CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 07de
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1995
title Linking the Virtual to Reality: CAD & Physical Modeling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 303-311
summary Using both study models and digital models for schematic design allows us to take advantage of the strengths of each. Models constructed manually benefit from spontaneous juxtapositions and serendipitous interactions with light and gravity. Converting these models into the digital realm allows the computer to take over in areas that it does best: geometric transformation, rigorous analysis, elaboration and co-ordination of details and complexity. As a project develops, CAD/CAM methods can generate forms or components for verifying the virtual representation. The paradigm of porting data to appropriate software tools needs to be extended to exporting out of and into the physical realm. Connecting to models in real space allows us to use senses that are not yet completely addressed by digital models.
keywords Modeling, Representation, Design
series CAAD Futures
email nywc@uoregon.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id 47c1
authors Selles Cantos, P. and Mas Llorens, V.
year 1995
title Digital Modelling Tools at the Design Studio: Methodology
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 61-70
summary This research work is being financed by the "Instituto de Ciencias de la Educacion, I. CE., Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, U.P.V. and currently taking place at the "Taller2 de Proyectos Arquitectdnicos." We have placed CAD systems on drafting tables, so students can learn to apply different media and tools, both digital and traditional, in their design processes. To integrate CAD systems into the design studio we have developed a methodology upon which to relate the "Mechanics of the digital tool," with the often elusive and seldom explicit, "Mechanics of designing". We see architectural design as a process that can benefit from the use of computer systems through modelling (representation), and rendering (static or dynamic visualization). Digital modelling tools are powerful instruments to simulate and visualize (perceive) formal and spatial arrangements, under certain conditions of superficial appearance and light. Geometry composition, texture, light projection, rendering and animation, are the keys to understanding a digital modelling system as an extension of our design process. We introduce and explain each one of these categories, as it applies to architectural design and to three dimensional CAD systems. We present samples of student work following this method.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_8.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:58

_id 647a
authors Kirschner, Ursula
year 1996
title Teaching Experimental Design with CAAD
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 221-226
summary 2-D CAAD is the standard tool in architectural work and education. whereas 3-dimensional CAAD is still used to present a finished design. This paper demonstrates that experimental design in 3-D allows students to deal with new methods of design. At North East Lower Saxony Polytechnic, 1995 saw the beginning of development of didactic methods for teaching design with the interactive use of common 3-D CAAD tools. Six exercises were devised, the first two being 2-D exercises in urban and layout design. Subsequent steps introduced three styles of architectural designing with 3-D tools. The students selected one of these styles for their three-day exercise in urban planning. Based on the results, three main ways were developed: the "digital toolkit", the "additive design approach" and the "lighting simulation".
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 04:53

_id f50a
authors Rutherford, James
year 1995
title A Multi-User Design Workspace
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 673-685
summary Advances in digital media and digital communication has fostered the growth of a new enabling technology that allows geographically displaced individuals to hold group meetings and provides the opportunity to interact in a collaborative venture. The development of computer software to aid remote collaboration has, until recently, focused on the provision of tools that enable two or more people to participate in the shared authoring of a mixed-media (lexi-visual) documents. This paper presents a model of the design process which is founded on the transient nature of collaboration. The model is used to develop a multimedia framework to support remote collaborative design providing transitional support between synchronous and asynchronous design activity. A prototype system is used to illustrate the salient features of the framework.
keywords Collaborative Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 80df
authors Cook, Alan R.
year 1995
title Stereopsis in the Design and Presentation of Architectural Works
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 113-137
summary This article presumes the primacy of spatial cognition in evaluating architectural designs and begins by describing key concepts involved in the perception of spatial form, focussing on parallax and stereoscopy. The ultimate emphasis is directed at presenting techniques which employ computers with modest hardware specifications and a basic three-dimensional modeling software application to produce sophisticated imaging tools. It is argued that these techniques are comparable to high end computer graphic products in their potentials for carrying information and in some ways are superior in their speed of generation and economies of dissemination. A camera analogy is considered in relation to controlling image variables. The ability to imply a temporal dimension is explored. An abbreviated summary of pertinent binocular techniques for viewing stereograms precedes a rationalization and initiation for using the cross-convergence technique. Ways to generate and view stereograms and other multiscopic views using 3-D computer models are described. Illustrations from sample projects show various levels of stereogram rendering including the theoretically 4-D wireframe stereogram. The translated perspective array autostereogram is presented as an economical and easily reproducible alternative to holography as well as being a substitute for stop action animation.

series ACADIA
email cookala@groupwise1.duc.auburn.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id e201
authors Coulon, Carl-Helmut
year 1995
title Automatic Indexing, Retrieval and Reuse of Topologies in Architectural Layouts
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 577-586
summary Former layouts contain much of the know-how of architects. A generic and automatic way to formalize this know-how in order to use it by a computer would save a lot of effort and money. However, there seems to be no such way. The only access to the know-how are the layouts themselves. Developing a generic software tool to reuse former layouts you cannot consider every part of the architectural domain or things like personal style. Tools used today only consider small parts of the architectural domain. Any personal style is ignored. Isnít it possible to build a basic tool which is adjusted by the content of the former layouts, but maybe extended inclemently by modeling as much of the domain as desirable? This paper will describe a reuse tool to perform this task focusing on topological and geometrical binary relations.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Graph Matching, Structural Comparison, Topology
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 980c
authors Gougoudilis, Vasileios
year 1995
title Hyperwalls or an Application of a Non-deterministic Rule-based System in Interactive Architectural Modelling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 173-179
summary This paper presents the architectural modeling as a process of augmenting spatial information; a chain of actions that leads from a sketched idea to the elaborated model. A symbolic constraint solver tool is connected to traditional CAD techniques, as well as to a data representation scheme efficient for architectural elements. The orchestration of the available and added tools allows the designer to ìedit ideasî fast, keeping in mind that different design profiles require adaptive tools to support the varying methodologies. Until the moment that automated design will be both possible and desirable, machines can really shorten the time needed to visualize design ideas in the sense of a handy but non-decisive ìcalculatorî. The discussion is built around illustrated examples from the implemented constraint based modeler.
keywords Non-Deterministic, Rule-Based System, Architectural Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id e613
authors Kardos, Peter
year 1995
title The Role of Spatial Experience Anticipation in Architectural Education and Urban Design
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary Space and its matter substance are the main subjects of urban design, in which an architect, by setting in order the functional-operating relationships and the matter-dimensional manifestations of the formed structure, operates with the aim to achieve general harmony, functional and expressive complexity. Demanding a process, which coordinates relationships in all space dimensions, requires flexible openness of the work documentation during the conception period. Experience proved that such requirements are satisfactorily accomplished by the method of space-modeling, where the creative process happens on the working model.

The reality, though diminished in a simplified form, is in advance, i.e. in an anticipated way. By adapted periscope the endoscopic method develops the method of spatial modeling in new media dimension and enriches it towards creativeness by enabling the simulated space to be percepted on a traditional artificial model in natural horizon of a man. To secure the anticipation by visual simulation of spatial experience on the monitor in a trustworthy manner with respect to real reality, according to relevant aspects of the conception, the visual simulation must respect the rules of sensory perception of a man in real environment. From the procedural point of view of perception the most significant fact for the psyche is the sequence dynamics of the subject and the movement of the perceiver in space. This means that in the mind of the perceiver the most emotionally reflected is the dynamic spatial experience.

Despite the known disadvantages and technical circumstances of model building the method of spatial endoscopy proved itself in didactics, mainly in the approval phase of the aims of urbanistic composition and shaping of an urban space, especially because it enables to carry out by interactive means the sequence research and evaluation of the simulated space on the working model, directly in the studio or in laboratory conditions with relatively low expenses, and with the possibility of immediate correction and subsequent evaluation of the effect. Similarly, its audiovisually elaborated media outputs may simultaneously complete the identical model presentation within evaluating and approving continuations in professional gremiums or in making the results of urban and architectonic solutions popular in the layman public. According to an informal public opinion research on the effect of both CAD and endoscopy simulations, the later one is more popular. Is is, however, a matter of subjective evaluation and experience or a matter of commercial application.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 0128
authors Engeli, M., Kurmann, D. and Schmitt, G.
year 1995
title A New Design Studio: Intelligent Objects and Personal Agents
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 155-170
summary As design processes and products are constantly increasing in complexity, new tools are being developed for the designer to cope with the growing demands. In this paper we describe our research towards a design environment, within which different aspects of design can be combined, elaborated and controlled. New hardware equipment will be combined with recent developments in graphics and artificial intelligence programming to develop appropriate computer based tools and find possible new design techniques. The core of the new design studio comprises intelligent objects in a virtual reality environment that exhibit different behaviours drawn from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life (AL) principles, a part already realised in a tool called 'Sculptor'. The tasks of the architect will focus on preferencing and initiating good tendencies in the development of the design. A first set of software agents, assistants that support the architect in viewing, experiencing and judging the design has also been conceptualised for this virtual design environment. The goal is to create an optimised environment for the designer, where the complexity of the design task can be reduced thanks to the support made available from the machine.
keywords Architectural Design, Design Process, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Personal Agents
series ACADIA
email maia@enge.li
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2068
authors Frazer, John
year 1995
title AN EVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE
source London: Architectural Association
summary In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems which are more environmentally aware and sustainable physically, sociologically and economically. The range of topics which Frazer discusses is a good illustration of the breadth and depth of the evolutionary design problem. Environmental Modelling One of the first topics dealt with is the importance of environmental modelling within the design process. Frazer shows how environmental modelling is often misused or misinterpreted by architects with particular reference to solar modelling. From the discussion given it would seem that simplifications of the environmental models is the prime culprit resulting in misinterpretation and misuse. The simplifications are understandable given the amount of information needed for accurate modelling. By simplifying the model of the environmental conditions the architect is able to make informed judgments within reasonable amounts of time and effort. Unfortunately the simplications result in errors which compound and cause the resulting structures to fall short of their anticipated performance. Frazer obviously believes that the computer can be a great aid in the harnessing of environmental modelling data, providing that the same simplifying assumptions are not made and that better models and interfaces are possible. Physical Modelling Physical modelling has played an important role in Frazer's research. Leading to the construction of several novel machine readable interactive models, ranging from lego-like building blocks to beermat cellular automata and wall partitioning systems. Ultimately this line of research has led to the Universal Constructor and the Universal Interactor. The Universal Constructor The Universal Constructor features on the cover of the book. It consists of a base plug-board, called the "landscape", on top of which "smart" blocks, or cells, can be stacked vertically. The cells are individually identified and can communicate with neighbours above and below. Cells communicate with users through a bank of LEDs displaying the current state of the cell. The whole structure is machine readable and so can be interpreted by a computer. The computer can interpret the states of the cells as either colour or geometrical transformations allowing a wide range of possible interpretations. The user interacts with the computer display through direct manipulation of the cells. The computer can communicate and even direct the actions of the user through feedback with the cells to display various states. The direct manipulation of the cells encourages experimentation by the user and demonstrates basic concepts of the system. The Universal Interactor The Universal Interactor is a whole series of experimental projects investigating novel input and output devices. All of the devices speak a common binary language and so can communicate through a mediating central hub. The result is that input, from say a body-suit, can be used to drive the out of a sound system or vice versa. The Universal Interactor opens up many possibilities for expression when using a CAD system that may at first seem very strange.However, some of these feedback systems may prove superior in the hands of skilled technicians than more standard devices. Imagine how a musician might be able to devise structures by playing melodies which express the character. Of course the interpretation of input in this form poses a difficult problem which will take a great deal of research to achieve. The Universal Interactor has been used to provide environmental feedback to affect the development of evolving genetic codes. The feedback given by the Universal Interactor has been used to guide selection of individuals from a population. Adaptive Computing Frazer completes his introduction to the range of tools used in his research by giving a brief tour of adaptive computing techniques. Covering topics including cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems and artificial evolution. Cellular Automata As previously mentioned Frazer has done some work using cellular automata in both physical and simulated environments. Frazer discusses how surprisingly complex behaviour can result from the simple local rules executed by cellular automata. Cellular automata are also capable of computation, in fact able to perform any computation possible by a finite state machine. Note that this does not mean that cellular automata are capable of any general computation as this would require the construction of a Turing machine which is beyond the capabilities of a finite state machine. Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms were first presented by Holland and since have become a important tool for many researchers in various areas.Originally developed for problem-solving and optimization problems with clearly stated criteria and goals. Frazer fails to mention one of the most important differences between genetic algorithms and other adaptive problem-solving techniques, ie. neural networks. Genetic algorithms have the advantage that criteria can be clearly stated and controlled within the fitness function. The learning by example which neural networks rely upon does not afford this level of control over what is to be learned. Classifier Systems Holland went on to develop genetic algorithms into classifier systems. Classifier systems are more focussed upon the problem of learning appropriate responses to stimuli, than searching for solutions to problems. Classifier systems receive information from the environment and respond according to rules, or classifiers. Successful classifiers are rewarded, creating a reinforcement learning environment. Obviously, the mapping between classifier systems and the cybernetic view of organisms sensing, processing and responding to environmental stimuli is strong. It would seem that a central process similar to a classifier system would be appropriate at the core of an organic building. Learning appropriate responses to environmental conditions over time. Artificial Evolution Artificial evolution traces it's roots back to the Biomorph program which was described by Dawkins in his book "The Blind Watchmaker". Essentially, artificial evolution requires that a user supplements the standard fitness function in genetic algorithms to guide evolution. The user may provide selection pressures which are unquantifiable in a stated problem and thus provide a means for dealing ill-defined criteria. Frazer notes that solving problems with ill-defined criteria using artificial evolution seriously limits the scope of problems that can be tackled. The reliance upon user interaction in artificial evolution reduces the practical size of populations and the duration of evolutionary runs. Coding Schemes Frazer goes on to discuss the encoding of architectural designs and their subsequent evolution. Introducing two major systems, the Reptile system and the Universal State Space Modeller. Blueprint vs. Recipe Frazer points out the inadequacies of using standard "blueprint" design techniques in developing organic structures. Using a "recipe" to describe the process of constructing a building is presented as an alternative. Recipes for construction are discussed with reference to the analogous process description given by DNA to construct an organism. The Reptile System The Reptile System is an ingenious construction set capable of producing a wide range of structures using just two simple components. Frazer saw the advantages of this system for rule-based and evolutionary systems in the compactness of structure descriptions. Compactness was essential for the early computational work when computer memory and storage space was scarce. However, compact representations such as those described form very rugged fitness landscapes which are not well suited to evolutionary search techniques. Structures are created from an initial "seed" or minimal construction, for example a compact spherical structure. The seed is then manipulated using a series of processes or transformations, for example stretching, shearing or bending. The structure would grow according to the transformations applied to it. Obviously, the transformations could be a predetermined sequence of actions which would always yield the same final structure given the same initial seed. Alternatively, the series of transformations applied could be environmentally sensitive resulting in forms which were also sensitive to their location. The idea of taking a geometrical form as a seed and transforming it using a series of processes to create complex structures is similar in many ways to the early work of Latham creating large morphological charts. Latham went on to develop his ideas into the "Mutator" system which he used to create organic artworks. Generalising the Reptile System Frazer has proposed a generalised version of the Reptile System to tackle more realistic building problems. Generating the seed or minimal configuration from design requirements automatically. From this starting point (or set of starting points) solutions could be evolved using artificial evolution. Quantifiable and specific aspects of the design brief define the formal criteria which are used as a standard fitness function. Non-quantifiable criteria, including aesthetic judgments, are evaluated by the user. The proposed system would be able to learn successful strategies for satisfying both formal and user criteria. In doing so the system would become a personalised tool of the designer. A personal assistant which would be able to anticipate aesthetic judgements and other criteria by employing previously successful strategies. Ultimately, this is a similar concept to Negroponte's "Architecture Machine" which he proposed would be computer system so personalised so as to be almost unusable by other people. The Universal State Space Modeller The Universal State Space Modeller is the basis of Frazer's current work. It is a system which can be used to model any structure, hence the universal claim in it's title. The datastructure underlying the modeller is a state space of scaleless logical points, called motes. Motes are arranged in a close-packing sphere arrangement, which makes each one equidistant from it's twelve neighbours. Any point can be broken down into a self-similar tetrahedral structure of logical points. Giving the state space a fractal nature which allows modelling at many different levels at once. Each mote can be thought of as analogous to a cell in a biological organism. Every mote carries a copy of the architectural genetic code in the same way that each cell within a organism carries a copy of it's DNA. The genetic code of a mote is stored as a sequence of binary "morons" which are grouped together into spatial configurations which are interpreted as the state of the mote. The developmental process begins with a seed. The seed develops through cellular duplication according to the rules of the genetic code. In the beginning the seed develops mainly in response to the internal genetic code, but as the development progresses the environment plays a greater role. Cells communicate by passing messages to their immediate twelve neighbours. However, it can send messages directed at remote cells, without knowledge of it's spatial relationship. During the development cells take on specialised functions, including environmental sensors or producers of raw materials. The resulting system is process driven, without presupposing the existence of a construction set to use. The datastructure can be interpreted in many ways to derive various phenotypes. The resulting structure is a by-product of the cellular activity during development and in response to the environment. As such the resulting structures have much in common with living organisms which are also the emergent result or by-product of local cellular activity. Primordial Architectural Soups To conclude, Frazer presents some of the most recent work done, evolving fundamental structures using limited raw materials, an initial seed and massive feedback. Frazer proposes to go further and do away with the need for initial seed and start with a primordial soup of basic architectural concepts. The research is attempting to evolve the starting conditions and evolutionary processes without any preconditions. Is there enough time to evolve a complex system from the basic building blocks which Frazer proposes? The computational complexity of the task being embarked upon is not discussed. There is an implicit assumption that the "superb tactics" of natural selection are enough to cut through the complexity of the task. However, Kauffman has shown how self-organisation plays a major role in the early development of replicating systems which we may call alive. Natural selection requires a solid basis upon which it can act. Is the primordial soup which Frazer proposes of the correct constitution to support self-organisation? Kauffman suggests that one of the most important attributes of a primordial soup to be capable of self-organisation is the need for a complex network of catalysts and the controlling mechanisms to stop the reactions from going supracritical. Can such a network be provided of primitive architectural concepts? What does it mean to have a catalyst in this domain? Conclusion Frazer shows some interesting work both in the areas of evolutionary design and self-organising systems. It is obvious from his work that he sympathizes with the opinions put forward by Kauffman that the order found in living organisms comes from both external evolutionary pressure and internal self-organisation. His final remarks underly this by paraphrasing the words of Kauffman, that life is always to found on the edge of chaos. By the "edge of chaos" Kauffman is referring to the area within the ordered regime of a system close to the "phase transition" to chaotic behaviour. Unfortunately, Frazer does not demonstrate that the systems he has presented have the necessary qualities to derive useful order at the edge of chaos. He does not demonstrate, as Kauffman does repeatedly, that there exists a "phase transition" between ordered and chaotic regimes of his systems. He also does not make any studies of the relationship of useful forms generated by his work to phase transition regions of his systems should they exist. If we are to find an organic architecture, in more than name alone, it is surely to reside close to the phase transition of the construction system of which is it built. Only there, if we are to believe Kauffman, are we to find useful order together with environmentally sensitive and thermodynamically open systems which can approach the utility of living organisms.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/22 12:12

_id 51fd
authors Harrison, Steve and Minneman, Scott
year 1995
title Studying Collaborative Design to Build Design Tools
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 687-697
summary This paper outlines the way in which studying designers at work on real problems can inform the development of new computer aided architectural design systems. From a number of studies of designers in various domains, supporting the communications of designers is re-conceptualized into one of transmitting and storing process ephemera, rather than normalizing representations. After characterizing process ephemera, an example from one of the studies is described in detail. The paper concludes with implications for the design of collaborative CAAD systems.
keywords Collaboration, Design Communications, Telepresence, Media Space, Process Ephemera, Virtual Design Studio
series CAAD Futures
email steverharrison@yahoo.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c0ef
authors Kalay, Yehuda and Séquin, Carlo
year 1995
title Designer-Client Collaboration in Architectural and Software Design
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 383-403
summary An upper-level undergraduate architectural design studio and a graduate computer science CAD course were paired to study client-designer interactions. The dual nature of these courses led to two sets of products: building designs compatible with the specifications of the clients, and prototype CAD tool to assist architects in the conceptual design phases. First, the computer scientists acted as clients to the architects, who designed a building for the computer science department. Once the computer science students had become familiar, through observation, with the architectural design process, they began developing tools for the architects' use. In that reversed-role, the architects became the clients of the computer scientists. For both parties this interaction provided an opportunity to experience the social aspects of the design process, in particular, the designer-client relationships, which most often are absent in traditional educational settings. This paper describes the objectives of this integrated pair of courses, the methods and processes used, and some of the results.
keywords Design, Design Process, Design Studio, Design Education, Architectural Design, CAD
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e100
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1995
title Architecture in Digital Space: Actual and Potential Markets
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 405-423
summary As both the skepticism and 'hype' surrounding electronic environments vanish under the weight of ever increasing power, knowledge, and use of information technologies, the architectural profession must prepare for significant expansion of its professional services. To address the issue, this paper offers a survey of the professional services architects and designers do and may provide in digital space, and who the potential clients are. The survey was conducted by interviews with software developers, gaming companies, programmers, investigators, practicing architects, faculty, etc. It also included reviews of actual software products and literary research of conference proceedings, journals, books and newspapers (i.e. articles, classified ads, etc.). The actual and potential markets include gaming and entertainment developments, art installations, educational applications, and research. These markets provide architects the opportunity to participate in the design of 3D gaming environments, educational software, architecture for public experience and entertainment, data representation, cyberspace and virtual reality studies, and other digital services which will be required for this new world. We will demonstrate that although the rapidly growing digital market may be seen by some to be non-architectural and thus irrelevant to our profession, it actually represents great opportunities for growth and development. Digital environments will not replace the built environment as a major architectural market, but they will significantly complement it, thus strengthening the entire architectural profession.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf51
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1995
title By All Means: Multiple Media In Design Education
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 117-128
summary This paper describes how to combine media to maximize understanding in CAD education. Advantages such as synergistic communication, clarification of common concepts and awareness of media characteristics are illuminated through digital and traditional projects. Learning computer media through communication exercises is discussed with examples from networked collaborations using the World Wide Web. Language teaching shows how to use these exercises to encourage critical thinking in a CAD curriculum.

series eCAADe
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_16.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:28

_id 83fe
authors Choi, Jin Won
year 1995
title Digital Athens: An Application of ArchiTOUR, A Multimedia Authoring System
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 517-527
summary This paper presents an educational software package for teaching and learning architectural history and theory. The package called Digital Athens is intended to teach architecture in Ancient Athens. It has been developed with the ArchiTOUR multimedia authoring system for architectural education, especially architectural history and theory. It proposes an efficient way to handle and present the diverse multimedia data that architectural education requires. The first section of this paper describes the ArchiTOUR multimedia authoring system. ArchiTOURís main features include 1) three different working modes; 2) ArchiTOUR objects; 3) linking ArchiTOUR objects; and 4) ArchiTOUR hotspots. The next part presents Digital Athens as an application of ArchiTOUR. This segment demonstrates the main ideas involved in the package and the authoring system by illustrating the contents of Digital Athens. Finally, the last part discusses future extensions of ArchiTOUR as well as the Digital Athens package itself.
keywords Multimedia, Hypermedia, Authoring, 3D Visualization
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ae9f
authors Damer, B.
year 1996
title Inhabited Virtual Worlds: A New Frontier for Interaction Design
source Interactions, Vol.3, No.5 ACM
summary In April of 1995 the Internet took a step into the third dimension with the introduction of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as a commercial standard. Another event that month caused fewer headlines but in retrospect was just as significant. A small company from San Francisco, Worlds Incorporated, launched WorldsChat, a three dimensional environment allowing any Internet user to don a digital costume, or avatar, and travel about and converse with other people inhabiting the space. WorldsChat was appropriately modeled on a space station complete with a central hub, hallways, sliding doors, windows, and escalators to outlying pods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 8991
authors Danahy, John and Hoinkes, Rodney
year 1995
title Polytrim: Collaborative Setting for Environmental Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 647-658
summary This paper begins with a review of the structuring values and questions the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) is interested in answering with its testbed software system Polytrim (and its derivatives; CLRview, CLRpaint, CLRmosaic available via anonymous ftp over the internet). The mid section of the paper serves as a guide to Polytrim's structure and implementation issues. Some of the most enduring and significant principles learned from Polytrim's use over the last six years of use in research, teaching and professional practice are introduced. The paper will end with an overview of characteristics that we believe our next generation of software should achieve. The CLR's digital library on the World-Wide Web provides an extensive Set of illustrations and detailed descriptions of the ideas and figures presented in this paper. Endnotes provide specific internet addresses for those that wish to read, see or use the system.
keywords Dialogue, Interaction, Collaboration, Integration, Setting
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a036
authors Ervin, Stephen and Westort, Caroline
year 1995
title Procedural Terrain: A Virtual Bulldozer
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 257-265
summary We describe a system for procedural landform design, which uses the simple metaphor of a two-dimensional profile or Çbladeë, swept along a three-dimensional trajectory, or Çpathë, leaving behind a modeled surface in its wake. This Çpathë and Çbladeë system can mimic a common bulldozer ñ a simple rectangular blade moved along a path constrained to straight lined and large radius curves ñ as well as more fanciful landform designs ñ a blade of continually changing profile swept along an exponential spiral path, for instance. Our prototype Çbulldozerë (implemented in AutoLisp) operates in a field of procedurally defined landform Çprimitivesë to create a virtual surface, and uses a standard rectangular mesh for displaying the resultant landform.
keywords Digital Terrain Model, Procedural Model, Landscape Design, Landform
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

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