CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 390

_id fa87
authors Kurmann, David
year 1995
title Sculptor - A Tool for Intuitive Architectural Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 323-330
summary To manage the complexity in three-dimensional modelling and design in architecture, new approaches and methods are needed in computer based design tools. This paper identifies key factors in designing with computers and presents a computer program called 'Sculptor' for intuitive and direct virtual modelling in architecture. The program focuses on new methods for design in the early stages such as conceptual and abstract designs for massing studies.
keywords Architectural Design., User Interface, Virtual Reality, Distributed Modelling, Intelligent Agents
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 0128
authors Engeli, M., Kurmann, D. and Schmitt, G.
year 1995
title A New Design Studio: Intelligent Objects and Personal Agents
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 155-170
summary As design processes and products are constantly increasing in complexity, new tools are being developed for the designer to cope with the growing demands. In this paper we describe our research towards a design environment, within which different aspects of design can be combined, elaborated and controlled. New hardware equipment will be combined with recent developments in graphics and artificial intelligence programming to develop appropriate computer based tools and find possible new design techniques. The core of the new design studio comprises intelligent objects in a virtual reality environment that exhibit different behaviours drawn from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life (AL) principles, a part already realised in a tool called 'Sculptor'. The tasks of the architect will focus on preferencing and initiating good tendencies in the development of the design. A first set of software agents, assistants that support the architect in viewing, experiencing and judging the design has also been conceptualised for this virtual design environment. The goal is to create an optimised environment for the designer, where the complexity of the design task can be reduced thanks to the support made available from the machine.
keywords Architectural Design, Design Process, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Personal Agents
series ACADIA
email maia@enge.li
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e72e
authors Asaro, N., Corrao, R., Faconti, D., Fiandaca, O., Grifoni, P. and Silvani, A.
year 1995
title Riesce: An Hypertextual Tool for Browsing Information Produced in the Building Sector by PFEd
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 401-408
summary The structure of a set of documents allow for navigation inside single texts. Yet it is often also an obstacle to comparability between different parts and concepts. Even document formatting is only a partial answer to the problem, since it fails to develop the matter of relationships between enunciation and results. It was need to retrieve information about the scientific findings made by Research Units (Operating Units) during the first three year period of the "Progetto Finalizzato Edilizia" (PFEd) for assessment and transfer purposes which led us to design and develop a system to facilitate the retrieval of the relevant information. We chose the building sector for this application because of its relative lack of previous experience of this type, the variety and complexity of documentation available and, last but not least, the general underestimation of research topics and results vis-à-vis the development of the sector. By making the suggestion and information inherent in its findings more available, in terms of method and ambit, as well as more explicit, the research has already achieved a significant result. In view of the prototype character of the experiment, the information will probably be adopted to produce an hypertext on the final results.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_48.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 00ae
id 00ae
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1995
title Building A Computer Aid for Teaching Architectural Design Concepts
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 187-208
summary Building an aid for teaching architectural design concepts is the process of elaborating topics, defining problems and suggesting to the students strategies for solving those problems. I believe students in Environment and Behavior (E&B) courses at Georgia Tech can benefit greatly from a computer based educational tool designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the course (outside lectures) is devoted to applying concepts taught in the course to the studio projects. The tool I am proposing provides students with an opportunity to critique architectural environments (both simple examples and previous projects) using a single concept, "affordances". This paper describes my current progress toward realizing the goal of designing a tool that will help the students to understand particular concepts and to integrate them into their designs. It is my claim that an integrative and interactive approach - creating a learning environment and making both the students and the environment mutually supportive- is fundamentally more powerful than traditional educational methods.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:41

_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cb18
authors Belibani, R., Gadola, A. and Marinelli, A.
year 1995
title Hypervisible Cities: Seville, Barcelona, Lisbon
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 161-168
summary The Hypertext 'HYPERVISIBLE CITIES: SEVILLE, BARCELONA, LISBON" was realised within the interuniversity scientific research "La Prodazione dei circuiti multimediali didattici per l'architettura e l'urbanisticai (The production of multimedia didactic circuits for architecture and urban planning), co-ordinator Prof Paola Coppola Pignatelli - Dipartimento di Progettozione Architettonica e Urbana - Facolta di Architettura, Universita "La Sapienza", Roma, Italia. The aim of the research is the representation through the hypermedia tool of the significant of the cities, perceived through their images. The hypertext it has been attempted to make hypervisible three major cities - Seville, Barcelona, Lisbon - through a horizontal/vertical reading, according to three directions of probing, for comparisons purposes among different methods of growth of the city form.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_21.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id c6bb
authors Bottelli, Valeria and Fogh, Christian
year 1995
title Galathea: A Case-Based Planning Tool for Knowledge Navigation in the Architectural Design Process
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 427-436
summary We report on an on-going Ph.D. research aimed at the analysis of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design and the development of a conceptual model for a case-based navigation tool for its support. We describe architectural design from a process viewpoint and assume it as a form of intentional planning, leading from an initial state configuration toward a desired situation, by means of an incremental specification of goals, constraints and involved variables. We consider the very essence of design and of the specific professional skill characterising designers as the continual recursive transformation of the initial solution model, in order to map the desired state onto the enacted one and the capability to govern a number of continually changing variables in this direction. On the basis of this general concept of the design process, we describe the model of Galathea, a case-based planning tool, aimed at progressively representing the enlarging space of acquired knowledge, and at supporting the designer´s central role in the management of the design process.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_50.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 00ce
authors Cicognani, Anna
year 1995
title The New Challenge of Learning
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 37-42
summary The World Wide Web offers us a new way of hunting for information. If we compare Internet to an ocean, "surfing" is perhaps the right word to use for describing this hunting process. The 'power" of the Web lies in its friendly interface and in its potential to provide users with high impact documents, pictures, animation and sound. The hypertext nature of the Web allows us to create an on-going set of links which refer to and connect sites all over the world. Researchers and students can use this tool not only for gathering information, but also for publishing their works and "peering" with the works of others. The challenge, then, is to generate new interest around getting information. Students seem to have more motivations in learning whilst experimenting. And the Web is a good place to start.
series eCAADe
email anna@arch.su.edu.au
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_5.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:29

_id e420
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Giacchino, V.
year 1995
title An Hypertext in Building Rehabilitation: A Case Study in Palermo
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 29-36
summary Hypertext is an ideal tool to teach building design inasmuch as it allows both teacher driven and student self driven learning. It allows to link every type of informations (texts, sounds, images, films) with associative mechanisms much like those utilized by our brain. Hypertextes buikt up for teaching purposen can be usefully employed in professional occurrencies. An example is shown dealing with the rehabilitation of the Fiumetorto Palace in the historical centre of Palermo. It manages in a simple but efficient way the many complex interconnections between analysis of the state of decay, history, town planning rules and technology focusing all the information on the rehabilitation task.
series eCAADe
email pellitt@unipa.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_4.htm
last changed 2003/04/01 16:52

_id 44f6
authors Colajanni, Benedetto and Pellitteri, Giuseppe (Eds.)
year 1995
title Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4 / Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, 436 p.
summary The rapid development of the potentialities of multimedia imposes a reflection about its use in teaching architecture. Multimedia is multifaceted and each facet deserves a particular attention inasmuch as it can change the traditional approach to learning. A direct experience of an architectural work can be simulated with a impact far stronger than an experience trough photographs, drawings and books can do. But, as every positive fact can have in certain cases also some negative consequences. the intensity of the participation to an experience structured by someone else can leave less space to a personal approach to the object of the presentation. The same problem is posed if we consider the structure of an hypertext. The essence of the hypertext lies in the net of relationships between very different kinds of documents that it is able to manage in order to express the complexity of its theme. But who has to create the net, the teacher choosing the relationship that he thinks important or the learner to build a personal image of the hypertext matter. It is an old question about the two faces of teaching: transmitting knowledge or giving the learner the instruments to build by oneself his store of knowledge. Easy and trivial answer that both approaches can be useful. The accomplishment of a multimedial sequence of average complexity requires at present a lot of time. Hence, to be convenient, it is to be used many times, then by many students. The effectiveness of the tool partly depends on the rapidity with which it can be constructed. Speeding it up would allow to use this kind of tools with the same easiness than mare traditional means of representation. Besides those general considerations a check is to do on the peculiarities, if any, of the use of multimedia in the different disciplines of the formative curriculum of an architect. This is theme of our thirteenth conference. The programme has been articulated into sessions, dealing separately with history teaching, design teaching and research. Of course the sessions dealing with design are more numerous than the other, since design is the axis of teaching architecture. The presented paper cover a large arc of arguments, dealing with many facets of the proposed themes with plenty of examples and documentation on practical experiences. constituting a corpus of great usefulness for any operator in the field of architectural teaching.

series eCAADe
email bcolajan@biblio.unipa.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Home.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 13:04

_id a56e
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 1995
title What's in a Diagram That a Computer Should Understand?
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 469-480
summary This paper reports on an experiment to test the feasibility of using a diagramming tool to access an architectural knowledge base. Our hypothesis is that designers only use a small set of conventional elements to make diagrams of architectural concepts. If this is true, then a scheme for retrieving information from computer knowledge bases using diagrams would work. Therefore we asked designers to make diagrams from texts, to interpret diagrams into texts, to pair diagrams and texts, and to comment on existing pairs from the case base. We found from the experiment that common features are shared between different designerís diagrams and texts.
keywords Architectural Diagrams, Graphic Interface, Knowledge Bases
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2068
authors Frazer, John
year 1995
title AN EVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE
source London: Architectural Association
summary In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems which are more environmentally aware and sustainable physically, sociologically and economically. The range of topics which Frazer discusses is a good illustration of the breadth and depth of the evolutionary design problem. Environmental Modelling One of the first topics dealt with is the importance of environmental modelling within the design process. Frazer shows how environmental modelling is often misused or misinterpreted by architects with particular reference to solar modelling. From the discussion given it would seem that simplifications of the environmental models is the prime culprit resulting in misinterpretation and misuse. The simplifications are understandable given the amount of information needed for accurate modelling. By simplifying the model of the environmental conditions the architect is able to make informed judgments within reasonable amounts of time and effort. Unfortunately the simplications result in errors which compound and cause the resulting structures to fall short of their anticipated performance. Frazer obviously believes that the computer can be a great aid in the harnessing of environmental modelling data, providing that the same simplifying assumptions are not made and that better models and interfaces are possible. Physical Modelling Physical modelling has played an important role in Frazer's research. Leading to the construction of several novel machine readable interactive models, ranging from lego-like building blocks to beermat cellular automata and wall partitioning systems. Ultimately this line of research has led to the Universal Constructor and the Universal Interactor. The Universal Constructor The Universal Constructor features on the cover of the book. It consists of a base plug-board, called the "landscape", on top of which "smart" blocks, or cells, can be stacked vertically. The cells are individually identified and can communicate with neighbours above and below. Cells communicate with users through a bank of LEDs displaying the current state of the cell. The whole structure is machine readable and so can be interpreted by a computer. The computer can interpret the states of the cells as either colour or geometrical transformations allowing a wide range of possible interpretations. The user interacts with the computer display through direct manipulation of the cells. The computer can communicate and even direct the actions of the user through feedback with the cells to display various states. The direct manipulation of the cells encourages experimentation by the user and demonstrates basic concepts of the system. The Universal Interactor The Universal Interactor is a whole series of experimental projects investigating novel input and output devices. All of the devices speak a common binary language and so can communicate through a mediating central hub. The result is that input, from say a body-suit, can be used to drive the out of a sound system or vice versa. The Universal Interactor opens up many possibilities for expression when using a CAD system that may at first seem very strange.However, some of these feedback systems may prove superior in the hands of skilled technicians than more standard devices. Imagine how a musician might be able to devise structures by playing melodies which express the character. Of course the interpretation of input in this form poses a difficult problem which will take a great deal of research to achieve. The Universal Interactor has been used to provide environmental feedback to affect the development of evolving genetic codes. The feedback given by the Universal Interactor has been used to guide selection of individuals from a population. Adaptive Computing Frazer completes his introduction to the range of tools used in his research by giving a brief tour of adaptive computing techniques. Covering topics including cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems and artificial evolution. Cellular Automata As previously mentioned Frazer has done some work using cellular automata in both physical and simulated environments. Frazer discusses how surprisingly complex behaviour can result from the simple local rules executed by cellular automata. Cellular automata are also capable of computation, in fact able to perform any computation possible by a finite state machine. Note that this does not mean that cellular automata are capable of any general computation as this would require the construction of a Turing machine which is beyond the capabilities of a finite state machine. Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms were first presented by Holland and since have become a important tool for many researchers in various areas.Originally developed for problem-solving and optimization problems with clearly stated criteria and goals. Frazer fails to mention one of the most important differences between genetic algorithms and other adaptive problem-solving techniques, ie. neural networks. Genetic algorithms have the advantage that criteria can be clearly stated and controlled within the fitness function. The learning by example which neural networks rely upon does not afford this level of control over what is to be learned. Classifier Systems Holland went on to develop genetic algorithms into classifier systems. Classifier systems are more focussed upon the problem of learning appropriate responses to stimuli, than searching for solutions to problems. Classifier systems receive information from the environment and respond according to rules, or classifiers. Successful classifiers are rewarded, creating a reinforcement learning environment. Obviously, the mapping between classifier systems and the cybernetic view of organisms sensing, processing and responding to environmental stimuli is strong. It would seem that a central process similar to a classifier system would be appropriate at the core of an organic building. Learning appropriate responses to environmental conditions over time. Artificial Evolution Artificial evolution traces it's roots back to the Biomorph program which was described by Dawkins in his book "The Blind Watchmaker". Essentially, artificial evolution requires that a user supplements the standard fitness function in genetic algorithms to guide evolution. The user may provide selection pressures which are unquantifiable in a stated problem and thus provide a means for dealing ill-defined criteria. Frazer notes that solving problems with ill-defined criteria using artificial evolution seriously limits the scope of problems that can be tackled. The reliance upon user interaction in artificial evolution reduces the practical size of populations and the duration of evolutionary runs. Coding Schemes Frazer goes on to discuss the encoding of architectural designs and their subsequent evolution. Introducing two major systems, the Reptile system and the Universal State Space Modeller. Blueprint vs. Recipe Frazer points out the inadequacies of using standard "blueprint" design techniques in developing organic structures. Using a "recipe" to describe the process of constructing a building is presented as an alternative. Recipes for construction are discussed with reference to the analogous process description given by DNA to construct an organism. The Reptile System The Reptile System is an ingenious construction set capable of producing a wide range of structures using just two simple components. Frazer saw the advantages of this system for rule-based and evolutionary systems in the compactness of structure descriptions. Compactness was essential for the early computational work when computer memory and storage space was scarce. However, compact representations such as those described form very rugged fitness landscapes which are not well suited to evolutionary search techniques. Structures are created from an initial "seed" or minimal construction, for example a compact spherical structure. The seed is then manipulated using a series of processes or transformations, for example stretching, shearing or bending. The structure would grow according to the transformations applied to it. Obviously, the transformations could be a predetermined sequence of actions which would always yield the same final structure given the same initial seed. Alternatively, the series of transformations applied could be environmentally sensitive resulting in forms which were also sensitive to their location. The idea of taking a geometrical form as a seed and transforming it using a series of processes to create complex structures is similar in many ways to the early work of Latham creating large morphological charts. Latham went on to develop his ideas into the "Mutator" system which he used to create organic artworks. Generalising the Reptile System Frazer has proposed a generalised version of the Reptile System to tackle more realistic building problems. Generating the seed or minimal configuration from design requirements automatically. From this starting point (or set of starting points) solutions could be evolved using artificial evolution. Quantifiable and specific aspects of the design brief define the formal criteria which are used as a standard fitness function. Non-quantifiable criteria, including aesthetic judgments, are evaluated by the user. The proposed system would be able to learn successful strategies for satisfying both formal and user criteria. In doing so the system would become a personalised tool of the designer. A personal assistant which would be able to anticipate aesthetic judgements and other criteria by employing previously successful strategies. Ultimately, this is a similar concept to Negroponte's "Architecture Machine" which he proposed would be computer system so personalised so as to be almost unusable by other people. The Universal State Space Modeller The Universal State Space Modeller is the basis of Frazer's current work. It is a system which can be used to model any structure, hence the universal claim in it's title. The datastructure underlying the modeller is a state space of scaleless logical points, called motes. Motes are arranged in a close-packing sphere arrangement, which makes each one equidistant from it's twelve neighbours. Any point can be broken down into a self-similar tetrahedral structure of logical points. Giving the state space a fractal nature which allows modelling at many different levels at once. Each mote can be thought of as analogous to a cell in a biological organism. Every mote carries a copy of the architectural genetic code in the same way that each cell within a organism carries a copy of it's DNA. The genetic code of a mote is stored as a sequence of binary "morons" which are grouped together into spatial configurations which are interpreted as the state of the mote. The developmental process begins with a seed. The seed develops through cellular duplication according to the rules of the genetic code. In the beginning the seed develops mainly in response to the internal genetic code, but as the development progresses the environment plays a greater role. Cells communicate by passing messages to their immediate twelve neighbours. However, it can send messages directed at remote cells, without knowledge of it's spatial relationship. During the development cells take on specialised functions, including environmental sensors or producers of raw materials. The resulting system is process driven, without presupposing the existence of a construction set to use. The datastructure can be interpreted in many ways to derive various phenotypes. The resulting structure is a by-product of the cellular activity during development and in response to the environment. As such the resulting structures have much in common with living organisms which are also the emergent result or by-product of local cellular activity. Primordial Architectural Soups To conclude, Frazer presents some of the most recent work done, evolving fundamental structures using limited raw materials, an initial seed and massive feedback. Frazer proposes to go further and do away with the need for initial seed and start with a primordial soup of basic architectural concepts. The research is attempting to evolve the starting conditions and evolutionary processes without any preconditions. Is there enough time to evolve a complex system from the basic building blocks which Frazer proposes? The computational complexity of the task being embarked upon is not discussed. There is an implicit assumption that the "superb tactics" of natural selection are enough to cut through the complexity of the task. However, Kauffman has shown how self-organisation plays a major role in the early development of replicating systems which we may call alive. Natural selection requires a solid basis upon which it can act. Is the primordial soup which Frazer proposes of the correct constitution to support self-organisation? Kauffman suggests that one of the most important attributes of a primordial soup to be capable of self-organisation is the need for a complex network of catalysts and the controlling mechanisms to stop the reactions from going supracritical. Can such a network be provided of primitive architectural concepts? What does it mean to have a catalyst in this domain? Conclusion Frazer shows some interesting work both in the areas of evolutionary design and self-organising systems. It is obvious from his work that he sympathizes with the opinions put forward by Kauffman that the order found in living organisms comes from both external evolutionary pressure and internal self-organisation. His final remarks underly this by paraphrasing the words of Kauffman, that life is always to found on the edge of chaos. By the "edge of chaos" Kauffman is referring to the area within the ordered regime of a system close to the "phase transition" to chaotic behaviour. Unfortunately, Frazer does not demonstrate that the systems he has presented have the necessary qualities to derive useful order at the edge of chaos. He does not demonstrate, as Kauffman does repeatedly, that there exists a "phase transition" between ordered and chaotic regimes of his systems. He also does not make any studies of the relationship of useful forms generated by his work to phase transition regions of his systems should they exist. If we are to find an organic architecture, in more than name alone, it is surely to reside close to the phase transition of the construction system of which is it built. Only there, if we are to believe Kauffman, are we to find useful order together with environmentally sensitive and thermodynamically open systems which can approach the utility of living organisms.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/22 12:12

_id 980c
authors Gougoudilis, Vasileios
year 1995
title Hyperwalls or an Application of a Non-deterministic Rule-based System in Interactive Architectural Modelling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 173-179
summary This paper presents the architectural modeling as a process of augmenting spatial information; a chain of actions that leads from a sketched idea to the elaborated model. A symbolic constraint solver tool is connected to traditional CAD techniques, as well as to a data representation scheme efficient for architectural elements. The orchestration of the available and added tools allows the designer to ìedit ideasî fast, keeping in mind that different design profiles require adaptive tools to support the varying methodologies. Until the moment that automated design will be both possible and desirable, machines can really shorten the time needed to visualize design ideas in the sense of a handy but non-decisive ìcalculatorî. The discussion is built around illustrated examples from the implemented constraint based modeler.
keywords Non-Deterministic, Rule-Based System, Architectural Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ac5e
authors Hirschberg, Urs and Streilein, André
year 1995
title CAAD Meets Digital Photogrammetry: Modeling "Weak Forms" for Computer Measurement
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 299-313
summary The integration of state-of-the-art photogrammetric methods with the capabilities of CAAD has great potential for a variety of architectural applications. This paper describes the current status of an ongoing research project which aims to develop an easy to use tool for the photogrammetric generation of accurate, reliable and well structured 3D CAAD models of architectural objects. The project adresses the whole range of issues that arise from the digital image acquisition to the data processing, the data integration between photogrammetry and CAAD and the architectural structuring of the geometric data. While also giving a brief overview of the project, the paper concentrates on one central aspect of the system: a method to model what we will define as "weak forms" as the basis for qualitatively controlled computer measurement.
keywords Digital Architectural Photogrammetry, Constraint-Based Modelling
series ACADIA
email hirsch@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 1999/03/29 15:23

_id 09b4
authors Ismail, Ashraf and McCartney, Kevin
year 1993
title A Tool for Conceptual Design Evaluation Based on Compliance with Site-Development Briefs and Related Planning Regulations
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The need has been established for a computer based decision support tool to use during the conceptual stages of architectural design. The main functions are to check design compliance with the requirements of local planning authorities; characteristics evaluated will include building size, height, plot ratios, circulation and accessibility, and the preservation of natural features on site. This tool is being developed to operate under AutoCAD environment; the construction industry standard computer aided design software, following standard layering convention, integrated command lines, and pull-down menus. In addition to the common graphical output; i.c. plans, elevations and three dimensional models, it will generate textual analysis in report format to use as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis of proposed development. The tool's functions will be based upon the result of two types of field studies. First, interviews and questionnaires will be carried out with architects and planners of both private and public sectors. These will cover issues related to the performance of Computer Aided Architectural Design applications with regard to the evaluation of design schematics, and decision-making for the production of data for environmental statements. Second, field observation and participation will be carried out to observe decision-makers behaviour during assessment of building design proposals. A prototype is currently under development and will be tested against the expectations of the tool designer, Ashraf Ismail, and a team of professionals to be involved in the field studies. A critical analysis of the prototype design methodology and the study findings will be documented in the research thesis to be presented in June 1995.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:01

_id c0ef
authors Kalay, Yehuda and Séquin, Carlo
year 1995
title Designer-Client Collaboration in Architectural and Software Design
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 383-403
summary An upper-level undergraduate architectural design studio and a graduate computer science CAD course were paired to study client-designer interactions. The dual nature of these courses led to two sets of products: building designs compatible with the specifications of the clients, and prototype CAD tool to assist architects in the conceptual design phases. First, the computer scientists acted as clients to the architects, who designed a building for the computer science department. Once the computer science students had become familiar, through observation, with the architectural design process, they began developing tools for the architects' use. In that reversed-role, the architects became the clients of the computer scientists. For both parties this interaction provided an opportunity to experience the social aspects of the design process, in particular, the designer-client relationships, which most often are absent in traditional educational settings. This paper describes the objectives of this integrated pair of courses, the methods and processes used, and some of the results.
keywords Design, Design Process, Design Studio, Design Education, Architectural Design, CAD
series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2a99
authors Keul, A. and Martens, B.
year 1996
title SIMULATION - HOW DOES IT SHAPE THE MESSAGE?
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4], pp. 47-54
summary Architectural simulation techniques - CAD, video montage, endoscopy, full-scale or smaller models, stereoscopy, holography etc. - are common visualizations in planning. A subjective theory of planners says "experts are able to distinguish between 'pure design' in their heads and visualized design details and contexts like color, texture, material, brightness, eye level or perspective." If this is right, simulation details should be compensated mentally by trained people, but act as distractors to the lay mind.

Environmental psychologists specializing in architectural psychology offer "user needs' assessments" and "post occupancy evaluations" to facilitate communication between users and experts. To compare the efficiency of building descriptions, building walkthroughs, regular plans, simulation, and direct, long-time exposition, evaluation has to be evaluated.

Computer visualizations and virtual realities grow more important, but studies on the effects of simulation techniques upon experts and users are rare. As a contribution to the field of architectural simulation, an expert - user comparison of CAD versus endoscopy/model simulations of a Vienna city project was realized in 1995. The Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology provided diaslides of the planned city development at Aspern showing a) CAD and b) endoscopy photos of small-scale polystyrol models. In an experimental design, they were presented uncommented as images of "PROJECT A" versus "PROJECT B" to student groups of architects and non-architects at Vienna and Salzburg (n= 95) and assessed by semantic differentials. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested: 1. The "selective framing hypothesis" (SFH) as the subjective theory of planners, postulating different judgement effects (measured by item means of the semantic differential) through selective attention of the planners versus material- and context-bound perception of the untrained users. 2. The "general framing hypothesis" (GFH) postulates typical framing and distraction effects of all simulation techniques affecting experts as well as non-experts.

The experiment showed that -counter-intuitive to expert opinions- framing and distraction were prominent both for experts and lay people (= GFH). A position effect (assessment interaction of CAD and endoscopy) was present with experts and non-experts, too. With empirical evidence for "the medium is the message", a more cautious attitude has to be adopted towards simulation products as powerful framing (i.e. perception- and opinion-shaping) devices.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id a4f6
authors Kimura, T., Komatsu, K. and Watanabe, H.
year 1995
title Spatial Configuration Data Model For InterApplicational Collaborative Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 761-770
summary In this paper, a new design method is proposed which will enable the designer to predict and control the flow of pedestrians acting inside the designed building. Watanabe laboratory has been working on human behavioral research, and referring to the results of these studies, the authors pointing out the requirements for a tool supporting the new design method. Later on, a data model and a loosely integrated system intended to match the needs will be proposed.
keywords Human Behavior, Design Method, Design Process, Integrated CAD System
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

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