definition of the desired objectives; (2) production of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of the solutions and their comparison to the predefined objectives. Design can be viewed as a process of search for a solution that satisfies stated needs, while at the same time adapting the needs to the opportunities and limitations inherent in the emerging solution. // Computational techniques were developed to assist each one of the three operations, with varying degrees of success. We propose to integrate all three operations into one whole, by developing a computational model that will facilitate smooth transition from one operation to another. The role of computers in supporting this model will include providing a knowledge base of prototypical design objectives and solutions, storing project-specific design goals and solutions, and predicting their expected performances. This paper discusses the rationale and background for developing such a knowledge-based design system, and presents the parameters for implementing it as a computational tool to support architectural design. Examples from a prototype implementation serve to illustrate the discussion.
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 7d6c
authors Chapin, William L., Lacey, T. and Leifer, Larry
year 1994
title DesignSpace: A Manual Interaction Environment for Computer Aided Design DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Reality Multimedia
source Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1994 v.2 pp. 33-34
summary DesignSpace is a computer-aided-design (CAD) system that facilitates dexterous manipulation of mechanical design representations. The system consists of an interactive simulation programmed with a seamless extended model of the designer's physical environment and driven with continuous instrumentation of the designer's physical actions. The simulation displays consistent visual and aural images of the virtual environment without occluding the designer's sensation of the physical surroundings. Developed at Stanford University's Center for Design Research (CDR), DesignSpace serves as an experimental testbed for design theory and methodology research. DesignSpace includes significant contributions from recent CDR development projects: TalkingGlove, CutPlane, VirtualHand, TeleSign, and VirtualGrasp. The current DesignSpace prototype provides modeling facility for only crude conceptual design and assembly, but can network multiple systems to share a common virtual space and arbitrate the collaborative interaction. The DesignSpace prototype employs three head-tracked rear projection images, head-coupled binaural audio, hand instrumentation, and electromagnetic position tracking.
keywords Virtual Environment; Dexterous Manipulation; Interactive Simulation; Presence; Spatial Acoustics; Manual and Gestural Communication; Teleconference; Collaboration
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

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