CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id e201
authors Coulon, Carl-Helmut
year 1995
title Automatic Indexing, Retrieval and Reuse of Topologies in Architectural Layouts
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 577-586
summary Former layouts contain much of the know-how of architects. A generic and automatic way to formalize this know-how in order to use it by a computer would save a lot of effort and money. However, there seems to be no such way. The only access to the know-how are the layouts themselves. Developing a generic software tool to reuse former layouts you cannot consider every part of the architectural domain or things like personal style. Tools used today only consider small parts of the architectural domain. Any personal style is ignored. Isnít it possible to build a basic tool which is adjusted by the content of the former layouts, but maybe extended inclemently by modeling as much of the domain as desirable? This paper will describe a reuse tool to perform this task focusing on topological and geometrical binary relations.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Graph Matching, Structural Comparison, Topology
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id a84e
authors De Grassi, Mario and Giretti, Alberto
year 1995
title Applying Formal Methods to Multimedia Design Aid
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 283-296
summary In the last decade we assisted at an evolution of computer aided design systems from drafting, calculation and simulation utilities toward systems able to support the conceptual phase of the design process. Systems supporting conceptual design use knowledge about the design domain and assume a will defined model of the design activity. Their computational framework is usually built by means of a set of representational schemata which lack a formal semantics. This aspect causes a limitation on the applicability of their computational framework to different domains. In this paper we propose a formal knowledge representation language, that has been defined in order to represent the structural relationships of domain knowledge. On the basis of language structure we propose a number of inferences tailored to case-based conceptual design aiding. Finally we apply the representational framework to the implementation of a computational architecture for conceptual design aiding that integrates multimedia representation of design cases with symbolic information processing. The architecture combines a knowledge representation server and a multimedia server. The knowledge representation server processes both domain knowledge and design experiences according to the Case Based Reasoning paradigm. The multimedia server produces the required case representation.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_34.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:35

_id 9ec6
authors Maher, M.L., Balachandran, B. and Zhang, D.M.
year 1995
title Case-Based Reasoning in Design
source Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
summary This survey presents a number of issues raised by the application of case-based reasoning for design. The authors comment on the two extremes of case-based design: design assistance and design automation, and how they share a number of difficult issues related to their implementation.
series other
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 99a3
authors Schaaf, Joerg W. and Voss, Angi
year 1995
title Retrieval of Similar Layouts in FABEL using AspecT
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 617-626
summary In the FABEL project several approaches have been developed and published for retrieving similar cases in the domain of architectural design. In this paper we want to focus on a short description and foremost on integration of these approaches. We will introduce the most important approaches. As a first step towards integration, we suggest decomposing them into their main parts: representation of cases, similarity function and retrieval component. Using the first two parts each approach in a new search algorithm operating on a generic data structure, we built a shell called AspecT for an easy integration. We are positive that one can never have fully considered all aspects of a design. Therefore, we describe an open framework to define new aspects and to apply them depending on the context. Unfortunately, openness brings some difficulties along with it. One can not predict the importance of an aspect, until the situation assessment of the query is completed. In other words, it is impossible to define a static distribution of aspect weights that fits for all purposes. As a consequence, one can not predefine a static structure on the case base to speed tip retrieval processes. Dealing with this problem, we developed and published a special search algorithm that passes through a multidimensional case base, finding the best fitting cases within a short amount of time. This algorithm does not need any predefined structure on the case base except aspect specific relations between cases. Creativity of inventing new aspects of cases should not be hindered but one can ask whether or not a certain aspect are worth being regarded in searching for useful cases. The shell AspecT offers a tool to evaluate aspects. At first, formal criteria influence the initial weights of aspects but later on, the contribution of an aspect to find user accepted cases, determines the survival fitness of an aspect. The rule for living or dying is simple. Seldom used aspects disappear, whereas others become stronger. A short description regarding this work is given in last part.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Retrieval, Integration of Similarity Concepts, Architectural Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ff69
authors Seok, Lee Han, Sik, Park-Chung and Kim, Dae-Gwon
year 1995
title A Knowledge-Based CAAD system with Qualitative Spatial Reasoning Capability
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 359-368
summary Design and creativity go hand in hand. The ability to be creative in design can be enhanced when humans and computers, which both work as information processing systems cooperate in a complementary, integrated manner. Computational systems should play the most essential role in enhancing creativity within human-machine design systems in the future. In this context, we present the concept and architecture of a new integrated CAAD System, AutoNEO, that will support the achievement of creative results. We will focus on the qualitative spatial reasoning capability of AutoNEO, and provide an example of layout design as a case of qualitative spatial reasoning.
keywords Knowledge-Based CAAD System, Qualitative Spatial Reasoning, Design Creativity
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 09c6
authors Silva, Neander F.
year 1995
title The Use of Hybrid Technology in the construction of an Evolving Knowledge-Base Design System
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 589-598
summary This paper focus in one vital aspect of design computing: the knowledge-base extension and maintenance. It describes a hybrid approach where a rudimentary evolving knowledge-base design system is proposed. It draws inspiration from three areas of artificial intelligence: knowledge-base systems, connectionist models, and case-based reasoning. Its main contributions are: an incremental self-adjustment able to minimise substantially the dependency on knowledge engineer intervention, and an interactive support to innovation.
keywords Precedents, Connectionism, Knowledge-Bases Maintenance, Innovative Design
series CAAD Futures
email neander@unb.br
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id aa38
authors Tan, M., Gan, J., Indorf, P., Man, D., Teh, R., Datta, S., Serra, L. and Loo, J.
year 1995
title Multivalent Architectural Case Information for Creative Reasoning
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 543-554
summary The theoretical underpinnings, practical and technical implementation of a multimedia database to support creative designing is presented through a prototype system which would go on-line in the near future. At the heart of the system is the notion that architectural knowledge is multivalent ñ requiring the means for recombination in new and different ways to support design thinking. The system also attempts to deal with the practical issues of case building, 3D modelling, interface design and technical clarity.
keywords Creativity, Multimedia, Case-Based Reasoning, Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Architectural Database, Visual Database, Virtual Reality.
series CAAD Futures
email miltontan@mac.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id b633
authors Tan, Milton and Teh, Robert (Eds.)
year 1995
title The Global Design Studio [Conference Proceedings]
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, 779 p.
summary 1995 marks the 10th anniversary of the CAAD Futures series of international conferences which is dedicated to "promoting (...) the advancement of computer-aided architectural design in the service of those concerned with the quality of the built environment". It also marks the first time this important forum is held in Asia; hosted by the School of Architecture, National University of Singapore. This proceedings is a compilation of the sixty nine papers which were selected by an International Review Committee and presented at the conference in Singapore on 24-26 September 1995. The Chapters are organised according to the themes covered by the conference -Electronic Design Media, Environmental Simulation & Decision Support, Generative Systems, Scene and Product Modelling, Virtual Reality, Information Delivery Systems & Geographic Information Systems, Shape Grammar, Recognition & Emergence, Precedence & Prototypes, Case-based Reasoning, and Cooperative Design.
series CAAD Futures
email miltontan@mac.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0bbb
authors Alshawi, Mustafa
year 1995
title Dynamic Generation of Design Plans at the Brief Stage
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 219-228
summary The traditional approach to design and construction suffers from many limitations. As the technology becomes more available to the average users, the need for an effective and efficient solution has never been greater. This paper introduces an alternative approach to the life cycle of construction projects "application controlled process". Based on this approach, a framework for an Integrated Construction Environment (ICE) has been developed and implemented in a prototype demonstrator "SPACE" (Simultaneous Prototyping for An integrated Construction Environment). This paper is only concerns with those parts of the ICE which are relevant to the dynamic generation of design drawings. The NIRMANI system aims at generating a schematic design by retrieving previous design solutions that match the problem specification from a multimedia case library. While the Bay Design Systems aims at re-adjusting the produced design solution to minimise construction problems.
keywords Integrated Environments, Case-Based Design, Project Life Cycle, Integrated Construction Environment
series CAAD Futures
email M.A.Alshawi@salford.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id d79e
authors Boerner, Katy
year 1995
title Interactive, Adaptive, Computer-aided Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 627-634
summary A general framework of a system that supports building engineering is presented. It accounts for a set of desirable features. Among them are (1) graphical man-machine interaction, (2) high interactivity to facilitate the acquisition of the huge amount of knowledge necessary to support design, (3) incremental knowledge acquisition as the basis for incrementally increasing system support, and (4) adaptability to the tasks which are tackled, the distinctive features of the domain, and user preferences. This paper provides the underlying assumptions and basic approaches of the modules constituting this framework and sketches the current implementation.
keywords Graphical Interfaces, Incremental Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Organization, Case-Based Reasoning, Design Prototypes, Analogical Reasoning
series CAAD Futures
email katy@indiana.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c6bb
authors Bottelli, Valeria and Fogh, Christian
year 1995
title Galathea: A Case-Based Planning Tool for Knowledge Navigation in the Architectural Design Process
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 427-436
summary We report on an on-going Ph.D. research aimed at the analysis of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design and the development of a conceptual model for a case-based navigation tool for its support. We describe architectural design from a process viewpoint and assume it as a form of intentional planning, leading from an initial state configuration toward a desired situation, by means of an incremental specification of goals, constraints and involved variables. We consider the very essence of design and of the specific professional skill characterising designers as the continual recursive transformation of the initial solution model, in order to map the desired state onto the enacted one and the capability to govern a number of continually changing variables in this direction. On the basis of this general concept of the design process, we describe the model of Galathea, a case-based planning tool, aimed at progressively representing the enlarging space of acquired knowledge, and at supporting the designer´s central role in the management of the design process.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_50.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2036
authors Dzeng, R.J.
year 1995
title Caseplan: A Case-based Planer and Scheduler for Construction Using Product Modeling
source University of Michigan
summary Construction planning and scheduling are important to contractors for estimating the cost and duration of a project they are to bid on and construct. Many projects specify incentive and disincentive clauses for completing projects early and late. The timely completion and success of a project rely on good planning and scheduling. Contractors who repeatedly build the same kind of facilities acquire experience in scheduling the needed construction work. When parts of a facility's design are copied from one project to the next, the previously developed schedules could possibly be reused to schedule future work. This dissertation presents a construction planner and scheduler, named CasePlan, that automates the planning and scheduling process through the use of experience encoded in cases. CasePlan enables a contractor to specify a facility design using a product model, describe the relationships between product components and parts of a schedule (e.g., activity subnetworks, construction crews), and store this information as a case. As a decision support tool, CasePlan enables the contractor to search for cases whose facility designs are similar to that of a new project. The similarity assessment is based on the relative importance values that the contractor assigns to the components and their attributes in the product model. As an automation tool, CasePlan creates the schedule of a new project by reusing parts of the schedules whose associated designs are most similar to that project's design. The result is a schedule in which construction alternatives are chosen from those used in previous cases based on the new project scheduling constraints. The contractor / system-user can interact with CasePlan during its operation or modify the resulting schedule to add detail needed for executing the schedule in the field. Two types of construction projects have been studied for the development of CasePlan. One is the Kit-of-Parts post offices, in which designs are made by reusing design modules defined as Parts. The other is the boiler erection for fossil-fueled power plants, in which the design process is standardized and component configurations are similar across designs. These projects were chosen because their schedules are similar within each project type, which suggested that practitioners had a high incentive and were likely to reuse schedules. CasePlan's similarity assessment for boiler erection projects was validated using a survey. CasePlan's schedules and usability was subjectively evaluated also by the interviewed professionals.
series thesis:PhD
email rjdzeng@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id d6d8
authors Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert
year 1995
title Software Environment to Support Early Phases in Building Design (SEED): Overview
source Journal of Architectural Engineering -- December 1995 -- Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 147-152
summary This paper describes the overall goals of SEED, the approach taken by its developers to achieve these goals, and the subprojects that comprise the entire project. SEED aims at providing computational support forthe early design phase in all aspects that can benefit from such support. It addresses specifically architectural programming, schematic layout design, and the generation of a fully three-dimensional configuration ofphysical building components like structure and enclosure. These tasks are handled by three individual modules, SEED-Pro, SEED-Layout, and SEED-Config. A standards processor is under development tosupport standards and code checking in any module, as is an object database to store and retrieve different design versions, alternatives, and past designs that can be reused and adapted in different contexts(case-based design). Usability issues, especially the interfaces to the modules, receive special attention. Subsequent papers elaborate on these efforts in greater detail. The present paper provides an overview of theentire project and introduces shared concepts presumed known in subsequent papers.
series journal paper
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ead7
authors Gero, J.S. and Schnier, T.
year 1995
title Evolving representations of design cases and their use in creative design
source J.S. Gero, M.L. Maher and F. Sudweeks (eds), Preprints Computational Models of Creative Design , Key Centre of Design Computing, University of Sydney, pp. 343-368
summary In case-based design, the adaptation of a design case to new design requirements plays an important role. If it is sufficient to adapt a predefined set of design parameters, the task is easily automated. If, however, more far-reaching, creative changes are required, current systems provide only limited success. This paper describes an approach to creative design adaptation based on the notion of creativity as 'goal oriented shift of focus of a search process'. An evolving representation is used to restructure the search space so that designs similar to the example case lie in the focus of the search. This focus is than used as a starting point to generate new designs.
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/06 13:22

_id c7ef
authors Huang, Jeffrey
year 1995
title Dynamic Urban Information Model: Integrated Approach to Strategic Urban Redevelopment
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 399-408
summary This paper describes a prototype Dynamic Urban Information Model (DUIM) designed to facilitate strategic urban redevelopment, that is, the process of determining precise architectural interventions to set off, guide and condition redevelopment activities. The idea of the DUIM is based on the notion that in order to attain effective strategic redevelopment, an integrated approach addressing the complex interactions of the factors involved in urban life and growth is required. Accordingly, an urban model for this purpose must include not only spatial and formal considerations, but also social, political, economical and ecological aspects. Through a case-study involving the redevelopment of a post-industrial site, this paper explains the rationale of the DUIM in terms of its formal structure, its database, and its application.
keywords Geographic Information Systems, Urban Design, Integrated Environments, Simulation, Real-Time Animation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 9a66
authors Lee, H., Lee, J. and Chang, S.
year 1995
title Design Adaptation for Handling Design Failures
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 567-576
summary This research deals with two important issues in Case-based Design (CBD): a structure of design cases and a process of design adaptation for handling design failures. The structure of design cases involves problem situation, design specification, design tasks, design solutions, causal explanation, past design failures as well as design performance. It has been noticed that how to represent a structure of design cases and how it can be used in actual a process of design adaptation process are important in Case-based Design. Adaptation process in Case-based Design is also critcial, especially in handling design failures. The description and the analysis of design adaptation process in the context of Case-based Design paradigm is the major focus of this research. A model of casual explanation is presented as an useful tool for identifying sources of design failures. For efficiently handling design failures based on causal explanation, it is essential to characterize various design failures and to devise an adequate structure of adaptation process. Applicability of adaptation process is demonstrated in an exemplary kitchen layout.
keywords Design Failures, Design Adaptation, Causal Explanation, Adaptation Strategies
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 3f1d
authors Mahalingam, Ganapathy
year 1995
title The Application of Object-Oriented Computing In The Development of Design Systems for Auditoria
source University of Florida
summary This dissertation has a two-part theoretical basis. The first part is that architectural entities like spatial enclosures can be modeled as computational objects in object-oriented design systems. The second part is that spatial forms of auditoria can be generated from acoustical, functional and programmatic parameters. The method used to establish the theoretical basis is the application of the concepts of object-oriented computing in the development of design systems for auditoria. As a practical demonstration of the theoretical basis, two object-oriented design systems for the preliminary spatial design of fan-shaped and rectangular proscenium-type auditoria were developed. In the two systems, the concept of acoustic sculpting is used to convert acoustical, functional and programmatic parameters into architectural parameters used in the spatial design of the auditoria. Statistical, analytical and mathematical methods are used to generate the spatial forms of the auditoria based on the various parameters. The auditoria are modeled as parametric computational objects. The implementation of the systems is described in detail. The systems are true design systems because they involve the creation of spatial information from nonspatial information. The application of acoustic sculpting in the implemented systems is tested with case studies. The results are presented and discussed. These systems serve as indicators of the potential of object-oriented design systems in architecture. The dissertation concludes with a projection of how the object-oriented computing paradigm can benefit the creation of design systems in architecture. Future directions for research and development are outlined.
series thesis:PhD
email ganapathy.mahalingam@ndsu.nodak.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id fc79
authors Ostwald, J.
year 1995
title Supporting Collaborative Design with Representations for Mutual Understanding
source ACM CHI
summary This paper describes a research effort to investigate cross-cultural collaboration in software development. The work is based on a model of collaborative design that calls for stakeholders (including developers and end-users) to iteratively construct an understanding of design problems and potential solutions through the construction and refinement of design representations. The Evolving Artifact (EVA) software design environment has been implemented to support this process. EVA has been used in a development project in a regional telephone company. A case study of this project will be analyzed to yield guidelines and design principles for constructing representations for mutual understanding.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 750a
authors Oxman, Rivka
year 1995
title Design Case Bases: Graphic Knowledge Bases for the Design Workspace
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 555-565
summary Cases in the domain of architecture and engineering are commonly stored and presented as graphical representations in the form of drawings. The way creative designers fit and adapt graphical representations through drawing and re-drawing is still one of the least understood phenomena in design. Modeling stich processes appears to be a key to graphic knowledge base integration in CAAD environments. The paper reports on a new approach to modeling design adaptation in a graphical environment. This approach is based upon a theory of creativity, the Representation - Re-representation Hypothesis which is here employed in the formalization of design adaptation. A 'multi-layer re-representational model' which assists in the adaptation of design drawings is developed and presented. The model is based on the transformation of chunks of knowledge in design cases into explicit re-representational structures which can support creative design in a graphic environment. This model is utilized in our current work in development of a prototype graphical case-based CAAD system.
keywords Adaptation, Case-based CAAD, Case-based Design, Creativity, Graphical Case-Bases, Representation, Re-Representation.
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 7670
authors Sawicki, Bogumil
year 1995
title Ray Tracing – New Chances, Possibilities and Limitations in AutoCAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 121-136
summary Realistic image synthesis is nowadays widely used in engineering applications. Some of these applications, such as architectural, interior, lighting and industrial design demand accurate visualization of non-existent scenes as they would look to us, when built in reality. This can only be archived by using physically based models of light interaction with surfaces, and simulating propagation of light through an environment. Ray tracing is one of the most powerful techniques used in computer graphics, which can produce such very realistic images. Ray tracing algorithm follows the paths of light rays backwards from observer into the scene. It is very time consuming process and as such one could not be developed until proper computers appeared, In recent years the technological improvements in computer industry brought more powerful machines with bigger storage capacities and better graphic devices. Owing to increasing these hardware capabilities successful implementation of ray tracing in different CAD software became possible also on PC machines. Ray tracing in AutoCAD r.12 - the most popular CAD package in the world - is the best of that example. AccuRender and AutoVision are an AutoCAD Development System (ADS) applications that use ray tracing to create photorealistic images from 3D AutoCAD models. These ,internal"' applications let users generate synthetic images of threedimensional models and scenes entirely within AutoCAD space and show effects directly on main AutoCAD screen. Ray tracing algorithm accurately calculates and displays shadows, transparency, diffusion, reflection, and refraction from surface qualities of user-defined materials. The accurate modelling of light lets produce sophisticated effects and high-quality images, which these ray tracers always generates at 24-bit pixel depth,"providing 16,7 million colours. That results can be quite impressive for some architects and are almost acceptable for others but that coloured virtual world, which is presented by ray tracing in AutoCAD space in such convincing way, is still not exactly the same as the real world. Main limitations of realism are due to the nature of ray tracing method Classical ray tracing technique takes into account the effects of light reflection from neighbouring surfaces but, leaves out of account the ambient and global illumination arising out of complex interreflections in an environment. So models generated by ray tracing belong to an "ideal" world where real materials and environment can't find their right place. We complain about that fact and say that ray tracing shows us "too specular world", but (...) (...) there is anything better on the horizon? It should be concluded, that typical abilities of today's graphics software and hardware are far from exploited. As was observed in literature there have been various works carried along with the explicit intention of overcoming all these ray tracing limitations, These researches seem to be very promising and let us hope that their results will be seen in CAD applications soon. As it happens with modelling, perhaps the answer will come from a variety of techniques that can be combined together with ray tracing depending on the case we are dealing with. Therefore from the point of view of an architects that try to keep alive some interest on the nature of materials and their interaction with form, "ray tracing" seems to be right path of research and development that we can still a long way follow, From the point of view of the school, a critical assimilation of "ray tracing" processes is required and one that might help to determinate exactly their distortions and to indicate the correct way of its development and right place in CAAD education. I trust that ray tracing will become standard not only in AutoCAD but in all architectural space modelling CAD applications and will be established as a powerful and real tool for experimental researches in architectural design process. Will be the technological progress so significant in the nearest future as it is anticipated?
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

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