CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 384

_id 7cc1
authors Kowal, Slawomir
year 1995
title CAD Users Integration – A Current Problem
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 93-103
summary In just about every field of human activities, actions which cover the design processes and the development of "a product", demand the participation of people presenting different professions and specialization. Designers using CAD techniques, usually apply different programs and even computer systems. This means that quite a large number of different applications, realising various elementary tasks, may be used during architectural design process. Very seldom data generated by a single designer, may be used by another one presenting a different specialization and using a different program. As each one of them makes a lot of changes during the design process, the need for a free exchange of the computer generated data may be seen easily. Hitherto proposed solutions of the integration of CAD systems users may be qualified in two following groups: 1.) Those based on a single integrated CAD system; 2.) Those based on a neutral data transfer format.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 88d7
authors Kulcke, Richard
year 1995
title CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in Germany
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 7-13
summary Like the most teachers of Computer Aided Architectural Design at the Fachhochschulen I am an architect not a computer specialist. I studied architecture in the sixties at the universities of Stuttgart and Berlin, In 1973 I became a lecturer at the Fachhochschule Nordostniedersachsen. My subjects are building economics, urban planning and computer aided architectural design (CAAD). My report wants to show what is going on at the Fachhochschulen. This report is based on the paper presented at the eCAADe conference 1989 in Aarhus, Denmark
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id d8ea
authors Kumar, Subodh and Manocha, Dinesh
year 1995
title Efficient rendering of trimmed NURBS surfaces
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27 (7) (1995) pp. 509-521
summary An algorithm for the interactive display of trimmed nurbs surfaces is presented. The algorithm converts the nurbs surfaces to Bézier surfaces, and nurbs trimming curves toBézier curves. It tessellates each trimmed Bézier surface into triangles, and renders them using the triangle rendering capabilities common in current graphics systems. Itmakes use of tight bounds for the uniform tessellation of Bézier surfaces into cells and it traces the trimming curves to compute the trimmed regions of each cell. Thisoperation is based on the tracing of trimming curves, intersection computation with the cells, and triangulation of the cells. The resulting technique also makes use of spatialand temporal coherence between successive frames for cell computation and triangulation. Polygonization anomalies such as cracks and angularities are avoided as well. Thealgorithm can display trimmed models described using thousands of Bézier surfaces at interactive frame rates on high end graphics systems.
keywords Trimmed Nurbs, Bezier Surfaces, Rendering
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id fa87
authors Kurmann, David
year 1995
title Sculptor - A Tool for Intuitive Architectural Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 323-330
summary To manage the complexity in three-dimensional modelling and design in architecture, new approaches and methods are needed in computer based design tools. This paper identifies key factors in designing with computers and presents a computer program called 'Sculptor' for intuitive and direct virtual modelling in architecture. The program focuses on new methods for design in the early stages such as conceptual and abstract designs for massing studies.
keywords Architectural Design., User Interface, Virtual Reality, Distributed Modelling, Intelligent Agents
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ab9c
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1999
title Is Design Really Social
source International Journal of Virtual Reality, 4:1
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell's assertion that "the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process." [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants, that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided, therefore, must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We see a danger here, a pattern being repeated which may lead us into less than useful activities. As with several (popular) architectural design or modelling systems already available, however, computer system implementations all too often are poor imitations manual systems. For example, few in the field will argue with the statement that the storage of data in layers in a computer-aided drafting system is an dispensable approach. Layers derive from manual overlay drafting technology [Stitt 1984] which was regarded as an advanced (manual) production concept at the time many software engineers were specifying CAD software designs. Early implementations of CAD systems (such as RUCAPS, GDS, Computervision) avoided such data organisation, the software engineers recognising that object-based structures are more flexible, permitting greater control of data editing and display. Layer-based systems, however, are easier to implement in software, more familiar to the user and hence easier to explain, initially easier to use but more limiting for an experienced and thoughtful user, leading in the end to a lesser quality in resultant drawings and significant problems in output control (see Richens [1990], pp. 31-40 for a detailed analysis of such features and constraints). Here then we see the design for architectural software faithfully but inappropriately following manual methods. So too is there a danger of assuming that the best social interaction is that done face-to-face, therefore all collaborative design communications environments must mimic face-to-face.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 4cb3
authors Kwartler, Michael
year 1995
title Beyond the Adversial: Conflict Resolution, Simulation and Community Design
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary Fundamentally, the design of communities in the United States is grounded in the Constitution’s evolving definition of property and the rights and obligations attendant to the ownership and use of real property. The rearticulation of Jefferson’s dictum in the Declaration of Independence; “that individuals have certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” to the Constitution’s “life, liberty and property” represents a pragmatic understanding of the relationship between property and the actualization of the individual in society. In terms of community design, this means extensive public involvement and participation in not only the formulation of rules and regulations but of individual projects as well.

Since the 1960’s as planning and community design decision making has become increasingly contentious, the American legal system’s adversial approach to conflict resolution has become the dominant model for public decision making. The legal system’s adversial approach to adjudication is essentially a zero-sum game of winners and losers, and as most land-use lawyers will agree, is not a good model for the design of cities. While the adversial approach does not resolve disputes it rarely creates a positive and constructive consensus for change. Because physical planning and community design issues are not only value based, community design through consensus building has emerged as a new paradigm for physical planning and design.

The Environmental Simulation Center employs a broad range of complementary simulation and visualization techniques including 3-D vector based computer models, endoscopy, and verifiable digital photomontages to provide objective and verifiable information for projects and regulations under study.

In this context, a number of recent projects will be discussed which have explored the use of various simulation and visualization techniques in community design. Among them are projects involved with changes in the City’s Zoning Regulations, the community design of a major public open space in one of the region’s mid-size cities, and the design of a new village center for a suburban community, with the last project employing the Center’s userfriendly and interactive 3-D computer kit of parts. The kit - a kind of computer “pattern book” is comprised of site planning, urban and landscape design and architectural conventions - is part of the Center’s continuing effort to support a consensus based, rather than adversial based, public planning and design process.

keywords Architectural Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 040a
authors Lam, Khee-Poh and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 1995
title Interface Design for Building Performance Modeling: Information Representation and Transformation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 141-152
summary Building design is an integrative endeavor encompassing a multi-variate agenda that deals simultaneously with issues of architectural elements, their attributes (geometry, material properties, etc.), contextual variables (e.g., the uncontrollable external environmental conditions), and building performance variables (e.g., the potentially controllable indoor environment in terms of thermal, acoustical, visual requirements). Ultimately, an important objective of design is to create built environments that are responsive to occupant needs and building performance requirements. This paper will suggest a framework for developing appropriate representations of the complexities involved in building performance simulation. This is based on studies of the communication requirements pertaining to the informational content involved in the design process, and the interfacial relationships between various analytical components as well as between the user and the system. The applicability and effectiveness of this theoretical framework is demonstrated using the example of a fully operational hygro-thermal analysis program (META-4) developed by the authors.
keywords Interface Design, Building Performance, Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/02/26 16:26

_id 0ddb
authors Linzer, H., Schmidinger, E., Voigt, A. and Walchhofer, H.P.
year 1995
title Computer Integrated Building-up Planning (CIBP)
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 259-265
summary Building-up planning holds a prominent position within the planning- and realization process due to its closeness to the constructional-spatial translation. Based on spatial analysis, spatial characteristics and the elaboration of marginal conditions of spatial development within the framework of building-up planning, building volumina, building density, manner of building-up and storeyheights amongst others are to be defined and analyzed as to their spatial impact prior to their realization. The present project has presented possibilities for improvement of planning quality as well as of optimizing clearness and comprehension of the legally binding marginal conditions of building-up planning. Based on the wording of the Austrian Law governing Area Planning building-up planning constitutes an integral part of Urban and Regional planning. Building-up planning is the planning instrument considered right next to putting into reality the effects of which becoming immediately visible in the constructional transfer of frame conditions of spatial development. As a legal instrument it is - due to its overpacked nature - complicated in its practical application and disposes of only a small degree of flexibility concerning its consequences. Thus, a major goal of the research project aims at the development of a building-up plan of a prohibitory - (mandatory) plan acting as an instrument for designing public space.
series plCAD
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id 8573
authors Lucardie, L., De Gelder, J. and Huijsing, A.
year 1995
title The Advanced Knowledge Transfer System
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 163-171
summary The joint application of decision tables and Prolog seems to meet all the necessary requirements to be met by a language or modelling knowledge. Despite the high complementarity of decision tables and Prolog, it appears that they still yield a language with certain drawbacks. The Advanced Knowledge Transfer System (AKTS) has been developed to take advantage of this complementarity and simultaneously eliminate these drawbacks. To show the capabilities of AKT three knowledge-based systems in the building and construction sector are described which recently have been developed using AKTS.
keywords Knowledge-Based Systems, Modelling Language, Decision Tables, Prolog
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ba3b
authors Madrazo, L.
year 1999
title Types and Instances: a paradigm for teaching design with computers
source Design Studies 20 (2) (1999) pp. 177-193
summary Types and Instances is the conceptual paradigm of this course for teaching design with computers to architecture students which was devised at the ETH Zurich. The course was initiated in the academic year 1990/91. Since then, it has been offered each following Winter semester up to the academic year 1995/1996. This paper discusses the essential concepts of the course and describes the tools that were created specifically for it. A reflection based on the experience of teaching the course is also included in the conclusions.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id a900
authors Maver, Thomas W. and Petric, Jelena
year 1995
title Information Technology in the Service of Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 181-185
summary The quality of the built environment depends critically on the concept of sustainability and, in particular, on designs which are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. This paper gives an account of the successful application of computer-based simulations of the physical environment made available to architects through an Energy Design Advisory Service and used parametrically within a research project carried out jointly with a design and build company. It goes on to indicate how emerging multi-media technology can be used to provide an explanation, particularly to those who are technically unsophisticated, of the complexity of the way in which design decisions impact upon the energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of buildings.
keywords Energy Efficiency, Computer Simulation, Multi-Media, Design Decisions
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/04/16 09:51

_id ddss9464
id ddss9464
authors McCartney, Kevin and Ismail, Ashraf Lotfy R. M.
year 1994
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Supplementary Planning Guidance and Local Planning Policies
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are being designed in order to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; with regards to building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. The measures to determine proper evaluation will be based upon site-development briefs, and design guides produced by the local planning authorities. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. It will also provide many functions for editing two and three dimensional drawings specifically for the environmental analysis tasks. In addition to the common graphical output of Aut0CAD; i.e. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, the tool will generate textual analysis of the design in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Statement of proposed development. The speculative tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out tailor-made for architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of materials for environmental statements. Second, field observation will be carried out to observe the concerned professionals as decision-makers while assessing building design proposals. A prototype will be designed and then tested against the expectations of the tool designer, then the tool performance will be evaluated by a team of professionals participated in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the concluding study findings will be documented as part of a postgraduate research thesis to be completed in June 1995.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c449
authors Millard, Lesley
year 1995
title A Strategic Approach to Climate Responsive Design Using Computer Based Learning
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 177-182
summary Existing computer software to support the teaching of environmental issues to architecture students is mainly based on energy calculation methods or packages of information split into subject areas. Neither approach seems to adequately support the early stages of the design process. The paper explores the construction of a model for a computer based learning system to teach the development of environmental strategies. Different strands of educational theory were used to develop teaching principles based around consideration of the subjective quality of knowledge influenced by ideas and theories from different sources, the importance of learning a "language" consisting of methods and theories of a subject and their application in context and the suggestion that "deep" learning requires conceptual changes. A suitable framework for the development of environmental strategies is suggested and its implementation using multi-media software as a method of integrating different types of information and learning materials is proposed. The paper concludes that the process of analysis is a key part of the system and should be made the focus of the structure and contents.

series eCAADe
last changed 2000/12/02 12:53

_id 6dc4
authors Moeck, Martin and Selkowitz, Steven
year 1995
title A Computer-Based Daylight Systems Design Tool
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 261-279
summary Currently numbers like illuminance or glare index are used for the evaluation of daylight system designs. We propose to use photorealistic pictures in addition to numbers as a way to assess the quality of a design solution. This is necessary since numbers-based performance criteria, that are currently in use, are either not sufficient to evaluate performance, or they require expert knowledge for interpretation. The paper discusses the implications and ramifications of this approach.
keywords interactive Simulation, Non-numerical Performance Criteria, Photorealism, Visual Comfort, Performance Based Visualization, Indirect Evaluation of Performance
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 15:20

_id 8262
authors Monedero, Javier and Redondo, Ernest
year 1995
title Images to Save a River
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 409-416
summary The paper presented is based on a work, developed by the authors, which concluded with an exhibition that was inaugurated in Barcelona on the 23th of april, 1995 and will proceed to other places the next year. The work consisted in the organization of an exhibition and the development and visual simulation of 14 projects aimed to promote ways to rescue the Besos river that crosses the north side of Barcelona and is probably one of the most degradated rivers of Europe. Our task was to select and suggest ways of acting on the landscape that could be easily understood and assimilated to a program that implied a complex and long term task. From the technical point of view the job implied particular aspects that are also discussed in the paper.

series eCAADe
last changed 2000/12/02 12:54

_id 3b58
authors Morozumi, M., Murakami, Y. and Iki, K.
year 1995
title Network Based Group Work CAD for UNIX Workstation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 637-646
summary This paper discusses a model of collaborative process of architectural design and a network based group work CAD to support them. In the first part, the authors introduce a prototype system they developed to improve the environment for synchronous (interactive) design communication. Reviewing the process Of students' collaborative work that used the system, the authors point out that the frequent and timely exchange of CAD data with the system could not only stimulate designer's' imagination but accelerate the process of design development.
keywords Collaboration, Groupwork, CAD, Design Process, Network
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id dc94
authors Mullens, M.A., Armacost, R.L. and Swart, W.W.
year 1995
title The role of object oriented CAD in a generic simulator for the industrialized housing industry
source Automation in Construction 4 (1) (1995) pp. 29-43
summary This paper describes a simulator-based decision support tool for manufacturers of prefabricated homebuilding components. The Generic Industrialized Housing Manufacturing Simulator (GIHMS) serves as an experimental factory, capable of simulating factory performance under various product design, factory design, and operations management scenarios. GIHMS strength lies in its user-friendly, icon-based, point-and-click user interface. The interface allows the user to configure a factory and specify home designs for production without simulation language programming. The heart of the user interface is a specialized object oriented CAD system. This paper describes the GIHMS structure, focusing on the specialized CAD system, and demonstrates its functionality by describing the development of a structural foam panel factory model.
keywords Generic simulators; Object oriented CAD; Prefabrication; Housing
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:38

_id e716
authors Nickerson, S., Thrale, B. and Whiting, D.
year 1995
title Automating the Drafting for As-Found Recording and Facility Management Surveys
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 315-332
summary Much of the time of a facility planner, restoration architect or heritage recorder is spent, on site analysing thebuilding and collecting data and measurements. These will be used later to create the reports and drawings that will provide the basis for the subsequent design but these notes and measurements are just the beginning of the long process of drafting the as-found situation. Errors are inevitable in this type of work but, typically they only come to light, back in the office where confirming a measurement may entail an extra trip to the site, and there are times that they only turn up when a contractor encounters problems on the job A software tool, currently under development, addresses this problem by first helping to structure the note taking process so that more consistent data is collected, and then, automatically creating a 2D or 3D CAD model from the resulting database. This can be done on a laptop computer, before the recording team leaves the site so that the model can be compared with reality and faulty or missing measurements corrected. Furthermore, this combination of database and drawing is linked, allowing queries of the data from inside Autocad or the assembly of a specialized model based on a database query. Point collection techniques supported include traditional and not so traditional) hand measurement, total station surveying equipment and interfaces with other software such as rectification and photogrammetric packages. The applications envisioned include as found recording, facilities management data collection and the possibility of a totally data-driven GIS
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 15:24

_id 9377
authors Nowacki, Aleksander
year 1995
title Gothic Cathedral in the Virtual Reality
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 43-56
summary Everyone who once visited Beauvais, small town placed 100 km from Paris, certainly asked himself: "how would have this highest gothic cathedral, that was started here, looked like if it had been completed?". I attempted to answer this question in my diploma work in 1994. However, the task wouldn't be done without power of contemporary computers. They made it possible to create the entire three-dimensional model of this magnificent building in the virtual reality. Cathedral Saint-Pierre in Beauvais, which was started in 1225, partly collapsed in 1284 and 1573. Finally, in 1600, when only choir and transept were finished, the works had been interrupted. The height of this highest gothic interior in the world is 48.5m. To my disposition I had the drawings of plan and cross- section of the existing part of the building, photographic specification and detailed description of the construction of the cathedral. I used PC 486DX/33, 16 MB RAM, HD 170 MB and software: Autodesk AutoCAD r.12 and AccuRender r.1.10. The work was divided into three stages. The first one was "building" the model of existing part of the cathedral in the threedimensional CAD-space. The next one was trying "to finish" the temple based on theoretical reflections and comparative analyses of existing French gothic cathedrals. The last stage included the performance of the series of pseudorealistic pictures showing the "finished" cathedral in Beauvais from the outside, inside and with illumination by night.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id d935
authors Pasko, A.A., Adzhiev, V.D., Sourin, A.I. and Savchenko, V.V.
year 1995
title Function representation in geometric modeling: concepts, implementation and applications
source The Visual Computer, 11 (8) 429-446
summary Geometric modeling using continuous real functions of several variables is discussed. Modeling concepts include sets of objects, operations and relations. An object is a closed point set of n-dimensional Euclidean space with a defining inequality f x x xn ( , ,..., ) 1 2 0 °Ÿ . Transformations of a defining function are described for the set-theoretic operations, blending, offsetting, bijective mapping, projection, Cartesian product and metamorphosis. Inclusion, point membership and intersection relations are described. In the implemented interactive modeling system, we use highlevel geometric language that provides extendibility of the modeling system by input symbolic descriptions of primitives, operations and predicates. This approach supports combinations of representational styles, including constructive geometry, sweeping, soft objects, voxel-based objects, deformable and other animated objects. Application examples of aesthetic design, collisions simulation, NC machining, range data processing, and 3D texture generation are given.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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