CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 394

_id 4c7e
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1995
title City of Bits: space, place, and the infobahn
source The MIT Press
summary Entertaining, concise, and relentlessly probing, City of Bits is a comprehensive introduction to a new type of city, a largely invisible but increasingly important system of virtual spaces interconnected by the emerging information superhighway. William Mitchell makes extensive use of concrete, practical examples and illustrations in a technically well-grounded yet accessible examination of architecture and urbanism in the context of the digital telecommunications revolution, the ongoing miniaturization of electronics, the commodification of bits, and the growing domination of software over materialized form. In seven chapters - Pulling Glass, Electronic Agoras, Cyborg Citizens, Recombinant Architecture, Soft Cities, Bit Biz, and Getting to the Good Bits - Mitchell argues that the crucial issue before us is not one of putting in place the digital plumbing of telecommunications links and associated electronic appliances, nor even of producing content for electronic delivery, but rather one of creating electronically mediated environments for the kinds of lives that we want to lead.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2004_493
id sigradi2004_493
authors Jean-Pierre Chupin
year 2004
title The "tectonic bug" (The fall of the body in cyberspace)
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Architects have been opening up onto cyberspace for more than a decade now. In terms of disciplinary issues, at stake is our ability to inhabit this new space as .designers. and not just as spectators. In the mid 90s, two theories engaged in a major confrontation. The first valued the virtual dimension of architectural space (W. J. Mitchell, City of Bits, 1995), the other valued the tectonic dimension and its constructive poiesis (K. Frampton, Studies in Tectonic Culture, 1995). Although divergent in their view of architecture.s role in the future of our technological societies, both theories revealed aspects of our relationship to the contemporary body that were, and today remain, inseparable. Where Mitchell.s book clearly intends to establish cyberspace as a new playground for architects, giving convincing examples of the programmatic mutations of modern spatiality, Kenneth Frampton.s work, Studies in Tectonic Culture, reexamines the constructive culture underlying the modern conception of space. Neither a simple history text nor a collection of technical poetry, this latter work is a manifesto developing a set of materialist ethics for the discipline of architecture. This "rappel à lordre" to resist the increasing dematerialization of architecture closes tentatively with Le Corbusier.s classic metaphor of the acrobat: The architect, he said, must not look for truth in extremes. Rather, he must struggle constantly to maintain balance. .Nobody asked him to do this. Nobody owes him any thanks. He lives in the extraordinary world of the acrobat.. Following Le Corbusier.s advice, and in consideration of current and recurrent tensions between the virtual and the tectonic, what can we say today of such a delicate equilibrium?
series SIGRADI
email Jean-pierre.chupin@umontreal.ca
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 276c
authors Breen, Jack
year 1995
title Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: “Dynamic Perspective”. The “dynamic” quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: “the architecture of the city”. Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides “traditional” ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 27
authors De Gregorio, R., Carmena, S., Morelli, R.D., AvendaÒo, C. and Lioi, C.
year 1998
title La Construccion del Espacio del Poder. Museo de la Casa Rosada (The Construction of the Space of Power. Museum of the "Casa Rosada" (Argentinean Presidential House))
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 212-217
summary The present work is part of the exposition "Francesco Tamburini, La ConstrucciÛn del Espacio del Poder I", exhibited in Rivadavia Cultural Center ( Rosario city), and in Casa Rosada Museum during 1997. The Exposition is based on an investigation program of the space that involves Casa Rosada, determining this space as the first piece of its collection. In 1995, when a group of argentines where visiting the picture gallery Pianetti (Jesi, Italy) there have been found some watercolours of Francesco Tamburini (1846-1890), planner of the main faÁades of the Government and author of many works. These watercolours have great value for architecture, and unknown by public, they have been the starting point of the Exposition. Among these argentines was Roberto De Gregorio architect, historian teacher of this school of architecture, and in charge of the historical investigation. C.I.A.D.'s specific work consists in converting in digital data Casa Rosada's faÁades. The two first stages, already completed, finished on the digital data conversion of facades, in front of Plaza de Mayo and Rivadavia street, with presidential access esplanade. Actually the work is centred on the two facades left and on the elaboration of an electronic model for the edition of a CD-ROM containing the information of the exposition.
series SIGRADI
email scarmena@agatha.unr.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2115
authors Ingram, R. and Benford, S.
year 1995
title Improving the legibility of virtual environments
source Second Euro graphics Workshop on Virtual Environments
summary Years of research into hyper-media systems have shown that finding one's way through large electronic information systems can be a difficult task. Our experiences with virtual reality suggest that users will also suffer from the commonly experienced "lost in hyperspace" problem when trying to navigate virtual environments. The goal of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a technique which is currently under development with the aim of overcoming this problem. Our approach is based upon the concept of legibility, adapted from the discipline of city planning. The legibility of an urban environment refers to the ease with which its inhabitants can develop a cognitive map over a period of time and so orientate themselves within it and navigate through it [Lynch60]. Research into this topic since the 1960s has argued that, by carefully designing key features of urban environments planners can significantly influence their legibility. We propose that these legibility features might be adapted and applied to the design of a wide variety of virtual environments and that, when combined with other navigational aids such as the trails, tours and signposts of the hyper-media world, might greatly enhance people's ability to navigate them. In particular, the primary role of legibility would be to help users to navigate more easily as a result of experiencing a world for some time (hence the idea of building a cognitive map). Thus, we would see our technique being of most benefit when applied to long term, persistent and slowly evolving virtual environments. Furthermore, we are particularly interested in the automatic application of legibility techniques to information visualisations as opposed to their relatively straight forward application to simulations of the real-word. Thus, a typical future application of our work might be in enhancing visualisations of large information systems such the World Wide Web. Section 2 of this paper summarises the concept of legibility as used in the domain of city planning and introduces some of the key features that have been adapted and applied in our work. Section 3 then describes in detail the set of algorithms and techniques which are being developed for the automatic creation or enhancement of these features within virtual data spaces. Next, section 4 presents two example applications based on two different kinds of virtual data space. Finally, section 5 presents some initial reflections on this work and discusses the next steps in its evolution.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4cb3
authors Kwartler, Michael
year 1995
title Beyond the Adversial: Conflict Resolution, Simulation and Community Design
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary Fundamentally, the design of communities in the United States is grounded in the Constitution’s evolving definition of property and the rights and obligations attendant to the ownership and use of real property. The rearticulation of Jefferson’s dictum in the Declaration of Independence; “that individuals have certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” to the Constitution’s “life, liberty and property” represents a pragmatic understanding of the relationship between property and the actualization of the individual in society. In terms of community design, this means extensive public involvement and participation in not only the formulation of rules and regulations but of individual projects as well.

Since the 1960’s as planning and community design decision making has become increasingly contentious, the American legal system’s adversial approach to conflict resolution has become the dominant model for public decision making. The legal system’s adversial approach to adjudication is essentially a zero-sum game of winners and losers, and as most land-use lawyers will agree, is not a good model for the design of cities. While the adversial approach does not resolve disputes it rarely creates a positive and constructive consensus for change. Because physical planning and community design issues are not only value based, community design through consensus building has emerged as a new paradigm for physical planning and design.

The Environmental Simulation Center employs a broad range of complementary simulation and visualization techniques including 3-D vector based computer models, endoscopy, and verifiable digital photomontages to provide objective and verifiable information for projects and regulations under study.

In this context, a number of recent projects will be discussed which have explored the use of various simulation and visualization techniques in community design. Among them are projects involved with changes in the City’s Zoning Regulations, the community design of a major public open space in one of the region’s mid-size cities, and the design of a new village center for a suburban community, with the last project employing the Center’s userfriendly and interactive 3-D computer kit of parts. The kit - a kind of computer “pattern book” is comprised of site planning, urban and landscape design and architectural conventions - is part of the Center’s continuing effort to support a consensus based, rather than adversial based, public planning and design process.

keywords Architectural Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2caa
authors Marinelli, Anna Maria and Graziano, Laura
year 1995
title Urban Analysis and Hypermedia
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 149-154
summary The structure of major European cities was formed in recent years more by stratification of different patterns, as it seems, than by urban planning. Moreover traditional analytical tools - such as cartography, which defines and symbolizes static data and their spatial connections - are not able to decode any more the image of cities. Modern city means not only static form, as public space is not a simple function. city includes movement, temporary objects, changing perceptions, fluxes. Therefore hypertexts could he a chance of building up and propagate a real knowledge about modern city. an effective action to reach qualification and management of urban spaces through citizens direct involvement in the city construction. A hypertext on the Rome quarter "Esquilino" has been carried out as an open structure, to probe the new representation method trough the construction of the real "image" of the quarter, gathering different information as historical, geographic and socioeconomical data, urban projects, citizens proposals.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_19.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:52

_id 24
authors PayssÈ, M., Piperno, P., Grompone, J. and Somma, P.
year 1998
title ReconstrucciÛn Virtual de la Colonia del Sacramento de 1762 (Virtual Reconstruction of "Colonia del Sacramento" of 1762)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 192-197
summary Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.
series SIGRADI
email idise@montevideo.com.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 4fd3
authors Thomas, Wolfgang
year 1995
title Implementation of Endoscopic Model Simulation in Teaching - Downtown-Essen
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4
summary Essen with its present population of 630.000 is amongst the six largest cities of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its international significance as former industrial capital of Central Europe stems from its strategically unique location in the center of the largest economic conurbation within Continental Europe. Comparable to the transition during the industrialization period the Ruhr-metropolis, once having been a production site, has become a service-industry site. At present Essen is to be regarded as one of the major trade emporiums in the center of Europe: fair city, headquarters of major international industry- and trade corporations, principal energy center, shopping- and university city. In line with these favorable prerequisites the main traffic corridors, - on the rail, road, water and in the air - of Conti-nental Europe also meet in and around Essen. And the location of the Essen Central Train Station at the geographic center of the Ruhr-agglomeration proves also ideal

Its potential regarding urban functionality, however, shows a drastic incongruity as far as aesthetic-atmospheric reality is concerned. Instead of representing a meeting point and the focus for the integration of city quarters in terms of visitors communication it has become cut off from is surroundings in the south and north by large traffic routes. Down-town Essen has become unattractive for the public and thus is avoided rather than visited.

An improvement of the Essen down-town area will only be effective if this incongruity is done away with. Therefore, the five-storey system train station is to be connected to the down-town and southern part of Essen on the three major levels level with the vicinity in such a manner that the requirements of its service-function as to representing a point of attraction, animating center and efficient connector are met. Our conception is aimed at turning the Central Train Station into an interesting welcoming- and farewell-place enticing dwelling and appealing business activities: the gateway of Essen and into the world.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 8378
authors Arlati, Ezio
year 1995
title Patriarch: A Hypermedia Environment for the Support of Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 187-198
summary This paper reports on current research in the field of architectural design and knowledge- based systems, through the conception and implementation of two software tools operating as a part of an integrated hypermedia environment denominated PatriArch. Main concern of this set of tools operating in PatriArch is the support of design since the very beginning, in that phase of not yet correctly explored or interpretated constraints and of scarcely specified goals, in which an initial solution model - provisionally composed of fragments of supposed fitting ideas - for the design theme has to take place. The creative activity of the designer is assumed as an 'intentional planning activity' that represents the acquired level of knowledge of the network of connections defining the nature, function, shape in the space etc. of the increasingly integrated solution-model: the final design will be an evolution of this - and other competitive and concurrent - models. PatriArch is meant to be the environment containing and allowing the representation of this evolution through its ability of linking the fragments of designers' knowledge, supported by an integrated relational data base: Sysinfo. These works were conceived inside an educational software development program for architecture students.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_25.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ff05
authors Butelski, Kazimierz
year 1995
title A Brief Note on Virtual Space
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 83-92
summary In its efforts to represent space, and then create architecture on the basis of this representation, humanity has taken three major steps. STEP 1. Representation of space in the form of a drawing or model; representations compared to the mental vision and then redrawn or remodelled, until the vision takes the shape of a finished building. This technology of design" followed different conventions, depending on the epoch. In the Middle Ages the method of approximation by triangles was introduced. The Renaissance used Projection, Elevation and Cross-Section. In order to construct a building, a flat, abstract representation is used, supplemented by a model showing spatial relations and a verbal description, impossible to convey graphically. STEP 2. Methods as in Step 1, but, beginning in the 1970s, with the use of computers, which allows also for the gradual integration of these methods in one program. Theoretically speaking, all necessary data can be now recorded, visualized, animated, etc., on a PC class computer. The design-aid software is based on the method of creating a 3D model of the whole building, and then generating the rest (projections, cross-sections) from it. STEP 3. The above step have - brought us to near- perfection in photorealistic representation of space, which remains, however only a 2D abstraction from 3D space. The next step, which is now taking place before (and in?) our very eyes, is to use systems which bring us directly into 3D space.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 8402
authors Martens, Bob (Ed.)
year 1995
title The Future of Endoscopy
source [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4] Vienna (Austria), 30 August - 1 September 1995, 144p.
summary The first EAEA-Conference took place at Tampere University of Technology (Finland, 1993) serving as an meeting point for specialists of endoscopy in architecture and displayed an approach to the potentials of endoscopy. The Vienna Conference in 1995 continued this direction and tried furthermore to serve as a platform for non-advanced users. EAEA '95 Vienna aimed at a critical investigation of today's endoscopic culture. The Aspern-Workshop represented the highlight of this conference. Prior to the conference nine universities had submitted endoscopic and computer-assisted space simulations for this urban expansion area north of the Vienna Danube. The outcome was not to be regarded as a “noble competition” between the various institutions participating, but rather to sound out the actual potential of various simulation techniques and their combinations for future use. The conference proceedings contain the papers presented at the meeting by 23 experts from 15 universities. The papers cover such areas as the technical features of endoscopy and environmental simulation, theories supporting the use of endoscopy, practical applications, and discussions on the future of endoscopy and environmental simulation in comparison with other means of architectural representation.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2ab7
authors Ozcan, Oguzhan
year 2001
title Integration of Architectural Education in Teaching Interactive Media Design - A Course for Space Composition
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 245-248
summary In accordance with our design knowledge, the users’ expectations and the level of the technology reached, show us that interactive media design is not only an interactive environment which depends on two dimensional typographic composition any more. Spatial data has an important role in the formation of interactive media design (TUFTE 1995 p.38). From this point of view, the main factors of this issue are: (1) design of the storyboards, especially for gamedesign, that are made up of spatial perception, (2) the spatial organisations in which info-kiosks take place in public environment, (3) the relation between the screen and the organisation of space in interactive exhibition design. // When we consider the matter above, we understand that throughout the process of the curriculum of interactive media design for undergraduate education, only the traditional communication design and programming education is not sufficient enough, but architectural education must also take a part of this education in some degree. In this paper, as the theme of the considerations above, it is examined what kind of basic problems is to be faced in the integration of architectural education to that of the interactive media design and also the solution propositions formed for these problems.
keywords Interactive Media, Architecture, Education, Design
series eCAADe
email oozcan@yildiz.edu.tr
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 1886
authors Rychter, Zenon
year 1995
title Matematical Architectural Syntesis
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 283-297
summary Extremes converge. Life blossoms on the boundary. All creative thinking, architectural or mathematical, is essentially the some. Today legions of dull computers take over the role of renaissance giants in integrating all ways of thinking. On the sensual level, computer art is often indistinguishable from computer simulations of physical processes, such as fractals representing chaos. On the logical level, all information boils down to the language of bits, sequences of O's and I's or X's and Y's if you like- there just has to be two of them, like Adam and Eve at the beginning of mankind. Creating means synthesizing, composing, constructing a whole from elements. But often the starting point, the finish, the middle stages and methods are fuzzy, vague, ill- defined-ore all yet to be discovered or conceived. It is like groping in a dark labyrinth, searched and created at the same time. There are many branches to discover and explore, many dead ends forcing retreat, no guarantee of a solution, and even no clear idea of what a solution might be. It is a trial- and-error, generate-and-test, back-and-forth, top-down and bottom-up, global and local, inductive and deductive, rigorous at times and fuzzy most of the time, ameba-like process or bunch of processes. In this, creative, perspective both architecture and mathematics become experimental sciences: as such they require laboratories. Computer systems (hardware plus software) supply today the necessary environment, ways and means. To the happy user of a general-purpose platform, straddling the architecture-mathematics boundary-with one leg on a general-purpose computer-aided design system, like AutoCAD, and the other leg on a general-purpose mathematical system, like Mathematica, the essential unity of creatively doing both architecture and mathematics is hard to overlook.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 7670
authors Sawicki, Bogumil
year 1995
title Ray Tracing – New Chances, Possibilities and Limitations in AutoCAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 121-136
summary Realistic image synthesis is nowadays widely used in engineering applications. Some of these applications, such as architectural, interior, lighting and industrial design demand accurate visualization of non-existent scenes as they would look to us, when built in reality. This can only be archived by using physically based models of light interaction with surfaces, and simulating propagation of light through an environment. Ray tracing is one of the most powerful techniques used in computer graphics, which can produce such very realistic images. Ray tracing algorithm follows the paths of light rays backwards from observer into the scene. It is very time consuming process and as such one could not be developed until proper computers appeared, In recent years the technological improvements in computer industry brought more powerful machines with bigger storage capacities and better graphic devices. Owing to increasing these hardware capabilities successful implementation of ray tracing in different CAD software became possible also on PC machines. Ray tracing in AutoCAD r.12 - the most popular CAD package in the world - is the best of that example. AccuRender and AutoVision are an AutoCAD Development System (ADS) applications that use ray tracing to create photorealistic images from 3D AutoCAD models. These ,internal"' applications let users generate synthetic images of threedimensional models and scenes entirely within AutoCAD space and show effects directly on main AutoCAD screen. Ray tracing algorithm accurately calculates and displays shadows, transparency, diffusion, reflection, and refraction from surface qualities of user-defined materials. The accurate modelling of light lets produce sophisticated effects and high-quality images, which these ray tracers always generates at 24-bit pixel depth,"providing 16,7 million colours. That results can be quite impressive for some architects and are almost acceptable for others but that coloured virtual world, which is presented by ray tracing in AutoCAD space in such convincing way, is still not exactly the same as the real world. Main limitations of realism are due to the nature of ray tracing method Classical ray tracing technique takes into account the effects of light reflection from neighbouring surfaces but, leaves out of account the ambient and global illumination arising out of complex interreflections in an environment. So models generated by ray tracing belong to an "ideal" world where real materials and environment can't find their right place. We complain about that fact and say that ray tracing shows us "too specular world", but (...) (...) there is anything better on the horizon? It should be concluded, that typical abilities of today's graphics software and hardware are far from exploited. As was observed in literature there have been various works carried along with the explicit intention of overcoming all these ray tracing limitations, These researches seem to be very promising and let us hope that their results will be seen in CAD applications soon. As it happens with modelling, perhaps the answer will come from a variety of techniques that can be combined together with ray tracing depending on the case we are dealing with. Therefore from the point of view of an architects that try to keep alive some interest on the nature of materials and their interaction with form, "ray tracing" seems to be right path of research and development that we can still a long way follow, From the point of view of the school, a critical assimilation of "ray tracing" processes is required and one that might help to determinate exactly their distortions and to indicate the correct way of its development and right place in CAAD education. I trust that ray tracing will become standard not only in AutoCAD but in all architectural space modelling CAD applications and will be established as a powerful and real tool for experimental researches in architectural design process. Will be the technological progress so significant in the nearest future as it is anticipated?
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id ascaad2006_paper2
id ascaad2006_paper2
authors Sharji, E. Amir and A. R. Mohd. Eshaq
year 2006
title The Significant Role of an Electronic Gallery to the Education Experience and Learning Environment
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Multimedia has brought new paradigms to education where users are able to use the technology to create compelling content that truly represents a new archetype in media experience. According to Burger (1995), the synergy of digital media is becoming a way of life where new paradigms for interactive audio-visual experiences of all communicative arts to date are mandatory. It potentially mixes technology and disciplines of architecture and art. Students can learn on their own pace and they can be tested in a non-linear way while interactivity allows the curious to easily explore related topics and concepts. Fundamental assumptions, theories and practices of conventional design paradigm are constantly being challenged by digital technology and this is the current scenario in architecture and art and design schools globally. Thus schools are enhancing the methods and improvising the technology of imparting knowledge to be in consistent with recent findings and knowledge. To be able to cater the use of digital media and information technology on architectural and art design education, four criteria are required, which are; the SPACE and place to accommodate the educational activities, the TOOLS that assist imparting of knowledge, the CONTENT of syllabus and information and the acceptance and culture of the receiving end users and HUMAN PERCEPTION. There is a need for the research of realization and activating the architectural space that has been equipped with multimedia tools and upgraded with recent technology to facilitate and support the community of learners and users. Spaces are now more interactive, multi functional, flexible and intelligent to suit the trend of computing in normal everyday life of the education sector, business and management, art and leisure, corporate and technological area. While the new concept of computing in education is still in the earlier phase, the conventional analogue paradigm still dominates the architectural design discourse which acts as a barrier to the development of digital designs and architectural education. A suitable approach is in need to bridge the gap between what theory has been explored and the practice of knowledge. A digital support environment with intelligent design and planning tools is envisioned to bridge the gap and to cater for the current scenario.
series ASCAAD
email elyna.amir@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 2c14
authors Sharji, E.A., Hussain, H. and Ahmad, R.E.
year 2002
title Electronic Gallery : Case Study of A New Design Approach in Malaysia
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 370-373
summary A building comprises of more than the skin and the structural works. It is the soul that comes in the form of SPACE that is intriguing and provokes the mind. To be able to experience a building relies heavily on the spatial concept and internal lay out. How one is captured right from entering the entrance and through the layering of space, of horizontal and vertical planes and finally the euphoria, or depressed feeling that concludes the tour depending on the feeling intended (Miller, 1995). The common norm at present celebrates the outer skin and grandeur of facades. Not many include the hidden grids and fragmentation that can lead to a surprisingly good form AND space. Thus a number of them fail, in the sense of a sensuous building. ‘The circulation path can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the spaces of a building or any series of interior or exterior spaces, together. Since we move in TIME, through SEQUENCE of SPACES, we experience a space in relation to where we’ve been, and where we anticipate going’ (Ching, 1979). This research intends to study and analyze the unconventional electronic gallery or ‘e-gallery’ as a versatile hybrid container. The focus of the research will be on documenting spaces in the e-gallery, bringing to light the unlimited possibilities that can take place in such a space.
series eCAADe
email elyna.amir@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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