CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 346

_id e5d0
authors Lowe, John P.
year 1994
title Computer-Aided-Design in the Studio Setting: A Paradigm Shift in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 230
summary The introduction of the personal computer in 1982 set forth a revolution that will continue to transform the profession of Architecture. Most architectural practices in America have embraced this revolution realizing the potentials of the computer. However, education seems to have been slower accepting the potentials and challenges of computers. Computer technology will change the design studio setting and therefore the fundamental way architects are educated. The Department of Architecture at Kansas State University has made a commitment to move toward a computer based design studio. In the fall of 1990, discussions began among the faculty to search for the placement of a computer studio within the five year program. Curriculum, staffing, and funding were issues that had to be overcome to make this commitment work. The strategy that was adopted involved placing the computer studio at the fourth year level in phase one. Phase two will progress as more staff are trained on the computer and course work was adapted to accommodate other year levels for a computer based design studios. Funding was a major obstacle. The decision was made to move from a position of being the primary suppliers of computing technology to one of support for student purchased computers. This strategy alleviated the department from maintaining and upgrading the technology. There was great enthusiasm and support from the faculty as a whole for the use of computers in the studio setting. However, the pedagogical impacts of such a change are just beginning to be realized.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:18

_id 6f6a
authors Lyons, Arthur and Doidge, Charles
year 1994
title The Animation of Dynamic Architecture
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 233
summary The most valuable resource in education is student time and the greatest asset is the ingenuity of student minds. CAD technology now offers enormous potential to education, but limitations in time and funding, prevent its use to the extent possible within practice. Therefore, after dealing with 'awareness', 'attitude' and 'limited applications', our most important role in education is to encourage innovation. The third year of the honours option course at De Montfort University takes this as its theme and challenges students to explore and exploit innovative applications. One particular area of development has been exploring the dynamic aspects of architectural design which go much further than the well-established 'fly-through' sequences. A great deal of architectural design and design development depends upon dynamic issues which range from movement joints to construction sequence. A visual understanding of these dynamic issues drawn from appropriate computer animations can now be an effective factor in design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:18

_id cd34
authors Marinelli, A.M., Belibani, R. and Gadola, A.
year 1994
title Multimedia in Communication: A Study on the Urban Image of Barcelona
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 103-107
summary The Hypertext on Barcelona was realized within the interuniversity scientific research "La Produzione dei circuiti multimediali didattici per l'architettura e l'urbanistica" (The production of multimedia didactic circuits for architecture and urban planning), coordinator Prof. Paola Coppola Pignatelli - Dipartimento di Progettazione Architettonica e Urbana- Facoltā di Architettura, Universitā "La Sapienza", Roma, Italia. During the numerous debates on the relationship between multimedia and communication of the project a long list of problems emerged: the understanding and the management of explorable fields opened by these new media; the informative overflow that can introduce irrelevant information; the "interactive" anxiousness that produces a continuous jumping from one theme to another without any understanding; the identification of the right contents of a multimedia product, that requires an elaborate culture of media languages; the education of the users on new models of learning. From the debates emerged in short a principal point: the necessity to study and to experiment a "multimedia tool" able of transmitting knowledge not through a simple sum of data but through a group of information. If every single tool has -its own characteristics and if the combinations are not automatic, then the modes and contents should be examined. Is it possible therefore to invent a strategy of communication?
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:25

_id a201
authors Martens, Bob
year 1994
title INTERIOR DESIGN IN A FULL-SCALE LAB: IMPLEMENTING LEGO-LIKE BUILDING BRICKS FOR AND INFRASTRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF AN EXPERIMENTING LEVEL
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 41-58
summary This paper deals with the present state of the full-scale laboratory at the Vienna University of Technology. Regarding 1:1 simulations in the lab simple and quick-performance solutions for all of the horizontal and vertical terminating planes (walls, ceiling and planes) are a prerequisite. Therefore, the development of an experimental level is illustrated first by implementing the Meroform-System. Then the working material of Lego-like building bricks is described. Thereafter, the possibilities resulting from the present laboratory infrastructure are considered by means of projects having already been performed. Finally, the medium-term extension plan for the experimental space within the Vienna Full-Scale Lab is presented and combined applications of different simulation techniques are enumerated.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 08:59

_id 80d6
id 80d6
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Multi-Media Archive of Historical Architecture
source Europa Nostra , vol 10
summary With funding from the European Union TEMPUS programme, four Universities have been working collaboratively to develop multi-media tools which help us understand the historical development of settlements and plan future developments which enhance rather than diminish the quality of the visual environment. The context taken for the collaboration was the historic region of Split on the Dalmatian stretch of the Adriatic coast.

The Universities involved in the collaboration are the University of Strathclyde, the University of Rome (La Sapienza), the University Polytechnic of Catalunya and the University of Zagreb.

The unique character of Split, catalogued by the University of Zagreb and the Split Institute of Urban Planning, owes much to the decision of the Emperor Deocletia to build his Palace on the coast south of Salona - which in the 4th century was the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia. The Slav invasion of the 6th century drove citizens from Salonia south to Split to found a new city. After being dominated by the Byzantine Empire, Split then enjoyed free commune status , and subsequently became part of the Republic of Venice. After the fall of the Venetian Republic, the fortifications of the small city were demolished and the development of the modern city of Split began.

series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/27 07:47

_id maver_097
id maver_097
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:01

_id maver_105
id maver_105
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1994
title Information Technology in Design: A Perspective
source Journal of Housing, Building and Planning, vol 1, 0218-6536
summary In October 1990 a small group of people met at Ross Priory on the shores of Loch Lomond in Scotland to celebrate 21 years of computer aided building design. The calloboration- called CAAD Comes of Age - took the form of a seminar with papers presented by academics and design practitioners whose experience of this subject spanned these formative years during which the subject has grown from the minority time interest of a few eccentric academics into a multi- billion dollar business A number of the papers and much of the discussion focused on what had transpired over the 21 year period and how the evolution of the subject corresponded to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past This paper gathers together some of the perceptions which emerged from the event.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:36

_id ddss9465
id ddss9465
authors McLennan, Peter
year 1994
title Organisational Structure and Strategic Facility Planning Decisions
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Organisational group size data from a variety of organisational types are developed into a model for understanding the implications of changing organisational structure on strategic facility planning decision making. The purpose of this model is to develop a better understanding of the user requirements across a range of organisational types and the implications for strategic briefing documents and corporate real estate development strategies. A discussion of the theoretical implications of a time series data model of group size and its implications on strategic facility planning decision making is developed.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id b4e1
authors Merz, R.
year 1994
title Shape deposition manufacturing
source Vienna University of Technology
summary This thesis addresses the issue of rapidly and automatically fabricating functional metal parts directly from CAD models. A newly developed process called Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) is introduced. The process is based on the concept of layered manufacturing in SFF, but uses separate deposition and shaping steps to create a layer. Three dimensionally shaped layers are created using 5-axis CNC machining, to achieve the required geometric accuracy for fully functional shapes. Thermal deposition technologies (thermal spraying, welding) are used to achieve the required material properties. A novel, droplet based deposition process, microcasting, has been developed, to create well- bonded, high-strength material, while minimising the heat input into previously shaped layers. To create layers with a true three dimensional geometry, more detailed building strategies, than used by conventional SFF processes, are required by the SDM process. A CAD based planning system, which addresses these issues by decomposing a solid model of a part into layers and manufacturable, fully three dimensional segments is described. An automated testbed facility installed at Carnegie Mellon's Shape Deposition Laboratory is discussed, and shows the feasibility of automating the process. The microcasting process is explained in detail and its performance in the SDM environment is evaluated. Different strategies and material combinations for the support structure have been developed and are presented with detailed descriptions of several building strategies for parts with various complexity and material quality. Material properties of structures created by the SDM process are evaluated. Problems affecting the accuracy and material integrity of SDM created structures, which mainly involve the buildup of thermal stresses during material deposition, are identified and opened for future research. Finally, various parts, with different complexity, have been built with the SDM process, to show the feasibility and performance of the process. Building time and material usage are evaluated and compared to conventional SFF processes
series thesis:PhD
email merz@hydro.tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.arcs.ac.at/dissdb/rn024248
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id c36f
authors Millard, Lesley
year 1994
title Computer-based Learning and Design - An Educational Approach
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 221
summary Current developments of computer based learning systems often approach the problem from a technological point of view of what hardware and software is available and how it can be used. The paper attempts to take the opposite approach and explore the requirements of architectural education and what the attributes of computer based learning should be to support it. Just as the meaning of a word depends on its context within a sentence so the value of a CBL system is dependent on the learning or design context in which it is used and the purpose of a student using the system.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:11

_id edf2
authors Mori, Stefano and Ng, Edward
year 1994
title Active Studio v.1.5
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 234
summary Four case studies from Active Studio are presented. They are three student projects and a prize winning national competition entry. Being driven by the uniqueness of individual contexts each highlighted a different issue concerning the use of CAD as an image making tool.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:19

_id ad0e
authors Mullet, Kevin E. and Sano, Darrell K.
year 1994
title Applying Visual Design: Trade Secrets for Elegant Interfaces TUTORIALS
source Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1994 v.2 pp. 353-354
summary This tutorial describes a number of fundamental techniques applied routinely in communication-oriented visual design. The orientation, process, training, and culture of the visual design disciplines (graphic design, industrial design, interior design, architecture) are essential components of effective interface design. Unfortunately, few software developers or human factors engineers receive any training in these disciplines. This tutorial describes important design rules and techniques internalized by every visual designer through coursework and studio experience. While mastery will indeed require extended practice, the techniques we describe are not difficult to understand and can be immediately applied to real-world problems. We draw our background, training, and influence from the rational, functional, information oriented perspective of the Modernist design ethic. Because all graphical user interfaces are communication systems, we believe their design should reflect these same values. Our tutorial is organized not along the traditional subdisciplines of color, typography, or ideation, but along the problems of graphical interface design as experienced in commercial software development. We describe basic design principles (the what and why), common errors, and practical techniques (the how) for each of the six major areas outlined below. (1) Elegance and Simplicity (2) Scale, Contrast and Proportion (3) Organization and Visual Structure (4) Module and Programme (5) Image and Representation (6) So What About Style?
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id ddss9468
id ddss9468
authors Mustoe, I. and Bridges, A.
year 1994
title An Intelligent Architectural Design Resource
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary With the development of optical disc technology very large resources of visual material are becoming available to designers. For example, the School of Architecture at University College Dublin has compiled a 30 cm Phillips Laser vision disc containing some 20,000 images of buildings from all parts of Europe. Conventional methods of accessing such large bodies of information tend to be based on formal query languages and are unsuitable for designers searching design precedents or other forms of inspiration. Conventional expert systems, based on deductive inference engines, are equally unsuitable. The difficulty stems from design being an exploratory rather than deductive process. The paper describes a novel type of pattern matching expert system, referred to as "image", which has been developed to provide a method of search which is more appropriate to designers. By the use of image, designers can make meaningful but non-deductive connections between their attitudes towards design and the contents of an optical disc. The bit-string manipulation algorithm underlying image is explained and an example of the use of the system in controlling the Dublin disc is also described.
series DDSS
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 051a
authors Ng, Edward and Mori, Stefano
year 1994
title The Electronic Hartlib Project
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 108-114
summary One of the many criticisms of early efforts in multimedia based teaching, learning and information systems is that most of the development is focused on constructing closed systems, and that once they are completed, altering their content, especially by third party users, is next to impossible. This leads to two problems. Firstly, in the current funding environment, it is almost impossible to sustain the system. Secondly, the system thereby developed is not very flexible and hence can be difficult to use. In Sheffield, we are trying to address this problem by constructing an open system. Using an interface-less data structuring system, an object oriented technique has been developed to separate the interface from the generic files thereby allowing unlimited posthumous alteration and adaptation. A prototype has been developed in Hypercard and in Director, but the beauty of the system is that it can be adapted to run on almost anything.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:26

_id 9377
authors Nowacki, Aleksander
year 1995
title Gothic Cathedral in the Virtual Reality
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 43-56
summary Everyone who once visited Beauvais, small town placed 100 km from Paris, certainly asked himself: "how would have this highest gothic cathedral, that was started here, looked like if it had been completed?". I attempted to answer this question in my diploma work in 1994. However, the task wouldn't be done without power of contemporary computers. They made it possible to create the entire three-dimensional model of this magnificent building in the virtual reality. Cathedral Saint-Pierre in Beauvais, which was started in 1225, partly collapsed in 1284 and 1573. Finally, in 1600, when only choir and transept were finished, the works had been interrupted. The height of this highest gothic interior in the world is 48.5m. To my disposition I had the drawings of plan and cross- section of the existing part of the building, photographic specification and detailed description of the construction of the cathedral. I used PC 486DX/33, 16 MB RAM, HD 170 MB and software: Autodesk AutoCAD r.12 and AccuRender r.1.10. The work was divided into three stages. The first one was "building" the model of existing part of the cathedral in the threedimensional CAD-space. The next one was trying "to finish" the temple based on theoretical reflections and comparative analyses of existing French gothic cathedrals. The last stage included the performance of the series of pseudorealistic pictures showing the "finished" cathedral in Beauvais from the outside, inside and with illumination by night.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id b127
authors Oliveira, A.L., Santiago, A.G. and Mittmann, R.
year 1999
title Digital Floripa - CD-ROM of the City
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 399-403
summary The graduation course of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Santa Catarina makes use of informatic tecnology in several teaching and research activities. This technology supports initial data proccessing, analysis, evaluations, simulations, and project development both in architecture and urban fields. Aiming to stimulate and improve the use of computer techniques in graduation courses, the INFOARQ group, belonging to the 'LABMICRO' developed the project 'Digital Floripa'. This project is an CD image data basis, with digital aerophotographs Florianópolis’ city taken, from the aerophotogrametric data of 1994. This project aims to facilitate image's access to teachers, students and researchers, to allow use of photos and scales, and to make possible the development of new alternatives interventions. A navegator program called 'DIGITAL INDEX'supports the user in the image's search and creates a same graphic interface. This project also acts as basis for research development wich aims to analyse and develop tutorial proceedures to access the utilization of the data images basis.
keywords Digital Patrimony, Digital Reconstruction, Virtual Worlds
series SIGRADI
email andrelim@arq.ufsc.br, alina@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 61a4
authors Parsons, Peter W.
year 1994
title Craft and Geometry in Architecture: An Experimental Design Studio Using the Computer
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 171-176
summary Craft is one of the main aspects of architecture that accounts for its strong corporeal presence. The Computer used as a geometry machine lacks such tectonics. The predominant means for bringing a sense of materiality to its geometric constructions is through rendering, and in this respect the computer is not significantly different from geometric drawing. One need only recall the beautifully rendered drawings of the Beaux-Arts for a comparison. With the rise of modern architecture such 'paper' architecture was voraciously denounced in the cause of relating architectural production more closely with crafted production. Even now the interest in craft has persisted despite postmodern criticism. Therefore, a means for bringing a greater sense of craft to computer-aided design seems desirable. The architectural studio discussed in this paper was initiated partly for this purpose by intentionally confronting the computer's proclivity to move its users away from craft toward geometry, while at the same time taking advantage of its capabilities as a geometry machine. Craft can best be understood by practicing it. Consider, for example, the use of a chisel in woodwork. As one applies force with it, one can feel the resistance of the material. Carving with the grain feels differently than carving against or across it. Carving a piece of maple feels differently than carving a piece of pine. If one presses too hard on the chisel or does not hold it at the precise angle, there is a great risk of creating an unwanted gouge. Gradually with practice the tool feels as if it is an extension of the hand that holds it. it becomes an extension of the body. One can feel the physical qualities of the wood through it. Like a limb of the body its presence can become transparent and one can learn about what one feels through it. It can imprint a memory in the mind that comes to the brain, not through the eyes alone, but through the tactile senses. On the other hand it is tiring to use a chisel for an extended period of time. One's body begins to ache and, as the body tires, the risks of making an unwanted mistake increase. Furthermore, because a tool becomes wedded to the body, it is almost impossible to use more than one tool at a time unless they are being used in conjunction with one another as one might use two limbs of the body together. On a computer one can never 'feel' an object, the image of which is on the screen, in the same manner that one can feel with a chisel the material upon which one is working. One becomes particularly aware of this when creating a 3D computer model of a hand tool. One wants to hold it, not just look at it. Thus the artifice of the object created by means of the computer becomes very apparent, because the 'tool' has not yet taken on the qualities of a tool, although it has taken on the appearance of one.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:34

_id ddss9473
id ddss9473
authors Peckham, Robert J.
year 1994
title Geographical Information Systems and Decision Support for Envi-ronmental Management
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The growing requirement for spatial decision support systems in Urban and Regional Management is pointed out. This has come about due to the increasing complexity of modern human activities, the increase in awareness of the negative consequences of mankind's technological development on the environment, and also due to the need to respect new regulations and legislation regarding environmental impacts. Such spatial decision support systems need to manipulate and analyze a wide variety of spatially referenced information, frequently in large quantities. Geographical Information Systems are now the chosen means for supporting such information, but in order to arrive at decisions further analysis modules and decision aids frequently need to be linked to them, or integrated with them. Linking multicriteria decision aid with spatial analysis is one way in which spatially referenced information can be used to arrive at decisions in situations where there are many and conflicting criteria. Examples of applications of these ideas to real management problems, including waste management, river management and site management are used to show how spatial information can now be manipulated to aid decisions, and to arrive at some of the design requirements for more flexible and applicable decision support systems. The merits and disadvantages of several different approaches to design and implementation of decision support systems, especially from the users point of view, are discussed.
series DDSS
email robertpeckham@jrc.it
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 5c68
authors Peng, C.
year 1994
title Exploring communication in collaborative design: co-operative architectural modelling
source Design Studies Vol 15 No 1 January 1994, pp. 19-44
summary An exploration of communication in collaborative design from the perspective of co-operative architectural modelling is reported. The objectives and problems of communication in collaborative design are described and anaysed by viewing design as, basically, disciplines of modelling complex objects. Three cases of teamwork in architectural modelling are studied, each demonstrating a rich and informative approach to collaboration. Looking at the cases from the co-operative modelling perspective, important conditions for communication are observed: firstly, the participation and co-ordination among heterogeneous systems of representation and action that individual members of a design team work with; and secondly, the interconnection between common goals shared by all participants and domain-oriented goals pursued by individuals. In exploring how the conditions were met, it was found useful to characterize communication in terms of the inter-relations between common images and distributed design developments. Two generic patterns of communication in collaborative design were found, which suggest two alternative conceptual frameworks for developing computational representations.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9476
id ddss9476
authors Porada, Mikhael and Porada, Sabine
year 1994
title "To See Ideas" or The Visualizing of Programmatic Data Reading Examples in Architecture and Town Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Whether images are still in the mind, metaphors, sketches or icons, they play a crucial role. They have always been the heuristic pivot around which the process of artefact design organizes itself, particularly in architecture and town-planning. "To see ideas" through computer ideograms is to experiment an interesting and new direction for "pictural approach" supported design. Cognitive psychology emphasizes the important part played by mental images in reasoning, imagination in the working of human intelligence and the construction of mental images as cognitive factors underlying reasoning. It also points out how close computerized objects and mental schemata are. "To reason over a situation is first to remember or build some mental models of this situation; second to make those models work or simulate them in order to observe what would happen in different circumstances and then verify whether they fit the experiment data; third to select the best model, a tool meant to sustain and amplify the elaboration of mental models, which is a spontaneous activity". We introduce our exploration of the direct transmission of mental models through computer ideograms. We study the "operative" and the "expressive" aspects, and this allows us to analyze how some aspects in a field of knowledge are represented by ideograms, schemata, icons, etc. Aid to imagination, reasoning and communication by means of a graphic language must be limited to some figurative relevant aspects of the domain considered; it should not aim at a realistic simulation. Therefore, the important role played by icons and the spatial schematic representation of knowledge is emphasized. Our hypothesis is that an architectural concept does not result from an inductive process, but rather is built to solve problems through the direct representation of ideas with ideograms. An experiment was conducted with a graphic language, a dynamic scenography and actor-objects. The language allows one to build and visualize models from the various domains of knowledge of the object. The dynamic scenography can explore and simulate kinetically those models by means of staging various narrations and visual scenarios. The actor-objects play various and complementary parts in order to make the image explicit and link it with the concept. We distinguish between two parallel levels of reality in computer ideographics: one concerns the model, it represents the visualization of a graphic model at a particular moment and according to a particular representation, the other concerns the ideogram.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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