CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 1278
authors Tufte, E.R.
year 1995
title Envisioning Information
source Graphic Press USA
summary Edward Tufte's new book, Envisioning Information, is a stunning display of the classics of information design, combined with close analysis of design strategies that produce excellence in information displays. Six-color printing is used throughout, and, for the chapter on color and information, twelve-color printing. Photography, color reproduction techniques, typography, paper, printing, and binding, are all of the highest quality. Envisioning Information shows maps, charts, scientific visualizations, diagrams, statistical graphics and tables, stereo photographs, guidebooks, courtroom exhibits, computer screens, timetables, a pop-up, and many other wonderful displays of information. The book, with more than 400 illustrations, provides practical advice about how to explain complex material by visual means, and uses extraordinary examples to illustrate the fundamental principles of information display. Envisioning Information deals with all types of information displays, covering a far broader scope of material than Tufte's classic book on statistical graphics, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e75d
authors Achten, H., Dijkstra, J., Oxman, R. and Bax, Th.
year 1995
title Knowledge-Based Systems Programming for Knowledge Intensive Teaching
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 139-148
summary Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered us a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge through the medium of Knowledge-Based Systems programming. It demonstrates how Knowledge-Based Systems offer an appropriate structure for analysing the knowledge required to implement typological design. The class consists of third-year undergraduate students with no extensive previous programming experience. The implementation language is AutoLISP which operates in the AutoCAD environment. The building type used in the course is the office building. in order to become acquainted with both building type and programming in AutoLISP, information and instructions have been gathered and prestructured, including a worked out analysis and AutoLISP code. Office plans are generated through use of the Knowledge-Based System. They are encoded in the form of frames. At the end of the course the students will have learned the basics of Knowledge-Based Systems, have been introduced to programming these systems, have analysed and reflected upon the design process, and gained insight into a specific building type.
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_18.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c078
authors Allegra, M, Fulantelli, G. and Mangiarotti, G.
year 1995
title A New Methodology to Develop Hypermedia Systems for Architecture History
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 43-52
summary This paper illustrates a research project concerning the analysis of architectural works through a comparative study based on hypermedia tools; by exploring the hypermedia, users can find the main subjects relative to the "method " of architectural planning. The use of multimedia in architecture allows the integration in a single system of different types of information which are necessary for the description of a work. texts, designs, photos and sounds. In addition, the hypertext information structure allows the direct intervention on analyzed projects, by pointing out the more important themes and their relationships. Users have the opportunity to immerse themselves in hypermedia and choose the subject to navigate through on each occasion. Our research project aims at developing a prototype concerning two architects. I.L.Kahn and F.L. Wright. The development methodology is based on the key role played by the components of architectonic works, thus allowing users to compare them in a simple and correct way. The methodology used in this work can be extended to other architects or periods, by simply changing the possibility of navigation, i.e. by changing the reading keys.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_6.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1a52
authors Amor, R., Augenbroe, G., Hosking, J., Rombouts and W., Grundy, J.
year 1995
title Directions in modelling environments
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 173-187
summary Schema definition is a vital component in the computerised A/E/C projects. existing tools to manage this task are limited both in terms of the scope Of problems they can tackle and their integration with each other. This paper describes a global modellling and development environment for large modelling projects. This environment provides a total solution from initial design of schemas to validation, manipulation arid navigation through final models. A major benefit of the described system is the ability to provide multiple views of evolving schemas (or models) in both graphical and textual forms This allows modellers to visualise their schemas and instance models either textually or graphically as desired. The system automatically maintains the Conisistency of the informalion in these views even when modifications are made in other views. Simple and intuitive view navigation methods allow required information to he rapidly accessed. The environment supports strict checking of model instances and schemas in one of the major ISO-standardised modelling languages no used in product data technology. Ill this paper we show how such a modelling environment has been constructed for evaluation in the JOULE founded COMBINE project.
keywords Modelling Environment; Consistency; Multiple Views: Views; Building Models; Information Management; Integrated System; Product Modelling
series journal paper
email trebor@cs.auckland.ac.nz
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 12:33

_id 2a49
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1995
title Multimedia Versus Ugliness of the City
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 389-394
summary This paper presents a method of using multimedia techniques in order to solve problems of visual pollution of city environment. It is our observation that human - inducted degradation of city environmental results not only from neglect and vandalism but also from well - intentioned but inappropriate preservation actions by uninformed designers and local administrations. Very often, a local municipality administration permit to erect an ugly, bad-fitting surroundings houses. It is usually connected with lack of informations about certain areas of a city, its features, characteristic and about present and earlier buildings. Therefore there was an experiment - a complex programme aiding the decision process as a part of the CAMUS system (Computer Aided Management of Urban Structure) which is created at Faculty of Architecture TUB. One of the integral parts of it is a block, which has been called "How would it be like to be nice around". One of the basic elements of that system is a town data base consisting of the independent knowledge - based systems, working together in a distributed computing environment. City administration will have access to each information from multimedia data-base. Multimedia is also having and impact on the effectiveness of decision process in urban planning and in our fight with ugliness of the city.

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_46.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e72e
authors Asaro, N., Corrao, R., Faconti, D., Fiandaca, O., Grifoni, P. and Silvani, A.
year 1995
title Riesce: An Hypertextual Tool for Browsing Information Produced in the Building Sector by PFEd
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 401-408
summary The structure of a set of documents allow for navigation inside single texts. Yet it is often also an obstacle to comparability between different parts and concepts. Even document formatting is only a partial answer to the problem, since it fails to develop the matter of relationships between enunciation and results. It was need to retrieve information about the scientific findings made by Research Units (Operating Units) during the first three year period of the "Progetto Finalizzato Edilizia" (PFEd) for assessment and transfer purposes which led us to design and develop a system to facilitate the retrieval of the relevant information. We chose the building sector for this application because of its relative lack of previous experience of this type, the variety and complexity of documentation available and, last but not least, the general underestimation of research topics and results vis-ŕ-vis the development of the sector. By making the suggestion and information inherent in its findings more available, in terms of method and ambit, as well as more explicit, the research has already achieved a significant result. In view of the prototype character of the experiment, the information will probably be adopted to produce an hypertext on the final results.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_48.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 32e3
authors Avis, Andrew
year 1995
title Public Spaces on the Information Highway: The Role of Community Networks
source University of Calgary
summary This thesis explores the phenomenon of community networking in Canada, particularly as it impacts the issue of universal access to emerging broadband networks. The regulatory context of community networking is examined, and recent government efforts reviewed and critiqued. Through two case studies, an analysis of three potential benefits arising from community networking is developed. These three benefits are: increased participation in the democratic system, increased access to education, and community development. Several models for providing universal access, through community networks, are presented.
series thesis:MSc
email aavis@acs.ucalgary.ca
more http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/faculties/GNST/theses/avis/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 92fa
authors Baxendale, T. and Alshawi, M.
year 1995
title Information systems development for contracting
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 255-256
summary I have read with interest the paper entitled "Information systems development for contract-ing" that was published in Automation in Construction, Vol. 2, No. 4. The author has explained the basic concepts of DFD within the context of structured methodologies, which in turn high-lights the importance of information analysis prior to systems development. However, I would like to make a few comments some of which are related to the contents of the paper while others are complementary.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 12:44

_id 065b
authors Beitia, S.S., Zulueta, A. and Barrallo, J.
year 1995
title The Virtual Cathedral - An Essay about CAAD, History and Structure
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 355-360
summary The Old Cathedral of Santa Maria in Vitoria is the most representative building of the Gothic style in the Basque Country. Built during the XIV century, it has been closed to the cult in 1994 because of the high risk of collapse that presents its structure. This closure was originated by the structural analysis that was entrusted to the University of the Basque Country in 1992. The topographic works developed in the Cathedral to elaborate the planimetry of the temple revealed that many structural elements of great importance like arches, buttresses and flying buttresses were removed, modified or added along the history of Santa Maria. The first structural analysis made in the church suggested that the huge deformations showed in the resistant elements, specially the piers, were originated by interventions made in the past. A deep historical investigation allowed us to know how the Cathedral was built and the changes executed until our days. With this information, we started the elaboration of a virtual model of the Cathedral of Santa Maria. This model was introduced into a Finite Elements Method system to study the deformations suffered in the church during its construction in the XIV century, and the intervention made later in the XV, XVI and XX centuries. The efficiency of the virtual model simulating the geometry of the Cathedral along history allowed us to detect the cause of the structural damage, that was finally found in many unfortunate interventions along time.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_43.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e100
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1995
title Architecture in Digital Space: Actual and Potential Markets
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 405-423
summary As both the skepticism and 'hype' surrounding electronic environments vanish under the weight of ever increasing power, knowledge, and use of information technologies, the architectural profession must prepare for significant expansion of its professional services. To address the issue, this paper offers a survey of the professional services architects and designers do and may provide in digital space, and who the potential clients are. The survey was conducted by interviews with software developers, gaming companies, programmers, investigators, practicing architects, faculty, etc. It also included reviews of actual software products and literary research of conference proceedings, journals, books and newspapers (i.e. articles, classified ads, etc.). The actual and potential markets include gaming and entertainment developments, art installations, educational applications, and research. These markets provide architects the opportunity to participate in the design of 3D gaming environments, educational software, architecture for public experience and entertainment, data representation, cyberspace and virtual reality studies, and other digital services which will be required for this new world. We will demonstrate that although the rapidly growing digital market may be seen by some to be non-architectural and thus irrelevant to our profession, it actually represents great opportunities for growth and development. Digital environments will not replace the built environment as a major architectural market, but they will significantly complement it, thus strengthening the entire architectural profession.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aab6
authors Bermudez, Julio
year 1995
title Designing Architectural Experiences: Using Computers to Construct Temporal 3D Narratives
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 139-149
summary Computers are launching us into a representational revolution that fundamentally challenges the way we have hitherto conceived and practiced architecture. This paper will explore one of its fronts: the simulation of architectural experiences. Today's off-the-shelf softwares (e.g. 3D modeling, animations, multimedia) allow us for first time in history to depict and thus approach architectural design and criticism truly experientially. What is so appealing about this is the possibility of shifting our attention from the object to the experience of the object and in so doing reconceptualizing architectural design as the design of architectural experiences. Carrying forward such a phenomenological proposition requires us to know (1) how to work with non-traditional and 'quasi-immersive' (or subject-centered) representational systems, and (2) how to construct temporal assemblages of experiential events that unfold not unlike 'architectural stories'. As our discipline lacks enough knowledge on this area, importing models from other fields appears as an appropriate starting point. In this sense, the narrative arts (especially those involved with the temporal representation of audio-visual narratives) offer us the best insights. For example, principles of cinema and storytelling give us an excellent guidance for designing architectural experiences that have a structuring theme (parti), a plot (order), unfolding episodes (rhythm), and special events (details). Approaching architecture as a temporal 3D narrative does transform the design process and, consequently, its results. For instance, (1) phenomenological issues enter the decision making process in an equal footing to functional, technological, or compositional considerations; (2) orthographic representations become secondary sources of information, mostly used for later accurate dimensioning or geometrization; (3) multi-sensory qualities beyond sight are seriously considered (particularly sound, texture, and kinesthetic); etc.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8f0b
authors Bhavnani, S., Flemming, U., Forsythe, D.E., Garrett, J.H., and Shaw, D.S.
year 1995
title Understanding and Assisting CAD Users in the Real World
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 209-227
summary In spite of the rapid increase in functionality and resources provided by CAD systems, productivity growth expected from their use has been difficult to achieve. Although many surveys describe this "productivity puzzle", few studies have been conducted on actual CAD users to understand its causes. In an effort to understand this issue, the first author visited a federal architectural office and observed CAD users in their natural setting using ethnographic techniques developed by cultural anthropologists. This paper describes preliminary results obtained from the study. The study revealed that users had leveled-off in their learning and experimentation and were using the CAD system in sub-optimal ways. The authors argue that this sub-optimal usage occurs because users have limited ways to learn better or different ways of executing tasks. The authors propose that CAD systems should provide active assistance, that is, intervene spontaneously with advice, assistance, and relevant information while the user interacts with the system. They conclude with some issues revealed by the study that should be considered when developing such active assistance.

series ACADIA
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 276c
authors Breen, Jack
year 1995
title Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: “Dynamic Perspective”. The “dynamic” quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: “the architecture of the city”. Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides “traditional” ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 00f4
authors Brown, Andre G.P. and Knight, Mike
year 1995
title An Integrated Hypermedia Project
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 111-116
summary This paper describes how Hypermedia can be used as unifying tool, marrying together many strands of work related to architectural design and CAD. The project which we describe was undertaken with fourth year students at the University of Liverpool and is entitled the Electronic City. It is founded on the premise of assembling a Hypermedia package which describes the city and its architecture to a lay person. There are two strands to the project, the Hypermedia strand and a graphics/CAD strand. At the end the task was then to stitch the strands together to produce a common, coherent Hypermedia package. At the end of the project we expect that the students will have developed skills and an appreciation of: (-) the architecture and history of the city (-) the design of Hypermedia interfaces (-) the design of Information structures (-) three dimensional modelling and rendering

series eCAADe
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_15.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:19

_id 7555
authors Brown, F., Cooper, G., Ford, S., Aouad, G., Brandon, P., Child, T., Kirkham, J., Oxman, R. and Young, B.
year 1995
title An integrated approach to CAD: modelling concepts in building design and construction
source Design Studies 16 (3) (1995) pp. 327-347
summary The ICON project is concerned with the creation of a generic information structure for the construction industry. A central feature of the information model is the use of object-oriented modelling techniques to allow information to be viewed from different 'perspectives' and at different levels of abstraction, according to the requirements of the user. This paper discusses the object modelling of concepts and information in the design area. Drawing on knowledge elicited from protocol analysis of the design activity, a series of interrelated object models has been developed, reflecting different perspectives and abstraction levels within the design domain. Three of these models (spatial design, physical design and structural design) are presented and their implications for the communication and sharing of information discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 940c
authors Brown, F.E. (et. al.)
year 1995
title An integrated approach to CAD: modelling concepts in building design and construction
source Design Studies, vol. 16
summary The ICON project is concerned with the creation of a generic information structure for the construction industry. A central feature of the information model is the use of object-oriented modelling techniques to allow information to be viewed from different `perspectives' and at different levels of abstraction, according to the requirements of the user. This paper discusses the object modelling of concepts and information in the design area. Drawing on knowledge elicited from protocol analysis of the design activity, a series of interrelated object models has been developed, reflecting different perspectives and abstraction levels within the design domain. Three of these models (spatial design, physical design and structural design) are presented and their implications for the communication and sharing of information discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 42ad
authors Brown, Karen M. and Charles, Curtis B.
year 1995
title Computers in the Professional Practice of Design
source McGraw-Hill, New York
summary While CADD technology is becoming commonplace in most design firms today, the wherewithal to take full advantage of computer technology generally as a business tool is often missing. This book will give the reader that ``holistic'' information on how to integrate the CADD function with other common applications--from word processing of construction documents to creating project budget spreadsheets to project management to database management. The book will touch on examples of commonly used software packages and hardware platforms, but will otherwise treat those subjects generically.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4202
authors Brown, Michael E. and Gallimore, Jennie J.
year 1995
title Visualization of Three-Dimensional Structure During Computer-Aided Design
source International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 1995 v.7 n.1 pp. 37-56
summary The visual image presented to an engineer using a computer-aided design (CAD) system influences design activities such as decision making, problem solving, cognizance of complex relationships, and error correction. Because of the three-dimensional (3-D) nature of the object being created, an important attribute of the CAD visual interface concerns the various methods of presenting depth on the display's two-dimensional (2-D) surface. The objective of this research is to examine the effects of stereopsis on subjects' ability to (a) accurately transfer to, and retrieve from, long-term memory spatial information about 3-D objects; and (b) visualize spatial characteristics in a quick and direct manner. Subjects were instructed to memorize the shape of a 3-D object presented on a stereoscopic CRT during a study period. Following the study period, a series of static trial stimuli were shown. Each trial stimulus was rotated (relative to the original) about the vertical axis in one of six 36° increments between 0° and 180°. In each trial, the subject's task was to determine, as quickly and as accurately as possible, whether the trial object was the same shape as the memorized object or its mirrored image. One of the two cases was always true. To assess the relative merits associated with disparity and interposition, the two depth cues were manipulated in a within-subject manner during the study period and during the trials that followed. Subject response time and error rate were evaluated. Improved performance due to hidden surface is the most convincing experimental finding. Interposition is a powerful cue to object structure and should not be limited to late stages of design. The study also found a significant, albeit limited, effect of stereopsis. Under specific study object conditions, adding disparity to monocular trial objects significantly decreased response time. Response latency was also decreased by adding disparity information to stimuli in the study session.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 913a
authors Brutzman, D.P., Macedonia, M.R. and Zyda, M.J.
year 1995
title Internetwork Infrastructure Requirements for Virtual Environments
source NIl 2000 Forum of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., May 1995
summary Virtual environments (VEs) are a broad multidisciplinary research area that includes all aspects of computer science, virtual reality, virtual worlds, teleoperation and telepresence. A variety of network elements are required to scale up virtual environments to arbitrarily large sizes, simultaneously connecting thousands of interacting players and all kinds of information objects. Four key communications components for virtual environments are found within the Internet Protocol (IP) suite: light-weight messages, network pointers, heavy-weight objects and real-time streams. Software and hardware shortfalls and successes for internetworked virtual environments provide specific research conclusions and recommendations. Since large-scale networked are intended to include all possible types of content and interaction, they are expected to enable new classes of interdisciplinary research and sophisticated applications that are particularly suitable for implementation using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6378
authors Burry, M., Prentice, R. and Wood, P.
year 1995
title Walking Before Running: A Prelude to Multimedia Construction Information
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 257-266
summary An inherent problem with creating a multimedia application is generating the mass of information needed in order for it to be comprehensively useful. This is especially true when the subject is building construction for which any informative resource must cover the whole range of the material within its scope from the outset rather than merely be a sampler. Construction studies involve a large and diverse range of ´generic´ or ´model solutions´ which, in an ideal learning situation, are placed in context with historical and contemporary examples to aid a sense of critical evaluation. An obstacle, then, against creating resources dealing with detailed design is the risk that if it is not completed in its entirely there is no useful outcome. This paper also describes the problems and solutions involved in treating this material as data in a generic format so that its future usefulness is not compromised by current needs. It also outlines the programmes written to streamline an otherwise unwieldy process and deal with the inevitable non-conforming output from the participants.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_31.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:22

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