CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4cb3
authors Kwartler, Michael
year 1995
title Beyond the Adversial: Conflict Resolution, Simulation and Community Design
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary Fundamentally, the design of communities in the United States is grounded in the Constitution’s evolving definition of property and the rights and obligations attendant to the ownership and use of real property. The rearticulation of Jefferson’s dictum in the Declaration of Independence; “that individuals have certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” to the Constitution’s “life, liberty and property” represents a pragmatic understanding of the relationship between property and the actualization of the individual in society. In terms of community design, this means extensive public involvement and participation in not only the formulation of rules and regulations but of individual projects as well.

Since the 1960’s as planning and community design decision making has become increasingly contentious, the American legal system’s adversial approach to conflict resolution has become the dominant model for public decision making. The legal system’s adversial approach to adjudication is essentially a zero-sum game of winners and losers, and as most land-use lawyers will agree, is not a good model for the design of cities. While the adversial approach does not resolve disputes it rarely creates a positive and constructive consensus for change. Because physical planning and community design issues are not only value based, community design through consensus building has emerged as a new paradigm for physical planning and design.

The Environmental Simulation Center employs a broad range of complementary simulation and visualization techniques including 3-D vector based computer models, endoscopy, and verifiable digital photomontages to provide objective and verifiable information for projects and regulations under study.

In this context, a number of recent projects will be discussed which have explored the use of various simulation and visualization techniques in community design. Among them are projects involved with changes in the City’s Zoning Regulations, the community design of a major public open space in one of the region’s mid-size cities, and the design of a new village center for a suburban community, with the last project employing the Center’s userfriendly and interactive 3-D computer kit of parts. The kit - a kind of computer “pattern book” is comprised of site planning, urban and landscape design and architectural conventions - is part of the Center’s continuing effort to support a consensus based, rather than adversial based, public planning and design process.

keywords Architectural Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 9a66
authors Lee, H., Lee, J. and Chang, S.
year 1995
title Design Adaptation for Handling Design Failures
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 567-576
summary This research deals with two important issues in Case-based Design (CBD): a structure of design cases and a process of design adaptation for handling design failures. The structure of design cases involves problem situation, design specification, design tasks, design solutions, causal explanation, past design failures as well as design performance. It has been noticed that how to represent a structure of design cases and how it can be used in actual a process of design adaptation process are important in Case-based Design. Adaptation process in Case-based Design is also critcial, especially in handling design failures. The description and the analysis of design adaptation process in the context of Case-based Design paradigm is the major focus of this research. A model of casual explanation is presented as an useful tool for identifying sources of design failures. For efficiently handling design failures based on causal explanation, it is essential to characterize various design failures and to devise an adequate structure of adaptation process. Applicability of adaptation process is demonstrated in an exemplary kitchen layout.
keywords Design Failures, Design Adaptation, Causal Explanation, Adaptation Strategies
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 8c8d
authors Li, Andrew I Kang and Tsou, Jin Yeu
year 1996
title Using Virtual Models to Teach Traditional Chinese Wood Construction
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 119-130
summary In this paper we discuss our experience in using virtual models to teach traditional Chinese wood construction. Although our approach is technically simple – we use a kit of model parts made with the Solid Modeler of AutoCAD, Release 12 (now Release 13), and customized commands in AutoLISP – we have had excellent results. This is because of the remarkable match between the modelling medium and the highly systematized nature of traditional Chinese wood construction. It is this crucial – and interesting – characteristic that we want students to understand and appreciate. In our first teaching experience, in the fall term, 1994-95, despite unexpected drawbacks, our approach succeeded. In fact, our students, all Hong Kong Chinese, were surprisingly enthusiastic and even took pride in the sophistication of this uniquely Chinese construction system. In 1995-96, we have used the same kit of parts in two courses: an introduction to Chinese architecture (spring term) and an advanced course in Song dynasty wood construction (fall term). We first discuss briefly the theoretical basis for our approach. We then describe the assignments, the kit of parts, and supporting materials used in our teaching experiences. Finally, we discuss our findings and consider directions for the future development and improvement of our approach.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id f4d7
authors Madrazo, L.
year 1995
title The Concept of Type in Architecture: An Inquiry into the Nature of Architectural Form
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the meaning of the concept of Type in the field of architectural theory. Even though the use of the term type by architectural theorists is a relatively recent phenomenon, which can be traced back to Quatremère de Quincy in the early nineteenth century, the idea of Type, as opposed to the explicit use of this term by theorists, has pervaded much of architectural theory ever since Vitruvius. In fact, many theorists have been concerned with issues which convey a notion of Type, like the origins of architectural form, the systematization of architectural knowledge and the understanding of the process of creativity. A basic premise of this work is that to understand the true significance of the idea of Type in architecture, it is necessary to overcome certain traditional views that have associated Type with the work of specific authors at a given time like, for example, Quatremère de Quincy and Semper in the nineteenth century, or Rossi in the twentieth. Only a comprehensive study of the most relevant ideas formulated in the field of architectural theory -beginning with Vitruvius and finishing with contemporary design methodologists- can reveal the essential meaning, or meanings, of Type. This work attempts to provide such a comprehensive study. To derive the fundamental meanings of the concept of Type from the body of the architectural tradition, it has been necessary to proceed, simultaneously, along two different lines: one diachronic, the other synchronic. From a diachronic point of view, the aim has been to trace the evolution of the theories of Type from one author to another, for example from Laugier to Quatremère de Quincy. From a synchronic point of view, the goal has been to disclose the common ideas that lie behind theories formulated at different times, for instance, between Vitruvius' theory of the origins of architectural form and the artistic theory developed after the advent of Gestalt psychology. In recent times, the term type has been used by architectural writers as synonymous with typology. Unfortunately, establishing this identity between type and typology has served to undermine some of the essential meanings conveyed by Type. In the overall context of the architectural tradition, the idea of Type has much deeper implications than those that are confined to the classification and study of building forms. Type embraces transcendental issues of aesthetic, epistemological and metaphysical character; issues that have to do with the most generic problem of Form. Certainly, the essential meaning of Type is intimately related with the more transcendental problem of Form. To explore the relation between the idea of Type and the historical evolution of architectural form, has also been the purpose of this research. As this work attempts to show, the variety of meanings that Type has adopted through history are inseparably connected to the evolution undergone by architectural form. For that reason, this work, although primarily a study of the concept of Type, it is, at the same time, an investigation on the nature of architectural form.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/05/10 03:42

_id ccbd
authors Martens, Bob and Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 1997
title Collaborative Teamwork GRAWI '97: The Third Attempt to "Internet-Design"
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The abbreviation GraWi is made up of the combination of first letters of the Austrian university sites of GRAz and WIen (Vienna) and stands for the follow-up model of BraGraLuWi having involved also the universities of BRAtislava and LUton in 1996. A joint project-design had already been carried out in 1995 (BraGraLu). The present contribution is aimed at assessing the project.
keywords Collaborative Teamwork, Internet Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 9577
authors Matalasov, Michail E.
year 1995
title About Videocomputer Technologies at the Moscow Architectural Institute
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 303-308
summary Historically mock-up projecting turned out to be one of the bases of architectural education in the Moscow Architectural Institute. In spite of the fact, that technical progress did not pass over this Institute, introducing elements of computer techniques into the process of education, traditional methods do still prevail. In some sense it is a positive phenomenon, which does not allow this Institute to become ,one of the many typical ones", though in the epoch of global scientific and technical progress here this situation is forced. Under the economic conditions, established in this country, it is impossible to ensure such computer equipment, which would make the process of teaching students up-to-date methods of computer-aided design possible and really general, and make frontal employment of computers for solving complex design problems quite real. Now we can speak only about selective - optional teaching students mastering computer methods on the modern level. At the same time it was noted repeatedly, that essential defects are common to the traditional designing, especially when it concerns education; these defects are connected with a great degree of abstracting the model of the projected object (by the way this concerns also computer models), realized in the form of a small-scale mock-up. This is due to the representation of the projected object separated from the real environment as well as difference in the scales of the observer and the observed object. Mistakes in perception and appreciation caused in this way affect the efficiency of training disastrously. Luckily the available variety of sufficiently simple and cheap technical devices allows to overcome the mentioned defects to a considerable degree and combining these devices with personal computers makes it possible to enlarge their possibilities considerably. And at the same time due to the specific character of the employment it becomes unnecessary to have a lot of computers and the employed technologies turn out to be more "friendly" to the architect practically not demanding him to have complicated special knowledge. We mean special videocomputer technologies ("multimedia"), including the employment of periscope devices (environmental simulator or "telemaketoscope").
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id maver_086
id maver_086
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1996
title A Tale of Three Cities
source VR News. Proceedings of Virtual Heritage Conference 1995 (Bath [UK], Nov 22)
summary The ABACUS Group has been active for some years in the use of computer graphics and multimedia to represent past, present and future buildings in both urban and rural settings. The three cities discussed during the presentation are Split, in former Yugoslavia - a graphical account of the development of Split from its origin in the Diocletian Palace of the Venetian Empire up to the present day; Edinburgh - a multimedia interface to a large-scale three dimensional computer model of Edinburgh Old Town; and Glasgow - Virtual City developments in the run up to the City of Architecture and Design celebrations in 1999. The presentation concludes with a report on the IMAGEA project - an international initiative to construct an Interactive Multimedia Archive of Great European Architecture.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2006/09/11 05:29

_id 3b58
authors Morozumi, M., Murakami, Y. and Iki, K.
year 1995
title Network Based Group Work CAD for UNIX Workstation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 637-646
summary This paper discusses a model of collaborative process of architectural design and a network based group work CAD to support them. In the first part, the authors introduce a prototype system they developed to improve the environment for synchronous (interactive) design communication. Reviewing the process Of students' collaborative work that used the system, the authors point out that the frequent and timely exchange of CAD data with the system could not only stimulate designer's' imagination but accelerate the process of design development.
keywords Collaboration, Groupwork, CAD, Design Process, Network
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id dc94
authors Mullens, M.A., Armacost, R.L. and Swart, W.W.
year 1995
title The role of object oriented CAD in a generic simulator for the industrialized housing industry
source Automation in Construction 4 (1) (1995) pp. 29-43
summary This paper describes a simulator-based decision support tool for manufacturers of prefabricated homebuilding components. The Generic Industrialized Housing Manufacturing Simulator (GIHMS) serves as an experimental factory, capable of simulating factory performance under various product design, factory design, and operations management scenarios. GIHMS strength lies in its user-friendly, icon-based, point-and-click user interface. The interface allows the user to configure a factory and specify home designs for production without simulation language programming. The heart of the user interface is a specialized object oriented CAD system. This paper describes the GIHMS structure, focusing on the specialized CAD system, and demonstrates its functionality by describing the development of a structural foam panel factory model.
keywords Generic simulators; Object oriented CAD; Prefabrication; Housing
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:38

_id e716
authors Nickerson, S., Thrale, B. and Whiting, D.
year 1995
title Automating the Drafting for As-Found Recording and Facility Management Surveys
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 315-332
summary Much of the time of a facility planner, restoration architect or heritage recorder is spent, on site analysing thebuilding and collecting data and measurements. These will be used later to create the reports and drawings that will provide the basis for the subsequent design but these notes and measurements are just the beginning of the long process of drafting the as-found situation. Errors are inevitable in this type of work but, typically they only come to light, back in the office where confirming a measurement may entail an extra trip to the site, and there are times that they only turn up when a contractor encounters problems on the job A software tool, currently under development, addresses this problem by first helping to structure the note taking process so that more consistent data is collected, and then, automatically creating a 2D or 3D CAD model from the resulting database. This can be done on a laptop computer, before the recording team leaves the site so that the model can be compared with reality and faulty or missing measurements corrected. Furthermore, this combination of database and drawing is linked, allowing queries of the data from inside Autocad or the assembly of a specialized model based on a database query. Point collection techniques supported include traditional and not so traditional) hand measurement, total station surveying equipment and interfaces with other software such as rectification and photogrammetric packages. The applications envisioned include as found recording, facilities management data collection and the possibility of a totally data-driven GIS
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 15:24

_id ebbf
authors Ohno, Ryozo
year 1995
title Street-scape and Way-finding Performance
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary In this study, it was hypothesized that people’s performance of way-finding depends on the characteristics of street-scapes, i.e., the more visual information exists the easier people find their own ways. This relationship was investigated by an experiment using an environmental simulator and analysis of the subject’s behavioral data recorded by the simulation system. Three scale models (1/150) of identical maze patterns (300m x 300m) which have different street-scapes were created and set in the simulator, in which an endoscope connected to CCD color TV camera controlled by a system operated by a personal computer. Three types of streets are: (1) having no characteristics with monotonous surface, (2) having characteristics on each corner with different buildings, (3) having characteristics along the streets with trees, columns or fences. The simulator allows a subject to move through the scale models and looking around, using a “joy-stick“ for viewing the scene as projected on 100-inch CCTV screen. The control system of the simulator records all signals generated by the “joy-stick“ every 0.01 second, and thus exact position within the model space and the viewing direction at given moment can be stored in the computer memory, which can be used to analyze the subject’s behavior. The task of a subject was to find the way which was previously shown by the screen. Three male and three female subjects for each of three street types, for a total of eighteen subjects participated in the experiment. An analysis of the trace of movements and viewing directions generally supported the hypothesis that the street with visual characteristics were easier to memorize the route although there was a large difference in performance among subjects. It was also noted that there were three different strategies of way-finding according to the subject: one group of subjects seemed to rely on well structured knowledge of the route, i.e., the cognitive map, and the other group seemed to rely on incoming visual information of the changing scenes, and the last group seemed to find the way using both the cognitive map and visual information depending on the situations.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 750a
authors Oxman, Rivka
year 1995
title Design Case Bases: Graphic Knowledge Bases for the Design Workspace
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 555-565
summary Cases in the domain of architecture and engineering are commonly stored and presented as graphical representations in the form of drawings. The way creative designers fit and adapt graphical representations through drawing and re-drawing is still one of the least understood phenomena in design. Modeling stich processes appears to be a key to graphic knowledge base integration in CAAD environments. The paper reports on a new approach to modeling design adaptation in a graphical environment. This approach is based upon a theory of creativity, the Representation - Re-representation Hypothesis which is here employed in the formalization of design adaptation. A 'multi-layer re-representational model' which assists in the adaptation of design drawings is developed and presented. The model is based on the transformation of chunks of knowledge in design cases into explicit re-representational structures which can support creative design in a graphic environment. This model is utilized in our current work in development of a prototype graphical case-based CAAD system.
keywords Adaptation, Case-based CAAD, Case-based Design, Creativity, Graphical Case-Bases, Representation, Re-Representation.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4b78
authors Piccolotto, Moreno and Rio, Olga
year 1995
title Structural Design Education with Computers
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 285-298
summary In this paper, we discuss the importance of computer based simulation tools for the education of architects and civil engineers. We present our efforts to develop a program for the simulation of structures (CASDET). CASDET forms a microworld for planar structures. The program enables students to compose structures and to experiment interactively the effects of different geometry and load configurations. It tries to identify the proposed structure and controls its stability. Upon request of the student, it also processes displacements, internal forces (moments, shear forces etc.) and reaction forces on supports. The students can then visualise the desired information by interacting directly with the structure or member(s) of interest (see fig.1). We present different methods, with which students can visualise the results of their actions and discuss their implications in the educational context.
keywords Structural Design Education, Microworlds, Learning Environment, CAI
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 15:22

_id 7670
authors Sawicki, Bogumil
year 1995
title Ray Tracing – New Chances, Possibilities and Limitations in AutoCAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 121-136
summary Realistic image synthesis is nowadays widely used in engineering applications. Some of these applications, such as architectural, interior, lighting and industrial design demand accurate visualization of non-existent scenes as they would look to us, when built in reality. This can only be archived by using physically based models of light interaction with surfaces, and simulating propagation of light through an environment. Ray tracing is one of the most powerful techniques used in computer graphics, which can produce such very realistic images. Ray tracing algorithm follows the paths of light rays backwards from observer into the scene. It is very time consuming process and as such one could not be developed until proper computers appeared, In recent years the technological improvements in computer industry brought more powerful machines with bigger storage capacities and better graphic devices. Owing to increasing these hardware capabilities successful implementation of ray tracing in different CAD software became possible also on PC machines. Ray tracing in AutoCAD r.12 - the most popular CAD package in the world - is the best of that example. AccuRender and AutoVision are an AutoCAD Development System (ADS) applications that use ray tracing to create photorealistic images from 3D AutoCAD models. These ,internal"' applications let users generate synthetic images of threedimensional models and scenes entirely within AutoCAD space and show effects directly on main AutoCAD screen. Ray tracing algorithm accurately calculates and displays shadows, transparency, diffusion, reflection, and refraction from surface qualities of user-defined materials. The accurate modelling of light lets produce sophisticated effects and high-quality images, which these ray tracers always generates at 24-bit pixel depth,"providing 16,7 million colours. That results can be quite impressive for some architects and are almost acceptable for others but that coloured virtual world, which is presented by ray tracing in AutoCAD space in such convincing way, is still not exactly the same as the real world. Main limitations of realism are due to the nature of ray tracing method Classical ray tracing technique takes into account the effects of light reflection from neighbouring surfaces but, leaves out of account the ambient and global illumination arising out of complex interreflections in an environment. So models generated by ray tracing belong to an "ideal" world where real materials and environment can't find their right place. We complain about that fact and say that ray tracing shows us "too specular world", but (...) (...) there is anything better on the horizon? It should be concluded, that typical abilities of today's graphics software and hardware are far from exploited. As was observed in literature there have been various works carried along with the explicit intention of overcoming all these ray tracing limitations, These researches seem to be very promising and let us hope that their results will be seen in CAD applications soon. As it happens with modelling, perhaps the answer will come from a variety of techniques that can be combined together with ray tracing depending on the case we are dealing with. Therefore from the point of view of an architects that try to keep alive some interest on the nature of materials and their interaction with form, "ray tracing" seems to be right path of research and development that we can still a long way follow, From the point of view of the school, a critical assimilation of "ray tracing" processes is required and one that might help to determinate exactly their distortions and to indicate the correct way of its development and right place in CAAD education. I trust that ray tracing will become standard not only in AutoCAD but in all architectural space modelling CAD applications and will be established as a powerful and real tool for experimental researches in architectural design process. Will be the technological progress so significant in the nearest future as it is anticipated?
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id ec17
authors Shelden, D., Bharwani, S., Mitchell, W.J. and Williams, J.
year 1995
title Requirements for Virtual Design Review
source Architectural Research Quarterly 1(2), December
summary Requirements for Virtual Design Review: Fundamental Argument: This article deals primarily with the actual physical components of a virtual design review, and the difficulties associated with their integration. It is a rather refreshing approach to the problem of the virtual studio, in that it provides an empirical model of how the virtual and the real interact. Needless to say, there were numerous difficulties. 1. The reviewers and the students had to adapt to a new system of design review. Thus, traditional protocols and procedures may or may not work when dealing with a project in the virtual realm. The jurors and the students did become more comfortable as the jury progressed, but it is safe to say that those who went first most likely had a difficult and rather unhelpful session. 2. The technology itself was limited in what it could accomplish. The rate of transmissions across the line often hindered the review. Those students who used analog display, such as drawings or sketches, were not able to present these items effectively to remote viewers. The article does state that the virtual design review drew heavily upon the model of tradition review for its procedures. Was this the correct way of conducting the jury? With the introduction of technology into the process, one would think that there would be a significant shift in the model. Though the traditional model may be useful as a point of departure, we must critically engage the unique qualities that technology brings to the review. I would argue that a new model would need to be developed, whether it is a radical departure, a hybrid, or a modest adjustment to the existing model. For a traditional review, all one might need are a few push pins, a table for model display, and a surface upon which to pin his or her drawings. For the digital review, one requires monitors, computers, special lighting, video cameras, electrical outlets and phone jacks, and whatever else might be required to conduct a successful jury. It is in fact more akin to a television production than a traditional jury. The sheer complexity that technology inserts into the process can seem almost overwhelming. Yet if we can narrow our focus, find the essentials, by critically engaging those areas that will be affected by its introduction, then we can begin to imagine a true digital review.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id aa38
authors Tan, M., Gan, J., Indorf, P., Man, D., Teh, R., Datta, S., Serra, L. and Loo, J.
year 1995
title Multivalent Architectural Case Information for Creative Reasoning
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 543-554
summary The theoretical underpinnings, practical and technical implementation of a multimedia database to support creative designing is presented through a prototype system which would go on-line in the near future. At the heart of the system is the notion that architectural knowledge is multivalent ñ requiring the means for recombination in new and different ways to support design thinking. The system also attempts to deal with the practical issues of case building, 3D modelling, interface design and technical clarity.
keywords Creativity, Multimedia, Case-Based Reasoning, Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Architectural Database, Visual Database, Virtual Reality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia16_424
id acadia16_424
authors Twose, Simon; du Chatenier, Rosa
year 2016
title Experimental Material Research - Digital Chocolate
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 424-431
summary This research investigates the aesthetics of a shared agency between humans, computation and physical material. ‘Chocolate’ is manipulated in physical and virtual space simultaneously to extract aesthetic conditions that are a sum of human and non-human relations. This is an attempt to further the knowledge of designing, giving physical and digital materials force in determining their own aesthetics. The research springs from work in speculative aesthetics, particularly N. Katherine Hayles’s OOI (object-oriented inquiry) and Graham Harman’s OOO (object-oriented ontology) and explores how these ideas impact contemporary computational architectural design. To study this, a simple material has been chosen, chocolate, and used as a vehicle to investigate the dynamics of physical and digital materials and their shared/differing ‘resistances to human manipulation’ (Pickering 1995). Digital chocolate is ‘melted’ through virtual heat, and the results printed and cast in real chocolate, to be further manipulated in real space. The resistances and feedback of physical and digital chocolate to human ‘prodding’ (Hayles 2014) are analyzed in terms of a material’s qualities and tendencies in digital space versus those in physical space. Observations from this process are used to speculate on an aesthetics where humans, computation and physical material are mutually agential. This research is a pilot for a larger study taking on more complex conditions, such as building and cities, with a view to broadening how aesthetics is understood in architectural design. The contribution of this research to the field of architectural computation is thus in areas of aesthetic speculation and human/non-human architectural authorship.
keywords object-oriented inquiry, speculative aesthetics, mutual agency, big data
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id 2005_787
id 2005_787
authors Veikos, Cathrine
year 2005
title The Post-Medium Condition
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 787-794
summary Theorists in art, architecture and visual media have described the digital world as a world of mediumlessness and proclaimed that the medium of a work, once the ontological determinant for the classification of the arts, is rendered meaningless by recent technological and cultural developments (Krauss, 2000; Negroponte, 1995; Manovich, 2001). Although indebted to specific media-based techniques and their attendant ideologies, software removes the material reality of techniques to an immaterial condition where the effects of material operations are reproduced abstractly. This paper asserts that a productive approach for digital design can be found in the acknowledgement that the importance of the digital format is not that it de-materializes media, but that it allows for the maximum intermingling of media. A re-conceptualization of media follows from this, defined now as, a set of conventions derived from the material conditions of a given technical support, conventions out of which to develop a form of expressiveness that can be both projective and mnemonic (Krauss, 2000). The paper will focus on the identification of these conventions towards the development of new forms of expressiveness in architecture. Further demonstration of the intermingling of materially-based conventions is carried out in the paper through a comparative analysis of contemporary works of art and architecture, taking installation art as a particular example. A new design approach based on the maximum intermingling of media takes account of integrative strategies towards the digital and the material and sees them as inextricably linked. In the digital “medium” different sets of conventions derived from different material conditions transfer their informational assets producing fully formed, material-digital ingenuity.
keywords Expanded Architecture, Art Practice, Material, Information, ParametricTechniques, Evolutionary Logics
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 1c92
authors Verbeke, Johan
year 1995
title Trying to Stimulate Creativity in CAAD at Sint-Lucas Brussels-Gent
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 239-245
summary The use of CAAD at our Institute, which is located at two different places (Brussels and Gent), is based on three important mainstays: theoretical lessons combined with practical exercises, design activity in the studio and scientific research. Our main ideas and experience (for the average student) will be explained in more detail in the sequel. Of course, the best students use the computer in a much more evolved way.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

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