CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 376

_id 0128
authors Engeli, M., Kurmann, D. and Schmitt, G.
year 1995
title A New Design Studio: Intelligent Objects and Personal Agents
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 155-170
summary As design processes and products are constantly increasing in complexity, new tools are being developed for the designer to cope with the growing demands. In this paper we describe our research towards a design environment, within which different aspects of design can be combined, elaborated and controlled. New hardware equipment will be combined with recent developments in graphics and artificial intelligence programming to develop appropriate computer based tools and find possible new design techniques. The core of the new design studio comprises intelligent objects in a virtual reality environment that exhibit different behaviours drawn from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life (AL) principles, a part already realised in a tool called 'Sculptor'. The tasks of the architect will focus on preferencing and initiating good tendencies in the development of the design. A first set of software agents, assistants that support the architect in viewing, experiencing and judging the design has also been conceptualised for this virtual design environment. The goal is to create an optimised environment for the designer, where the complexity of the design task can be reduced thanks to the support made available from the machine.
keywords Architectural Design, Design Process, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Personal Agents
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id a036
authors Ervin, Stephen and Westort, Caroline
year 1995
title Procedural Terrain: A Virtual Bulldozer
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 257-265
summary We describe a system for procedural landform design, which uses the simple metaphor of a two-dimensional profile or Çbladeë, swept along a three-dimensional trajectory, or Çpathë, leaving behind a modeled surface in its wake. This Çpathë and Çbladeë system can mimic a common bulldozer ñ a simple rectangular blade moved along a path constrained to straight lined and large radius curves ñ as well as more fanciful landform designs ñ a blade of continually changing profile swept along an exponential spiral path, for instance. Our prototype Çbulldozerë (implemented in AutoLisp) operates in a field of procedurally defined landform Çprimitivesë to create a virtual surface, and uses a standard rectangular mesh for displaying the resultant landform.
keywords Digital Terrain Model, Procedural Model, Landscape Design, Landform
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 14b5
authors Fang, Lian and Gossard, David C.
year 1995
title Multidimensional curve fitting to unorganized data points by nonlinear minimization
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27 (1) (1995) pp. 48-58
summary Many papers have addressed the problem of fitting curves to data points. However, most of the approaches are subject to a restriction that the data points must be ordered.The paper presents a method for generating a piecewise continuous parametric curve from a set of unordered and error-filled data points. The resulting curve not only providesa good fit to the original data but also possesses good fairness. Excluding the endpoints of the curve, none of the connectivity information needs to be specified, thuseliminating the necessity of an initial parameterization. The standard regularization method for univariate functions is modified for multidimensional parametric functions andresults in a nonlinear minimization problem. Successive quadratic programming is applied to find the optimal solution. A physical model is also supplied to facilitate anintuitive understanding of the mathematical background.
keywords Data Interpolation, Regularization, Nonlinear Minimization
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id ga0024
id ga0024
authors Ferrara, Paolo and Foglia, Gabriele
year 2000
title TEAnO or the computer assisted generation of manufactured aesthetic goods seen as a constrained flux of technological unconsciousness
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary TEAnO (Telematica, Elettronica, Analisi nell'Opificio) was born in Florence, in 1991, at the age of 8, being the direct consequence of years of attempts by a group of computer science professionals to use the digital computers technology to find a sustainable match among creation, generation (or re-creation) and recreation, the three basic keywords underlying the concept of “Littérature potentielle” deployed by Oulipo in France and Oplepo in Italy (see “La Littérature potentielle (Créations Re-créations Récréations) published in France by Gallimard in 1973). During the last decade, TEAnO has been involving in the generation of “artistic goods” in aesthetic domains such as literature, music, theatre and painting. In all those artefacts in the computer plays a twofold role: it is often a tool to generate the good (e.g. an editor to compose palindrome sonnets of to generate antonymic music) and, sometimes it is the medium that makes the fruition of the good possible (e.g. the generator of passages of definition literature). In that sense such artefacts can actually be considered as “manufactured” goods. A great part of such creation and re-creation work has been based upon a rather small number of generation constraints borrowed from Oulipo, deeply stressed by the use of the digital computer massive combinatory power: S+n, edge extraction, phonetic manipulation, re-writing of well known masterpieces, random generation of plots, etc. Regardless this apparently simple underlying generation mechanisms, the systematic use of computer based tools, as weel the analysis of the produced results, has been the way to highlight two findings which can significantly affect the practice of computer based generation of aesthetic goods: ? the deep structure of an aesthetic work persists even through the more “desctructive” manipulations, (such as the antonymic transformation of the melody and lyrics of a music work) and become evident as a sort of profound, earliest and distinctive constraint; ? the intensive flux of computer generated “raw” material seems to confirm and to bring to our attention the existence of what Walter Benjamin indicated as the different way in which the nature talk to a camera and to our eye, and Franco Vaccari called “technological unconsciousness”. Essential references R. Campagnoli, Y. Hersant, “Oulipo La letteratura potenziale (Creazioni Ri-creazioni Ricreazioni)”, 1985 R. Campagnoli “Oupiliana”, 1995 TEAnO, “Quaderno n. 2 Antologia di letteratura potenziale”, 1996 W. Benjiamin, “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodizierbarkeit”, 1936 F. Vaccari, “Fotografia e inconscio tecnologico”, 1994
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 33f3
authors Fujii, Haruyuki
year 1995
title Incorporation of Natural Language Processing and a Generative System - An Interactive System that Constructs Topological Models from Spatial Descriptions in Natural Language
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 205-218
summary The natural language processing technique and the spatial reasoning technique are incorporated to create a computational model representing the process of updating and maintaining the knowledge about spatial relations. An algorithm for the spatial reasoning is proposed. An interactive system that understands sentences describing spatial relations is implemented. The system determines the reference of an anaphoric or deictic expression from the literal meaning of the input and the implicit meaning derived from the literal meaning. The consistency of the spatial relations is maintained. The correct topological representations of the spatial relations are generated from well-formed descriptions.
keywords Natural Language Processing, Discourse Analysis, Artificial Intelligence, Architecture, CAD
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ead7
authors Gero, J.S. and Schnier, T.
year 1995
title Evolving representations of design cases and their use in creative design
source J.S. Gero, M.L. Maher and F. Sudweeks (eds), Preprints Computational Models of Creative Design , Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, pp. 343-368
summary In case-based design, the adaptation of a design case to new design requirements plays an important role. If it is sufficient to adapt a predefined set of design parameters, the task is easily automated. If, however, more far-reaching, creative changes are required, current systems provide only limited success. This paper describes an approach to creative design adaptation based on the notion of creativity as 'goal oriented shift of focus of a search process'. An evolving representation is used to restructure the search space so that designs similar to the example case lie in the focus of the search. This focus is than used as a starting point to generate new designs.
series other
last changed 2003/04/06 13:22

_id c2eb
authors Gero, John and Jun, Han J.
year 1995
title Getting Computers to Read the Architectural Semantics of Drawings
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 97-112
summary This paper presents an approach to the reading of the architectural semantics of drawings. Topological constraints on objects are used to represent various types of groups where the groups produce repeating patterns. A process model of visual rhythm discovery is developed. Discovery of visual rhythms in an architectural facade is demonstrated.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2d1a
authors Gero, John S. and Jun, Han J.
year 1995
title Visual semantic emergence to support creative design: A computational view
source J.S. Gero, M. L. Maher and F. Sudweeks (eds), Preprints Computational Models of Creative Design , University of Sydney, pp. 87-117
summary One computational model of creative designing involves the introduction of new variables or schemas into the designing process. This paper describes and elaborates an approach where an emergence process is used to emerge visual semantics features in a design as it proceeds. In particular visual symmetry, visual rhythm, visual movement and visual balance are emerged. The processes of emergence introduce new variables into the design process. Emergence becomes one of the computational processes capable of playing a role in creative designing.
series other
last changed 2003/04/06 13:34

_id 5580
id 5580
authors Gero, John S.
year 1995
title Computers and Creative Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 11-19
summary This paper introduces notions of creativity and creative design as a form of computational exploration. Exploration is used as a means of defining spaces which are then searched. It is shown that schemas provide an opportunity to describe exploration. Emergence as a process which modifies schemas is described, as a ìcreative processî. Visual emergence is elaborated and other forms of emergence are described. The role of emergence in creative design is presented.
keywords Creative Design, Design Theory, Emergence
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/08/23 14:45

_id 858f
authors Glanville, Ranulph
year 1995
title Architecture and Computing: A medium approach
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 5-20
summary In this paper, the argument is presented that the way in which computers are used in Architectural Design is based on and limited by our imaginings. Typically, computing is used as a tool to automate a process formerly carried out by a human rather than to expand our range of options. It is held that this is a very restricted way of using the computer and that architects and designers would be better served treating the computer as a medium, allowing it to act as a partner in design. Only then will the radical possibilities of computing become apparent, so that we may benefit from true interaction with them. Some specific limitations in our uses of computers are highlighted and ways that allow the computer to be more of an interacting partner are indicated, as are ways of exploring computing to extend the possibilities.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 14:49

_id a8f0
authors Goel, V.
year 1995
title Sketches of thought
source MA: MIT Press, Cambridge
summary Much of the cognitive lies beyond articulate, discursive thought, beyond the reach of current computational notions. In Sketches of Thought, Vinod Goel argues that the cognitive computational conception of the world requires our thought processes to be precise, rigid, discrete, and unambiguous; yet there are dense, ambiguous, and amorphous symbol systems, like sketching, painting, and poetry, found in the arts and much of everyday discourse that have an important, nontrivial place in cognition. Goel maintains that while on occasion our thoughts do conform to the current computational theory of mind, they often are -- indeed must be - vague, fluid, ambiguous, and amorphous. He argues that if cognitive science takes the classical computational story seriously, it must deny or ignore these processes, or at least relegate them to the realm of the nonmental. As a cognitive scientist with a design background, Goel is in a unique position to challenge cognitive science on its own territory. He introduces design problem solving as a domain of cognition that illustrates these inarticulate, nondiscursive thought processes at work through the symbol system of sketching. He argues not that such thoughts must remain noncomputational but that our current notions of computation and representation are not rich enough to capture them. Along the way, Goel makes a number of significant and controversial interim points. He shows that there is a principled distinction between design and nondesign problems, that there are standard stages in the solution of design problems, that these stages correlate with the use of different types of external symbol systems; that these symbol systems are usefully individuated in Nelson Goodman's syntactic and semantic terms, and that different cognitive processes are facilitated by different types of symbol systems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b04c
authors Goerger, S., Darken, R., Boyd, M., Gagnon, T., Liles, S., Sullivan, J. and Lawson, J.
year 1996
title Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from Maps and Virtual Environments in Complex Architectural Space
source Proc. 16 th Applied Behavioral Sciences Symposium, 22-23 April, U.S. Airforce Academy, Colorado Springs, CO., 1996, 6-10
summary It has often been suggested that due to its inherent spatial nature, a virtual environment (VE) might be a powerful tool for spatial knowledge acquisition of a real environment, as opposed to the use of maps or some other two-dimensional, symbolic medium. While interesting from a psychological point of view, a study of the use of a VE in lieu of a map seems nonsensical from a practical point of view. Why would the use of a VE preclude the use of a map? The more interesting investigation would be of the value added of the VE when used with a map. If the VE could be shown to substantially improve navigation performance, then there might be a case for its use as a training tool. If not, then we have to assume that maps continue to be the best spatial knowledge acquisition tool available. An experiment was conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to determine if the use of an interactive, three-dimensional virtual environment would enhance spatial knowledge acquisition of a complex architectural space when used in conjunction with floor plan diagrams. There has been significant interest in this research area of late. Witmer, Bailey, and Knerr (1995) showed that a VE was useful in acquiring route knowledge of a complex building. Route knowledge is defined as the procedural knowledge required to successfully traverse paths between distant locations (Golledge, 1991). Configurational (or survey) knowledge is the highest level of spatial knowledge and represents a map-like internal encoding of the environment (Thorndyke, 1980). The Witmer study could not confirm if configurational knowledge was being acquired. Also, no comparison was made to a map-only condition, which we felt is the most obvious alternative. Comparisons were made only to a real world condition and a symbolic condition where the route is presented verbally.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 36
authors González, Carlos Guillermo
year 1998
title Una TecnologÌa Digital Para el Diseño: El Tde-Ac (A Digital Technology for Design: The Tde-Ac)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 274-279
summary TDE is a graphic language capable of notation of pure design operations, which offers an alternative to Monge and Perspective drawing. This language which was perfected and developed by Claudio Guerri in the late 80's, is originated in the Theory of Spatial Delimitation of CÈsar Janello (1974-1984). From 1995 onwards, and within the framework of the UBACyT AR025 Project (1995-1997), a software in order to apply the TDE through computer technology started to be developed. This work is carried out within the framework of the research program SPATIAL SEMIOTICS-DESIGN THEORY of the FADU-UBA directed by Claudio Guerri, and is continued in the UBACyT AR01 4 Project (1998-2000) "TDE-AC. Graphic language. TDE computer assisted". The computer tool TDE-AC, adds to this graphic language the power of the processing speed and a certain autonomy of interpretation and execution of design operations, which enables to visualize results with a remarkable speed in relation with manual or intellectual work in front of the drawing table. Trough the amplified projection on the screens of the program the stage of development and effectivity of TDE-AC will be demonstrated.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id b5d9
authors González, Guillermo and Gutiérrez, Liliana
year 1999
title El TDE-AC: tecnología digital y estrategia pedagógica (The Tde-ac: Digital Technology and Pedagogical Strategy)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 269-271
summary In 1995 the programming of a specialized, expert graphic software CA-TSD, began. The TSD acronym designates a graphic language derived from the theory of spatial delimitation, it systematizes all possibilities of selection and combination of flat and volumetric figures. It establishes necessary and sufficient morphic and tactic dimensions to account for all possible relationships of selection and combination. TSD proposes a syntactic reading of those formal, pure design operations underlying traditional representations. Tracings and complex configurations described by tree-hierarchical structures of simple configurations allow for a coherent syntactic analysis of the design structure of any object this will allow the construction of a pure design formula for the conscious and unconscious prefiguration operations of an artist or style in this presentation, we will use our proprietary CA-TSD software that will allow for fast verification of what's stated, including architecture and graphic design examples.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 980c
authors Gougoudilis, Vasileios
year 1995
title Hyperwalls or an Application of a Non-deterministic Rule-based System in Interactive Architectural Modelling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 173-179
summary This paper presents the architectural modeling as a process of augmenting spatial information; a chain of actions that leads from a sketched idea to the elaborated model. A symbolic constraint solver tool is connected to traditional CAD techniques, as well as to a data representation scheme efficient for architectural elements. The orchestration of the available and added tools allows the designer to ìedit ideasî fast, keeping in mind that different design profiles require adaptive tools to support the varying methodologies. Until the moment that automated design will be both possible and desirable, machines can really shorten the time needed to visualize design ideas in the sense of a handy but non-decisive ìcalculatorî. The discussion is built around illustrated examples from the implemented constraint based modeler.
keywords Non-Deterministic, Rule-Based System, Architectural Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id da78
authors Hajduk, Piotr
year 1995
title Spirit 5.6
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 105-119
summary SPIRIT is an independent, technical program which aids an architecture design. It has been created for architects and specialists of related trades. This program is divided into three functional parts: threedimensional functions, two-dimensional functions and a module part. The communication between these parts is devoid of problems. Rich and light to develop data bases which include information about walls, windows, doors, furnitures and others elements are the integral part of this program. Elements are connected to libraries of symbols. A two-dimensional drawing does not stray to methods knowing from other CAD-programs. An interesting set of functions helping by drawing views is ARCH2D. It lets drawing walls with selected thickness and inserting openings like windows and doors. Three dimensional elements are made from simple masses like a plate, a sphere, a cylinder, a torus. Every object can be seen from whichever perspective you like. Most helpful is there a shader function which creates coloured view including light and shadow. Every three-dimensional object can be converted to vectorial, two-dimensional drawing which can be plotted or enlarged.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id ddssup9609
id ddssup9609
authors Hall, A.C.
year 1996
title Assessing the Role of Computer Visualisation in Planning Control: a recent case study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In papers to previous DDSS Conferences, and elsewhere, the author has developed an argument concerning the use of computer visualisation in the planning process. In essence, it proposes that: • visualisation can enable lay persons to play a more effective role and this can result in different and more effective decisions; • the level of realism employed should result from the basic requirements necessary to resolve the issue minimising the cost of production of the images. These points have been tested in repeated examples. The latest one concerns a new site that Anglia Polytechnic University has established in the centre of Chelmsford, UK. A computer model of the new campus showing both the existing and proposed buildings was commissioned from the author by the University for a visit by HM the Queen in June 1995. This model was subsequently adapted for use in the process of obtaining planning consent and the marketing of floorspace for the next building to be constructed. For this purpose, a higher level of realism was requested. The experience of achieving it confirmed the results of the previous research indicating the strong link between realism and cost. It also contributed new insights into the varying expectations of different professionals concerning the role of such a visualisation. The requirement of the architect for demonstrating all aspects of the design required a high level of realism than that required for planning and marketing purposes and was considerably more expensive. The low cost of use for planning purposes should be stressed but surprisingly, the lower level of realism implied may be easier for the lay person than the professional to accept.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id maver_090
id maver_090
authors Harrison C., Grant, M., Granat, M., Maver, T. and Conway, B.
year 2000
title Development of a Wheelchair Virtual
source 3rd International Conference on Disability, VR and Associated Technologies, Sardinia, (Ed. P Sharkey) ICDVRAT2000, 1-8
summary In the UK the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 aims to end discrimination against disabled people. Importantly the Act gives the disabled community new employment and access rights. Central to these rights will be an obligation for employers and organisations to provide premises which do not disadvantage disabled people. Many disabled people rely on wheelchairs for mobility. However, many buildings do not provide conditions suited to wheelchair users. This project aims to provide instrumentation allowing wheelchair navigation within virtual buildings. The provision of such instrumentation assists architects in identifying the needs of wheelchair users at the design stage. Central to this project is the need to provide a platform which can accommodate a range of wheelchair types, that will map intended wheelchair motion into a virtual world and that has the capacity to provide feedback to the user reflecting changes in floor surface characteristics and slope. The project represents a collaborative effort between architects, bioengineers and user groups and will be comprised of stages related to platform design, construction, interfacing, testing and user evaluation.
series other
last changed 2003/09/03 13:01

_id 51fd
authors Harrison, Steve and Minneman, Scott
year 1995
title Studying Collaborative Design to Build Design Tools
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 687-697
summary This paper outlines the way in which studying designers at work on real problems can inform the development of new computer aided architectural design systems. From a number of studies of designers in various domains, supporting the communications of designers is re-conceptualized into one of transmitting and storing process ephemera, rather than normalizing representations. After characterizing process ephemera, an example from one of the studies is described in detail. The paper concludes with implications for the design of collaborative CAAD systems.
keywords Collaboration, Design Communications, Telepresence, Media Space, Process Ephemera, Virtual Design Studio
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 5aec
authors Heng, Chye-Kiang
year 1995
title Digital Reconstruction of Medieval Chinese Cities
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 529-540
summary The study and teaching of Chinese urban planning particularly of the earlier periods is heavily handicapped by the lack of pictorial or physical evidence. This is mainly due to the perishable nature of Chinese traditional construction which depended heavily on timber for both its structure and infill. Large architectural complexes were torched during wars and entire cities destroyed during dynastic upheavals. The Tang (618-906) capital of Chang'an is a classic example. Perhaps the foremost city in the world during the seventh and eighth centuries, it was reduced to wasteland by the beginning of the tenth century. The city now lies a little below the modem city of Xi'an, which occupies only a fraction of the Tang capital. The Northern Song (961-1127) capital, Kaifeng, also suffered similar fate when warfare and natural disasters eradicated the Song city. The ruins are buried five to twelve meters beneath present day Kaifeng. The earliest surviving imperial city is Ming (1368-1644) Beijing. By comparison, there are still substantial ruins from Athens and Rome in the Western world. The study of Chinese urban planning and the understanding of past urban structures are important as the influence of these urban structures are still discernible in historic Chinese cities today. While traditional Chinese architecture is perishable, traditional urban planning principles leaves their imprints much longer despite the frequent replacement of the physical urban fabric.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

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