CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 47

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ddss9438
id ddss9438
authors Habraken, Wouter
year 1994
title Structure and Flow of Design Information in the Construction Process
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary At every step in the construction process different individuals (architects, engineers, project managers and workmen) make use of design information, yet the requirements they have for the contents and structure of this information are radically different. This paper makes some general observations on the structure, productions and manipulation of design information, concentrating specifically on the form in which information is passed between individuals, the relationship between graphic and text based information, and the interaction between design information and materials flows in the constructions supply chain. On the basis of these observations, this paper presents a general conceptual framework for describing the information flow with the aim of understanding and controlling it. Within this framework, some conceptual tools are proposed thatcan be used to structure design information including abstraction, dependent relationships, and control and identify hierarchies. Next, this paper illustrates how one company, Matura Nederland, has used these concepts and tools to develop design processes and computer software to integrate its operational process from design to installation. Finally, some suggestions are made as to how these ideas relate to some current developments in CAD, database and process control software.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e8b9
authors Kesler, Beatrice
year 1994
title PROGRAMME OF HABITAT WISHES - A TOOL FOR COMMUNICATION
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 23-30
summary How to develop an attractive built environment with the desired housing and well kept outdoor conditions? As long as experts do not ask lay-people for their needs and wants, we must not be surprised that people are not interested in their environment and show a lack of care. The contribution of (future) inhabitants in the planning process can have a material and a social impact on building, improving and maintaining a neighbourhood. One of the problems that have to be solved is the question how to improve the communication between non-professionals and professionals, between inhabitants and designers (architects). Inhabitants express themselves in a simple language about the number of rooms, cupboards, size of the garden and parking place. Architects communicate in drawings of designs and talk in a technical language about functions, forms, spacial structures, light and expression. It can be helpful - is the fundamental idea in Wageningen - to develop a shared language, to start talking about activities and to use scale models in a structured process. The participation process is a sort of exploratory expedition. Good communication is a must for a successful participation process. A clear expression of the 'programme of habitat wishes' is the first step in the dialogue between inhabitants and architect. The Structural Space Planning Method is a structured process to develop a 'programme of habitat wishes' for the built environment. It can be related to all sorts of objects: houses, co-housing projects, institutions, playgrounds, streets or neighbourhoods. Full scale and scale models are part of the Structural Space Planning Method, as described by Van Dam (these proceedings). This contribution describes some practical experiences with the development of the 'programme of habitat wishes' and the effects on the participation process.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 08:59

_id ddss9451
id ddss9451
authors Kolli, R., Hennessey, J. and Stuyver, R.
year 1994
title A Conceptual Sketching Device for the Early Phase of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Computer tools are still not popular among designers during early phases of design. Existing mouse-based software applications provide excellent features for constructing precise drawings and illustrations, but they are cumbersome to use during conceptual design phase for rapid free form sketching. We propose a user interface concept for a new pen-based computer device calledIDEATOR. The functions and user interface style for IDEATOR were derived from our studies of industrial designers. Because of its simplicity and ease of use, we believe that the device will beof potential interest to architects, graphic designers, user interface designers and fashion designers as well. We interviewed practising industrial designers and several creative professionals at theirwork places to get an insight into user behaviour and work practices that are characteristic of the initial ideation phase [1]. Based on our observations, we envisaged a schematic user environment where several devices and systems support the various needs of designers. In a focused effort on sketching activity, we studied sketchbooks related to an entire project and video tapes of designers during sketching phase. From these, we derived the functional requirements for a sketching device [2]. In this paper, we describe the conceptual product form and user interface for IDEATOR which is based on LCD tablet technology and cordless electronic pens. We illustrate through our video prototypes, how it could be intuitively used to perform various ideation functions: sketching rapidly in colour, making quick collages of photographs, animating sketches and annotatinganimations or video. We are currently in the process of evaluating the concept prototype with several industrial designers.
series DDSS
email r.kolli@io.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c9ff
authors Kruft, H.-W.
year 1994
title A History of Architectural Theory - From Vitruvius to the Present
source Zwemmer, New York
summary As the first comprehensive encyclopedic survey of Western architectural theory from Vitruvius to the present, this book is an essential resource for architects, students, teachers, historians, and theorists. Using only original sources, Kruft has undertaken the monumental task of researching, organizing, and analyzing the significant statements put forth by architectural theorists over the last two thousand years. The result is a text that is authoritative and complete, easy to read without being reductive.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9457
id ddss9457
authors Kubota, Y., Yoshikawa, M. and Masaki, E.
year 1994
title Development of an Expert Cad System for Visual Design of a Bridge in a Landscape
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Architects, landscape architects and urban designers are often required to be involved in the process of bridge design from an aesthetic point of view. The authors have been developing a comprehensive CAD system to support such visual design works, especially at an early stage of design. Conventional complicated technical standards and guidelines tend to discourage creative design. In order to support free conception and creation of bridge forms, this system includes a visual design core system as a workshop, even enabling freehand sketch drawing on existing landscape images of the site. This is supported by a landscape simulation subsystem. The system can also provide initial design ideas with several different types of bridge form, derived from knowledge based subsystems on design guidelines and precedent examples which can be quoted also to examine the physical possibility of sketch drawn alternatives in terms of structural dimensions and construction costs. Created design alternatives will be analyzed by a visual impact analysis subsystem to assess their influences on surrounding environments from a visual geometri-cal standpoint. This system is intended to enable architects, landscape architects or urban designers to create and examine design alternatives on a real-time basis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c7ce
authors Lentz, Uffe
year 1994
title Interface
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 24-28
summary Todays high tech products don't expose their content or way of peration by their form. Interface design is a new disciplin that deals with the problem of how to explain the operation and potential of an object to the user. The paper discusses interface design and argues that it will become an important extension of the architects traditional tasks.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:16

_id e5d0
authors Lowe, John P.
year 1994
title Computer-Aided-Design in the Studio Setting: A Paradigm Shift in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 230
summary The introduction of the personal computer in 1982 set forth a revolution that will continue to transform the profession of Architecture. Most architectural practices in America have embraced this revolution realizing the potentials of the computer. However, education seems to have been slower accepting the potentials and challenges of computers. Computer technology will change the design studio setting and therefore the fundamental way architects are educated. The Department of Architecture at Kansas State University has made a commitment to move toward a computer based design studio. In the fall of 1990, discussions began among the faculty to search for the placement of a computer studio within the five year program. Curriculum, staffing, and funding were issues that had to be overcome to make this commitment work. The strategy that was adopted involved placing the computer studio at the fourth year level in phase one. Phase two will progress as more staff are trained on the computer and course work was adapted to accommodate other year levels for a computer based design studios. Funding was a major obstacle. The decision was made to move from a position of being the primary suppliers of computing technology to one of support for student purchased computers. This strategy alleviated the department from maintaining and upgrading the technology. There was great enthusiasm and support from the faculty as a whole for the use of computers in the studio setting. However, the pedagogical impacts of such a change are just beginning to be realized.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:18

_id 8fb2
id 8fb2
authors McCall, Raymond, Bennett, Patrick and Johnson, Erik
year 1994
title An Overview of the PHIDIAS II HyperCAD System
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 63-74
summary The PHIDIAS II HyperCAD system combines the functionality of CAD graphics, hypermedia, database management and knowledge-based computation in a single, highly integrated design environment. The CAD functionality includes both 3-D and 2-D vector graphics. The hypermedia includes support for text, raster images, video and sound. The database management enables persistent storage and interlinking of large collections of text, images, video, sound and vector graphics, i.e., thousands of vector graphic objects and drawings in a single database. Retrieval is provided both through use of "associative indexing" based on hyperlinks and through use of an advanced query language. The knowledge- based computation includes both inference and knowledgebased critiquing.

A highly unusual feature of PHIDIAS II is that it implements all of its functions using only hypermedia mechanisms. Complex vector graphic drawings and objects are represented as composite hypermedia nodes. Inference and critiquing are implemented through use of what are known as virtual structures [Halasz 1988], including virtual links and virtual nodes. These nodes and links are dynamic (computed) rather than static (constant). They are defined as expressions in the same language used for queries and are computed at display time. The implementation of different kinds of functions using a common set of mechanisms makes it easy to use them in combination, thus further augmenting the system's functionality.

PHIDIAS supports design by informing architects as they develop a solution's form. The idea is thus not to make the design process faster or cheaper but rather to improve the quality of the things designed. We believe that architects can create better buildings for their users if they have better information. This includes information about buildings of given types, user populations, historical and modern precedents, local site and climate conditions, the urban and natural context and its historical development, as well as local, state and federal regulations.

series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:34

_id ddss9464
id ddss9464
authors McCartney, Kevin and Ismail, Ashraf Lotfy R. M.
year 1994
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Supplementary Planning Guidance and Local Planning Policies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are being designed in order to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; with regards to building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. The measures to determine proper evaluation will be based upon site-development briefs, and design guides produced by the local planning authorities. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. It will also provide many functions for editing two and three dimensional drawings specifically for the environmental analysis tasks. In addition to the common graphical output of Aut0CAD; i.e. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, the tool will generate textual analysis of the design in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Statement of proposed development. The speculative tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out tailor-made for architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of materials for environmental statements. Second, field observation will be carried out to observe the concerned professionals as decision-makers while assessing building design proposals. A prototype will be designed and then tested against the expectations of the tool designer, then the tool performance will be evaluated by a team of professionals participated in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the concluding study findings will be documented as part of a postgraduate research thesis to be completed in June 1995.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9467
id ddss9467
authors Murison, Alison
year 1994
title A CAD Interface to Objective Assessment of Design to Support Decision Making in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The Department of Architecture at Edinburgh College of Art, Heriot Watt University, has an on-going project to create useful implementations of the method of spatial analysis called Space Syntax developed by Prof Bill Hillier at the Bartlett School of Architecture, London. Space Syntax can predict the potential usage of each route through an urban space or large building; some routes will be avoided by most traffic (pedestrian or vehicular), while other routes will become busy thoroughfares. It has been used by Architects and Urban Designers to support proposed developments, whether to show that potential commercial activity ought to be concentrated in an area of high traffic, or to change routes through troubled housing estates, bringing the protection of added traffic to areas previously avoided for fear of mugging. The paper describes how a specially written customized version of AutoCAD enables Post Graduate students of Urban Design and Undergraduate Architecture students to test their designs against the Space Syntax Measures. Simple interactive graphics enable plans to be entered and compared, so that plans may be evaluated during the design process, and decisions supported by objective tests. This improves both design decisions and the learning process, and should be useful to many professionals in urban planning.
series DDSS
email arcamlm@heriot.watt.uk.ac
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id daff
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title CAD Research at the Martin Centre
source Automation in Construction, No. 3
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich94a.pdf
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id c804
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title Does Knowledge really Help?
source G. Carrara and Y.E. Kalay (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Elsevier
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series other
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/03/05 12:19

_id e1a1
authors Rodriguez, G.
year 1996
title REAL SCALE MODEL VS. COMPUTER GENERATED MODEL
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Advances in electronic design and communication are already reshaping the way architecture is done. The development of more sophisticated and user-friendly Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and of cheaper and more powerful hardware is making computers more and more accessible to architects, planners and designers. These professionals are not only using them as a drafting tool but also as a instrument for visualization. Designers are "building" digital models of their designs and producing photo-like renderings of spaces that do not exist in the dimensional world.

The problem resides in how realistic these Computer Generated Models (CGM) are. Moss & Banks (1958) considered realism “the capacity to reproduce as exactly as possible the object of study without actually using it”. He considers that realism depends on: 1)The number of elements that are reproduced; 2) The quality of those elements; 3) The similarity of replication and 4) Replication of the situation. CGM respond well to these considerations, they can be very realistic. But, are they capable of reproducing the same impressions on people as a real space?

Research has debated about the problems of the mode of representation and its influence on the judgement which is made. Wools (1970), Lau (1970) and Canter, Benyon & West (1973) have demonstrated that the perception of a space is influenced by the mode of presentation. CGM are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space. Canter (1973) considers the three-dimensionality of the stimuli as crucial for its perception. So, can a CGM afford as much as a three-dimensional model?

The “Laboratorio de Experimentacion Espacial” (LEE) has been concerned with the problem of reality of the models used by architects. We have studied the degree in which models can be used as reliable and representative of real situations analyzing the Ecological Validity of several of them, specially the Real-Scale Model (Abadi & Cavallin, 1994). This kind of model has been found to be ecologically valid to represent real space. This research has two objectives: 1) to study the Ecological Validity of a Computer Generated Model; and 2) compare it with the Ecological Validity of a Real Scale Model in representing a real space.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:42

_id maver_074
id maver_074
authors Rutherford, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Knowledge Based Design Support
source Automation in Design, Vol 3, Nos 2-3, 187-202
summary In 1971 the Architects' Journal featured a paper entitled PACE 1: Computer Aided Building Appraisal. The software known as PACE (Package for Architectural Computer Evaluation), initially developed on the Systemshare time-sharing system accessed on-line from a teletype terminal over the ordinary voice grade telephone network, has, in concept at least, survived the subsequent 22 years and remains to this day a crucial aid in the teaching of architectural design in the University of Strathclyde's Department of Architecture and Building Science.
series journal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:03

_id maver_073
id maver_073
authors Rutherford, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Knowledge Based Design Support
source Knowledge Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design (Ed. G Carrara and Y Kalay), Elsevier, 243-268
summary In 1971 the Architects' Journal featured a paper entitled PACE 1: Computer Aided Building Appraisal. The softwareknown as PACE (Package for Architectural Computer Evaluation), initially developed on the Systemshare time-sharing system accessed on- line from a teletype terminal over the ordinary voice grade telephone network, has, in concept at least, survived the subsequent 22 years and remains to this day a crucial aid in the teaching of architectural design in the University of Strathclyde's Department of Architecture and Building Science.
series other
type normal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2015/02/20 10:39

_id ddss9482
id ddss9482
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N.
year 1994
title Interaction with Architectural Cases in a Virtual Design Environment
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The prime business of architecture is change through design. While most architects will welcome any tool which supports this activity with minimal effort, they will not embrace a tool which either seems to automate design or requires major efforts to understand and use. Conventional databases - be it in the form of books or computer applications - are normally in a serving function to support the activity of design and to provide reference. Visual databases have a long history in architecture in the form of drawings, photographs and, more recently, computer-captu-red or computer-generated images. Whereas the first computer-based image libraries closely followed the existing paradigm of existing paper-based libraries, new developments both in software and in computing media offer different opportunities. Knowledge-based and case-based descriptions of architectural features increasingly replace the traditional, passive representations. While in the past these images were subject to more or less random interpretations, the new computer-based images are only one representation of a model which includes many other aspects. The visual aspects of a building are thus no longer restricted to the finished drawing, but new representations of the abstractions of a building become possible. True and direct interaction with visually presented objects thus becomes a reality. The paper presents a prototype of a visual database in a virtual design environment in its critical aspects: (i) the architectural content and representation of such a database and the criteria for the cases in it, (ii) the enabling computing and software environment, and (iii) three practical applications. The prototype is presently being implemented in the Architectural Space Laboratory (ASL) in the Department of Architecture at ETh Zurich.
series DDSS
email schmitt@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9b9e
authors Schofield , Simon
year 1994
title Non-photorealistic rendering : A critical examination and proposed system
source Middlesex University
summary In the first part of the program the emergent field of Non-Photorealistic Rendering is explored from a cultural perspective. This is to establish a clear understanding of what Non-Photorealistic Rendering (NPR) ought to be in its mature form in order to provide goals and an overall infrastructure for future development. This thesis claims that unless we understand and clarify NPR's relationship with other media (photography, photorealistic computer graphics and traditional media) we will continue to manufacture "new solutions" to computer based imaging which are confused and naive in their goals. Such solutions will be rejected by the art and design community, generally condemned as novelties of little cultural worth ( i.e. they will not sell). This is achieved by critically reviewing published systems that are naively described as Non-photorealistic or "painterly" systems. Current practices and techniques are criticised in terms of their low ability to articulate meaning in images; solutions to this problem are given. A further argument claims that NPR, while being similar to traditional "natural media" techniques in certain aspects, is fundamentally different in other ways. This similarity has lead NPR to be sometimes proposed as "painting simulation" - something it can never be. Methods for avoiding this position are proposed. The similarities and differences to painting and drawing are presented and NPR's relationship to its other counterpart, Photorealistic Rendering (PR), is then delineated. It is shown that NPR is paradigmatically different to other forms of representation - i.e. it is not an "effect", but rather something basically different. The benefits of NPR in its mature form are discussed in the context of Architectural Representation and Design in general. This is done in conjunction with consultations with designers and architects. From this consultation a "wish-list" of capabilities is compiled by way of a requirements capture for a proposed system. A series of computer-based experiments resulting in the systems "Expressive Marks" and "Magic Painter" are carried out; these practical experiments add further understanding to the problems of NPR. The exploration concludes with a prototype system "Piranesi" which is submitted as a good overall solution to the problem of NPR. In support of this written thesis are : - * The Expressive Marks system * Magic Painter system * The Piranesi system (which includes the EPixel and Sketcher systems) * A large portfolio of images generated throughout the exploration
keywords Computer Graphics; Visual Representation; Non-photorealistic Rendering; Natural Media Simulations Rendering; Post-processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 98f4
authors Suchar de O`hayon, Haia Ziva
year 2001
title Prototipo automatizado para generar alternativas de densificación para la ciudad de maracaibo [An Automated Prototype to Generate Alternatives of Densification for the City of Maracaibo]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 174-183
summary Base upon the model considered by the PDUL (1994), this work proposes and automated prototype that help the architects and urban planners to conceive judgments of value through the manipulation of proposed variables, to elaborate alternatives for different situations needing the increment of the urban density. This document considers two parts of the proposal: The written document, which is the theorical basement of the system; and the prototype, developed to prove the performance of the system. The prototype, on the other hand, is constituted by the "generation of alternatives" and the "help", the theoretical and conceptual support.
series other
email zivao@hotmail.com
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id 0465
authors Szövényi-Lux, Miklós
year 1994
title Virtual Future!?
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 215
summary Architecture was born long, long ago with the help of those people who first realised that they are not only building houses but, what is more important, thrilling and has been the focus of many debates, creating space. In the beginning man created space by adding and combining different volumes of masses. They thought that space can be perceived as determined by different points of orientation placed around us. Later people started to realise that perception of space is a little bit more sophisticated. Perhaps everybody has smiled at a baby who standing up for the first time in his life in his playpen, extending his hands towards objects on the nearby table physically unreachable for him. If he was an adult, people would think perhaps something is wrong with him, when he extends his hands towards things we surely know are impossible to reach from his actual position. So how come we can judge with exactitude the place of different objects in space? Maybe by the time needed for the movement to get there. Let us not forget that the baby's first real movement is when he starts to walk and then he starts to get the feeling of this three dimensional world, around which can be only realised simultaneously in space and time. Anyone can say that this is an interesting theory, but who cares? It is said that most of the architects, who are real designers have a keen sense of creating and perceiving space. They are far more interested in the perfection of the created space with all its details than anything else. And here is where a CAD program can come into the picture. Talking about a real CAD program that means from the point of view of a designer, a silent friend who never cheats or boasts, who takes him in SPACE wherever he wants to go and shows him his CREATION as an extending arm between his imagination and the reality.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:09

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