CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 617e
authors Wang, Cheng-Jui
year 1995
title Shape cognition in design: constructing a cognitive model of shapes for different design fields
source NCTU, iaa
summary The purpose of this paper is to reveal the characteristics of shape cognition of different design fields in the 'intuitive design' domain, and to construct a cognitive model of shape cognition for different design fields. The research procedure used in this study consisted of two phases. The first phase was applied to protocol analysis study of three professional designers in architectural design, industrial design and graphic design respectively. In the second phase, one controlled laboratory experiment was designed to reveal the characteristics of designers' shape perception in different 'intuitive design' fields. By these empirical findings, we found that designer's cognitive processes of shapes would be not alike in different design fields. The results suggest that in different design fields, designer's shape cognition processes will be different, and in each design field, similar cognitive processes of shape contained different design meanings.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ff05
authors Butelski, Kazimierz
year 1995
title A Brief Note on Virtual Space
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 83-92
summary In its efforts to represent space, and then create architecture on the basis of this representation, humanity has taken three major steps. STEP 1. Representation of space in the form of a drawing or model; representations compared to the mental vision and then redrawn or remodelled, until the vision takes the shape of a finished building. This technology of design" followed different conventions, depending on the epoch. In the Middle Ages the method of approximation by triangles was introduced. The Renaissance used Projection, Elevation and Cross-Section. In order to construct a building, a flat, abstract representation is used, supplemented by a model showing spatial relations and a verbal description, impossible to convey graphically. STEP 2. Methods as in Step 1, but, beginning in the 1970s, with the use of computers, which allows also for the gradual integration of these methods in one program. Theoretically speaking, all necessary data can be now recorded, visualized, animated, etc., on a PC class computer. The design-aid software is based on the method of creating a 3D model of the whole building, and then generating the rest (projections, cross-sections) from it. STEP 3. The above step have - brought us to near- perfection in photorealistic representation of space, which remains, however only a 2D abstraction from 3D space. The next step, which is now taking place before (and in?) our very eyes, is to use systems which bring us directly into 3D space.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 2a99
authors Keul, A. and Martens, B.
year 1996
title SIMULATION - HOW DOES IT SHAPE THE MESSAGE?
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4], pp. 47-54
summary Architectural simulation techniques - CAD, video montage, endoscopy, full-scale or smaller models, stereoscopy, holography etc. - are common visualizations in planning. A subjective theory of planners says "experts are able to distinguish between 'pure design' in their heads and visualized design details and contexts like color, texture, material, brightness, eye level or perspective." If this is right, simulation details should be compensated mentally by trained people, but act as distractors to the lay mind.

Environmental psychologists specializing in architectural psychology offer "user needs' assessments" and "post occupancy evaluations" to facilitate communication between users and experts. To compare the efficiency of building descriptions, building walkthroughs, regular plans, simulation, and direct, long-time exposition, evaluation has to be evaluated.

Computer visualizations and virtual realities grow more important, but studies on the effects of simulation techniques upon experts and users are rare. As a contribution to the field of architectural simulation, an expert - user comparison of CAD versus endoscopy/model simulations of a Vienna city project was realized in 1995. The Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology provided diaslides of the planned city development at Aspern showing a) CAD and b) endoscopy photos of small-scale polystyrol models. In an experimental design, they were presented uncommented as images of "PROJECT A" versus "PROJECT B" to student groups of architects and non-architects at Vienna and Salzburg (n= 95) and assessed by semantic differentials. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested: 1. The "selective framing hypothesis" (SFH) as the subjective theory of planners, postulating different judgement effects (measured by item means of the semantic differential) through selective attention of the planners versus material- and context-bound perception of the untrained users. 2. The "general framing hypothesis" (GFH) postulates typical framing and distraction effects of all simulation techniques affecting experts as well as non-experts.

The experiment showed that -counter-intuitive to expert opinions- framing and distraction were prominent both for experts and lay people (= GFH). A position effect (assessment interaction of CAD and endoscopy) was present with experts and non-experts, too. With empirical evidence for "the medium is the message", a more cautious attitude has to be adopted towards simulation products as powerful framing (i.e. perception- and opinion-shaping) devices.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 65bb
authors Soufi, Bassel and Edmonds, Ernest
year 1995
title A Framework for the Description and Representation of Emergent Shapes
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 411-422
summary This paper is concerned with the computational modelling of emergent shapes in design. The categorisation of emergent shapes, and the development of a framework capable of modelling different types of emergent shapes are of particular interest. A scheme is propose for the description of emergent shapes. Four different types of emergent shapes are described. A framework based on multiple shape representations is then presented. The operation of the framework is illustrated using a worked example.
keywords Creative Design, Emergence, Categorisation Of Emergent Shapes, Multiple Shape Representations, Description-Representation Framework.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 2068
authors Frazer, John
year 1995
title AN EVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE
source London: Architectural Association
summary In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems which are more environmentally aware and sustainable physically, sociologically and economically. The range of topics which Frazer discusses is a good illustration of the breadth and depth of the evolutionary design problem. Environmental Modelling One of the first topics dealt with is the importance of environmental modelling within the design process. Frazer shows how environmental modelling is often misused or misinterpreted by architects with particular reference to solar modelling. From the discussion given it would seem that simplifications of the environmental models is the prime culprit resulting in misinterpretation and misuse. The simplifications are understandable given the amount of information needed for accurate modelling. By simplifying the model of the environmental conditions the architect is able to make informed judgments within reasonable amounts of time and effort. Unfortunately the simplications result in errors which compound and cause the resulting structures to fall short of their anticipated performance. Frazer obviously believes that the computer can be a great aid in the harnessing of environmental modelling data, providing that the same simplifying assumptions are not made and that better models and interfaces are possible. Physical Modelling Physical modelling has played an important role in Frazer's research. Leading to the construction of several novel machine readable interactive models, ranging from lego-like building blocks to beermat cellular automata and wall partitioning systems. Ultimately this line of research has led to the Universal Constructor and the Universal Interactor. The Universal Constructor The Universal Constructor features on the cover of the book. It consists of a base plug-board, called the "landscape", on top of which "smart" blocks, or cells, can be stacked vertically. The cells are individually identified and can communicate with neighbours above and below. Cells communicate with users through a bank of LEDs displaying the current state of the cell. The whole structure is machine readable and so can be interpreted by a computer. The computer can interpret the states of the cells as either colour or geometrical transformations allowing a wide range of possible interpretations. The user interacts with the computer display through direct manipulation of the cells. The computer can communicate and even direct the actions of the user through feedback with the cells to display various states. The direct manipulation of the cells encourages experimentation by the user and demonstrates basic concepts of the system. The Universal Interactor The Universal Interactor is a whole series of experimental projects investigating novel input and output devices. All of the devices speak a common binary language and so can communicate through a mediating central hub. The result is that input, from say a body-suit, can be used to drive the out of a sound system or vice versa. The Universal Interactor opens up many possibilities for expression when using a CAD system that may at first seem very strange.However, some of these feedback systems may prove superior in the hands of skilled technicians than more standard devices. Imagine how a musician might be able to devise structures by playing melodies which express the character. Of course the interpretation of input in this form poses a difficult problem which will take a great deal of research to achieve. The Universal Interactor has been used to provide environmental feedback to affect the development of evolving genetic codes. The feedback given by the Universal Interactor has been used to guide selection of individuals from a population. Adaptive Computing Frazer completes his introduction to the range of tools used in his research by giving a brief tour of adaptive computing techniques. Covering topics including cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems and artificial evolution. Cellular Automata As previously mentioned Frazer has done some work using cellular automata in both physical and simulated environments. Frazer discusses how surprisingly complex behaviour can result from the simple local rules executed by cellular automata. Cellular automata are also capable of computation, in fact able to perform any computation possible by a finite state machine. Note that this does not mean that cellular automata are capable of any general computation as this would require the construction of a Turing machine which is beyond the capabilities of a finite state machine. Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms were first presented by Holland and since have become a important tool for many researchers in various areas.Originally developed for problem-solving and optimization problems with clearly stated criteria and goals. Frazer fails to mention one of the most important differences between genetic algorithms and other adaptive problem-solving techniques, ie. neural networks. Genetic algorithms have the advantage that criteria can be clearly stated and controlled within the fitness function. The learning by example which neural networks rely upon does not afford this level of control over what is to be learned. Classifier Systems Holland went on to develop genetic algorithms into classifier systems. Classifier systems are more focussed upon the problem of learning appropriate responses to stimuli, than searching for solutions to problems. Classifier systems receive information from the environment and respond according to rules, or classifiers. Successful classifiers are rewarded, creating a reinforcement learning environment. Obviously, the mapping between classifier systems and the cybernetic view of organisms sensing, processing and responding to environmental stimuli is strong. It would seem that a central process similar to a classifier system would be appropriate at the core of an organic building. Learning appropriate responses to environmental conditions over time. Artificial Evolution Artificial evolution traces it's roots back to the Biomorph program which was described by Dawkins in his book "The Blind Watchmaker". Essentially, artificial evolution requires that a user supplements the standard fitness function in genetic algorithms to guide evolution. The user may provide selection pressures which are unquantifiable in a stated problem and thus provide a means for dealing ill-defined criteria. Frazer notes that solving problems with ill-defined criteria using artificial evolution seriously limits the scope of problems that can be tackled. The reliance upon user interaction in artificial evolution reduces the practical size of populations and the duration of evolutionary runs. Coding Schemes Frazer goes on to discuss the encoding of architectural designs and their subsequent evolution. Introducing two major systems, the Reptile system and the Universal State Space Modeller. Blueprint vs. Recipe Frazer points out the inadequacies of using standard "blueprint" design techniques in developing organic structures. Using a "recipe" to describe the process of constructing a building is presented as an alternative. Recipes for construction are discussed with reference to the analogous process description given by DNA to construct an organism. The Reptile System The Reptile System is an ingenious construction set capable of producing a wide range of structures using just two simple components. Frazer saw the advantages of this system for rule-based and evolutionary systems in the compactness of structure descriptions. Compactness was essential for the early computational work when computer memory and storage space was scarce. However, compact representations such as those described form very rugged fitness landscapes which are not well suited to evolutionary search techniques. Structures are created from an initial "seed" or minimal construction, for example a compact spherical structure. The seed is then manipulated using a series of processes or transformations, for example stretching, shearing or bending. The structure would grow according to the transformations applied to it. Obviously, the transformations could be a predetermined sequence of actions which would always yield the same final structure given the same initial seed. Alternatively, the series of transformations applied could be environmentally sensitive resulting in forms which were also sensitive to their location. The idea of taking a geometrical form as a seed and transforming it using a series of processes to create complex structures is similar in many ways to the early work of Latham creating large morphological charts. Latham went on to develop his ideas into the "Mutator" system which he used to create organic artworks. Generalising the Reptile System Frazer has proposed a generalised version of the Reptile System to tackle more realistic building problems. Generating the seed or minimal configuration from design requirements automatically. From this starting point (or set of starting points) solutions could be evolved using artificial evolution. Quantifiable and specific aspects of the design brief define the formal criteria which are used as a standard fitness function. Non-quantifiable criteria, including aesthetic judgments, are evaluated by the user. The proposed system would be able to learn successful strategies for satisfying both formal and user criteria. In doing so the system would become a personalised tool of the designer. A personal assistant which would be able to anticipate aesthetic judgements and other criteria by employing previously successful strategies. Ultimately, this is a similar concept to Negroponte's "Architecture Machine" which he proposed would be computer system so personalised so as to be almost unusable by other people. The Universal State Space Modeller The Universal State Space Modeller is the basis of Frazer's current work. It is a system which can be used to model any structure, hence the universal claim in it's title. The datastructure underlying the modeller is a state space of scaleless logical points, called motes. Motes are arranged in a close-packing sphere arrangement, which makes each one equidistant from it's twelve neighbours. Any point can be broken down into a self-similar tetrahedral structure of logical points. Giving the state space a fractal nature which allows modelling at many different levels at once. Each mote can be thought of as analogous to a cell in a biological organism. Every mote carries a copy of the architectural genetic code in the same way that each cell within a organism carries a copy of it's DNA. The genetic code of a mote is stored as a sequence of binary "morons" which are grouped together into spatial configurations which are interpreted as the state of the mote. The developmental process begins with a seed. The seed develops through cellular duplication according to the rules of the genetic code. In the beginning the seed develops mainly in response to the internal genetic code, but as the development progresses the environment plays a greater role. Cells communicate by passing messages to their immediate twelve neighbours. However, it can send messages directed at remote cells, without knowledge of it's spatial relationship. During the development cells take on specialised functions, including environmental sensors or producers of raw materials. The resulting system is process driven, without presupposing the existence of a construction set to use. The datastructure can be interpreted in many ways to derive various phenotypes. The resulting structure is a by-product of the cellular activity during development and in response to the environment. As such the resulting structures have much in common with living organisms which are also the emergent result or by-product of local cellular activity. Primordial Architectural Soups To conclude, Frazer presents some of the most recent work done, evolving fundamental structures using limited raw materials, an initial seed and massive feedback. Frazer proposes to go further and do away with the need for initial seed and start with a primordial soup of basic architectural concepts. The research is attempting to evolve the starting conditions and evolutionary processes without any preconditions. Is there enough time to evolve a complex system from the basic building blocks which Frazer proposes? The computational complexity of the task being embarked upon is not discussed. There is an implicit assumption that the "superb tactics" of natural selection are enough to cut through the complexity of the task. However, Kauffman has shown how self-organisation plays a major role in the early development of replicating systems which we may call alive. Natural selection requires a solid basis upon which it can act. Is the primordial soup which Frazer proposes of the correct constitution to support self-organisation? Kauffman suggests that one of the most important attributes of a primordial soup to be capable of self-organisation is the need for a complex network of catalysts and the controlling mechanisms to stop the reactions from going supracritical. Can such a network be provided of primitive architectural concepts? What does it mean to have a catalyst in this domain? Conclusion Frazer shows some interesting work both in the areas of evolutionary design and self-organising systems. It is obvious from his work that he sympathizes with the opinions put forward by Kauffman that the order found in living organisms comes from both external evolutionary pressure and internal self-organisation. His final remarks underly this by paraphrasing the words of Kauffman, that life is always to found on the edge of chaos. By the "edge of chaos" Kauffman is referring to the area within the ordered regime of a system close to the "phase transition" to chaotic behaviour. Unfortunately, Frazer does not demonstrate that the systems he has presented have the necessary qualities to derive useful order at the edge of chaos. He does not demonstrate, as Kauffman does repeatedly, that there exists a "phase transition" between ordered and chaotic regimes of his systems. He also does not make any studies of the relationship of useful forms generated by his work to phase transition regions of his systems should they exist. If we are to find an organic architecture, in more than name alone, it is surely to reside close to the phase transition of the construction system of which is it built. Only there, if we are to believe Kauffman, are we to find useful order together with environmentally sensitive and thermodynamically open systems which can approach the utility of living organisms.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/22 12:12

_id 8378
authors Arlati, Ezio
year 1995
title Patriarch: A Hypermedia Environment for the Support of Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 187-198
summary This paper reports on current research in the field of architectural design and knowledge- based systems, through the conception and implementation of two software tools operating as a part of an integrated hypermedia environment denominated PatriArch. Main concern of this set of tools operating in PatriArch is the support of design since the very beginning, in that phase of not yet correctly explored or interpretated constraints and of scarcely specified goals, in which an initial solution model - provisionally composed of fragments of supposed fitting ideas - for the design theme has to take place. The creative activity of the designer is assumed as an 'intentional planning activity' that represents the acquired level of knowledge of the network of connections defining the nature, function, shape in the space etc. of the increasingly integrated solution-model: the final design will be an evolution of this - and other competitive and concurrent - models. PatriArch is meant to be the environment containing and allowing the representation of this evolution through its ability of linking the fragments of designers' knowledge, supported by an integrated relational data base: Sysinfo. These works were conceived inside an educational software development program for architecture students.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_25.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a9ff
authors Chiou, Shang Chia and Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1997
title A Grammar of Taiwanese Temples
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 297-311
summary Many different types of traditional Chinese buildings share quite similar architectural forms. This paper extends a shape grammar for Taiwanese vernacular dwellings (Chiou and Krishnamurti, 1995 a, b, c; 1996) to the traditional temple designs. Our grammar was derived from considerations of the traditional processes of design and construction of Taiwanese vernacular dwellings and from cultural influences. The processes for temple design and construction were similar; consequently, a temple grammar can be derived from this grammar. In this paper, we do so by augmenting the latter with additional rules that take into consideration specific changes to the spatial form that distinguish the traditional temples.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 13:55

_id 24fa
authors Gero, J., Damski, J, and Jun, H.
year 1995
title Emergence in CAAD Systems
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 423-438
summary Emergence is the process of making properties which were not explicitly represented in a computational system explicit. This paper presents two approaches to graphical emergence suitable or implementation in a CAAD system. It presents processes for shape emergence - the interpretation of shapes which were not intentionally placed there by the designer - and shape semantics emergence - the interpretation of patterns of shape into structures which were not intentionally there by the designer. Examples of both processes and their use are given.
keywords Shape Emergence, Shape Semantics Emergence, Shape Representation
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4d82
authors Liu, Yu-Tung
year 1995
title Problem Decomposition on Restructuring Shapes in Terms of Emergent Subshapes
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 439-451
summary Previous connectionist studies on recognizing both explicit and implicit emergent subshapes have found that adequately organized connectionist networks are explored the problem to some degree, but these explorations are still limited. One of the major limitations is that the connectionist procedure work adequately only with closed figures, not with line drawings. This paper proposes a method which generalizes the combined procedure of connectionist networks and visual attentions in order to recognize line drawings or a primary shape consisting of single lines. Depending upon the computational flexibility, the mechanism of searchlight attention provides the connectionist networks with the potential to address practical problems of shapes including different scales, different proportions and even simply line drawings.
keywords Connectionist Networks, Emergent Subshapes, Problem Decomposition, Searchlight Attention
series CAAD Futures
email aleppo@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 3f0e
authors Ponomarieva, E., Litwinova, A. and Kozakova, R.
year 1995
title Computer Graphics for the Study of Colour Science
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 267-273
summary There is an absolute dependence between the professional colour culture and the sphere of professional architectural tasks. From the skill to know how to handle brush up to the skill to convey one's own conception to the customer. Colour sketch, polychrom model, means of computer aided design, colour schemes and diagrams, are the means, which modern architect must wield. Actually an architect must think "by colours" from the very beginning of designing and must use colour as a compositional expedient. Architectural colour theory gives the students of the architectural department fundamental rules of colour science and methods of their practical utilization. But today the real designing demands the wider utilization computer of the graphic. There are a lot of remarkable graphic packages, which help architects to wield vector-mode graphic display and roster- mode graphic display, to work with colour and shape. That is why it is necessary to teach students to use the possibility of computer designing in the field of architectural colour science. This task determines the general matter and direction of teaching programme, defines the character and the way of its composition, The teaching programme is adapted for using the graphic package "Corel DRAW-5.0". Students work with a simple set of software tools "Corel DRAW" and at the same time acquire habit of working with the graphic package and decide problems of plane and volume colour simulation. The main practical tasks - colour on perception, psychological influence of colour people, colour harmonies, are performed by the way of "colour modelator". With the help of uncomplicated transformations it helps to receive a necessary set of simple figures for colour exercises.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 3138
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1995
title CAD – Space and Relational Databases
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 221-225
summary The unquestionable primacy of a principal - investor makes the creators strain themselves to present visions of their works in the most clear way. Though perspective drawings enable verification of the vision, but as a part of technical specification on the site they are, in general, needless. It is the investor, not prepared for perception of two-dimensional drawings, who enforces the designer to look for still more attractive forms of presentation of project propositions. The efforts of the creator are addressed to him - in order to be understood, to enchant him, to win the competition for the client. Until quite lately the most readable (but how expensive) form of visualization was the miniature modelling. In the case of vision which has been already put into shape, there is always somebody who can aid the creator in various forms of visualization. The one who can help in laborious drafting of perspective, or in preparation of a traditional miniature model, or in creation of a modern (i.e. computer) one.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id a8f0
authors Goel, V.
year 1995
title Sketches of thought
source MA: MIT Press, Cambridge
summary Much of the cognitive lies beyond articulate, discursive thought, beyond the reach of current computational notions. In Sketches of Thought, Vinod Goel argues that the cognitive computational conception of the world requires our thought processes to be precise, rigid, discrete, and unambiguous; yet there are dense, ambiguous, and amorphous symbol systems, like sketching, painting, and poetry, found in the arts and much of everyday discourse that have an important, nontrivial place in cognition. Goel maintains that while on occasion our thoughts do conform to the current computational theory of mind, they often are -- indeed must be - vague, fluid, ambiguous, and amorphous. He argues that if cognitive science takes the classical computational story seriously, it must deny or ignore these processes, or at least relegate them to the realm of the nonmental. As a cognitive scientist with a design background, Goel is in a unique position to challenge cognitive science on its own territory. He introduces design problem solving as a domain of cognition that illustrates these inarticulate, nondiscursive thought processes at work through the symbol system of sketching. He argues not that such thoughts must remain noncomputational but that our current notions of computation and representation are not rich enough to capture them. Along the way, Goel makes a number of significant and controversial interim points. He shows that there is a principled distinction between design and nondesign problems, that there are standard stages in the solution of design problems, that these stages correlate with the use of different types of external symbol systems; that these symbol systems are usefully individuated in Nelson Goodman's syntactic and semantic terms, and that different cognitive processes are facilitated by different types of symbol systems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4169
authors Iodo, Irina A.
year 1995
title The Search for the Logical Algorithm of the Town-planning Process
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 275-282
summary The creation of such models of material and spatial environment that can guarantee the most efficient passing of the virtual processes is considered to be one of the main goals for the town planning. But sometimes this goal is not achieved because of the far-fetched space organization accepted in the model, that does not always coincide with the real processes of vital activity. This report does not focus particularly on the damage which is caused by the realization of such defective models. But it is very important to find out the way for complete elimination of the reasons mentioned above. We should also take into account that means of cognition available at the moment are among the basic determiners, which define that "shear" of reality and also that comprehension level of objective laws governing this stage of social development. That is why our conception of the town-planning processes is in constant development and improvement: it gradually approximates to the truth, but, certainly, does not entirely perceive it.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_1.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 276c
authors Breen, Jack
year 1995
title Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: “Dynamic Perspective”. The “dynamic” quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: “the architecture of the city”. Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides “traditional” ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 4931
authors Breen, Jack
year 1996
title Learning from the (In)Visible City
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 65-78
summary This paper focuses on results and findings of an educational project, in which the participating students had to develop a design strategy for an urban plan by using and combining endoscopic and computational design visualisation techniques. This educational experiment attempted to create a link between the Media research programme titled 'Dynamic Perspective' and an educational exercise in design composition. It was conceived as a pilot study, aimed at the investigation of emerging applications and possible combinations of different imaging techniques which might be of benefit in architectural and urban design education and potentially for the (future) design practice. The aim of this study was also to explore the relationship between spatial perception and design simulation. The point of departure for the student exercise was an urban masterplan which the Dynamic Perspective research team prepared for the workshop 'the (in)visible city' as part of the 1995 European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference in Vienna, Austria. The students taking part in the exercise were asked to develop, discuss and evaluate proposals for a given part of this masterplan by creating images through different model configurations using optical and computer aided visualisation techniques besides more traditional design media.The results of this project indicate that an active and combined use of visualisation media at a design level, may facilitate communication and lead to a greater understanding of design choices, thus creating insights and contributing to design decision-making both for the designers and for the other participants in the design process.
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/Media/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7555
authors Brown, F., Cooper, G., Ford, S., Aouad, G., Brandon, P., Child, T., Kirkham, J., Oxman, R. and Young, B.
year 1995
title An integrated approach to CAD: modelling concepts in building design and construction
source Design Studies 16 (3) (1995) pp. 327-347
summary The ICON project is concerned with the creation of a generic information structure for the construction industry. A central feature of the information model is the use of object-oriented modelling techniques to allow information to be viewed from different 'perspectives' and at different levels of abstraction, according to the requirements of the user. This paper discusses the object modelling of concepts and information in the design area. Drawing on knowledge elicited from protocol analysis of the design activity, a series of interrelated object models has been developed, reflecting different perspectives and abstraction levels within the design domain. Three of these models (spatial design, physical design and structural design) are presented and their implications for the communication and sharing of information discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 940c
authors Brown, F.E. (et. al.)
year 1995
title An integrated approach to CAD: modelling concepts in building design and construction
source Design Studies, vol. 16
summary The ICON project is concerned with the creation of a generic information structure for the construction industry. A central feature of the information model is the use of object-oriented modelling techniques to allow information to be viewed from different `perspectives' and at different levels of abstraction, according to the requirements of the user. This paper discusses the object modelling of concepts and information in the design area. Drawing on knowledge elicited from protocol analysis of the design activity, a series of interrelated object models has been developed, reflecting different perspectives and abstraction levels within the design domain. Three of these models (spatial design, physical design and structural design) are presented and their implications for the communication and sharing of information discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

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