CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id bf5f
authors Chen, Xiangping
year 1995
title Representation, Evaluation and Edition of Feature-based and Constraint- based Design
source Purdue University
summary This thesis investigates a general and systematic approach to feature-based and constraint-based design. We combine feature-based design and constraint-based design by globally decomposing a design into a sequence of feature attachments and locally defining and positioning each feature by constraints. Analogous to the concept of high-level programming languages, we formalize a layered design model that eliminates the dependency of a design representation on a solid modeler. With this design model, design intent, such as feature descriptions and constraints, is stored in an unevaluated, modeler-independent design representation while the geometry to which it corresponds is stored in an evaluated, modeler-dependent design representation. The separation essentially relies on a naming and matching schema that converts between a geometric reference and a generic name, and a design compiler that automatically instantiates the unevaluated design representation to an evaluated design representation with respect to a solid modeler. The geometric references for defining feature attributes and constraints are recorded with their generic names in the unevaluated design representation. We propose several techniques for naming geometric entities unambiguously. The design compilation or instantiation involves remapping a generic name back to a geometric reference in the selected geometric modeler, solving constraints and implementing feature operations or attachments. Instead of developing a constraint solver for this design compiler, we use an independent and general solver. Feature attachment operations are different from classical Boolean operations in solid modeling. However, we provide a semantics for them that is based on existing operations in solid modeling. The layered design model allows users to edit archived conceptual designs to derive new designs quickly. We investigate the coordination of later features in the unevaluated and modeler-independent representation when a feature is edited and provide a method for editing feature-based and constraint-based design. We also discuss how to extend this work to a commercial feature-based and constraint-based CAD system.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 47ae
authors Comair, Claude and Kaga, Atsuko
year 1995
title Open Design Environment (ODE): Global Design Studio, Experiments in 3D City Simulation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 113-124
summary This paper depicts the evolution of the research done at the Sasada Laboratory (Osaka University) in the fields of Architectural and Urban related Computer Simulations. This research led to the birth of what we call the "Open Development Environment" (ODE). ODE is presented in this paper through a simple example. In this example, four teams cooperate to produce the database for a simple twin tower complex. The database is kept very simple and the protocol of communication among the different teams is a new computer language called VU (Vee-You). VU was conceived and developed by Claude Comair for the specific purpose of defining architectural and urban objects.
keywords Computer Assisted Design, Computer Languages, Computer Generated Databases, Computer Graphics, Three-Dimensional Computer Simulation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 1586
authors Counsell, John A M
year 1995
title GIS Software and Coordinated Project Information Systems - A Mechanism for Increasing the Effectiveness of 3D CAAD Models
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 389-397
summary This paper reviews current 3D CAD building modelling by reference to a large ongoing case study, in which 3D building models and sites are used to generate coordinated drawing, schedule, and visualisation output. It focuses on barriers which current software interpose, preventing more complete use of 3D CAD to integrate building project information systems. Comparisons are made with tools and methodology developed in GIS, in which users make different selections as required from common databases, and it is argued that used in conjunction with 3D CAD building models, they could improve functionality and reduce barriers to effective deployment.
keywords Building Model, Coordinated Information Systems
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a84e
authors De Grassi, Mario and Giretti, Alberto
year 1995
title Applying Formal Methods to Multimedia Design Aid
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 283-296
summary In the last decade we assisted at an evolution of computer aided design systems from drafting, calculation and simulation utilities toward systems able to support the conceptual phase of the design process. Systems supporting conceptual design use knowledge about the design domain and assume a will defined model of the design activity. Their computational framework is usually built by means of a set of representational schemata which lack a formal semantics. This aspect causes a limitation on the applicability of their computational framework to different domains. In this paper we propose a formal knowledge representation language, that has been defined in order to represent the structural relationships of domain knowledge. On the basis of language structure we propose a number of inferences tailored to case-based conceptual design aiding. Finally we apply the representational framework to the implementation of a computational architecture for conceptual design aiding that integrates multimedia representation of design cases with symbolic information processing. The architecture combines a knowledge representation server and a multimedia server. The knowledge representation server processes both domain knowledge and design experiences according to the Case Based Reasoning paradigm. The multimedia server produces the required case representation.

series eCAADe
last changed 2000/12/02 12:35

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id c6b2
authors Fenves, S.J., Garrett, J.H., Kiliccote, H., Law, K.H. and Reed, K.A.
year 1995
title Computer representations of design standards and building codes: a U.S. perspective
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT3(1), pp.13-34
summary Standards representation and processing in the United States has had a long and interesting history of development. The work in the past has focused primarily on representing a standard, evaluating the intrinsic properties of that represented standard, and evaluating designs for conformance to that standard. To date, for a variety of reasons, standards writing organizations and computer-aided design software vendors have not adopted much of the results of this research. The failure of the approach so far in the U.S. can be traced to two distinct areas. One major cluster of causes is methodological: the initial concepts were not backed up by usable, persistent computer tools; and the initial application and model were not representative. The second cluster of causes of failure is professional, and has a lot to do with the dynamics of interaction of individuals and organizations. Future research must address the inadequacies of the current representations and create models that are able to represent all, or almost all, of the different types of provisions in any given standard; investigate and deliver a much richer set of processing functionality's, such as more support for use of design standards in earlier phases of design; support the treatment of multiple, heterogeneous standards available from distributed sources; and determine what type of support is needed to go from the textual versions of design standards to the formal models that can support sophisticated computation.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 980c
authors Gougoudilis, Vasileios
year 1995
title Hyperwalls or an Application of a Non-deterministic Rule-based System in Interactive Architectural Modelling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 173-179
summary This paper presents the architectural modeling as a process of augmenting spatial information; a chain of actions that leads from a sketched idea to the elaborated model. A symbolic constraint solver tool is connected to traditional CAD techniques, as well as to a data representation scheme efficient for architectural elements. The orchestration of the available and added tools allows the designer to ìedit ideasî fast, keeping in mind that different design profiles require adaptive tools to support the varying methodologies. Until the moment that automated design will be both possible and desirable, machines can really shorten the time needed to visualize design ideas in the sense of a handy but non-decisive ìcalculatorî. The discussion is built around illustrated examples from the implemented constraint based modeler.
keywords Non-Deterministic, Rule-Based System, Architectural Modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ddssup9609
id ddssup9609
authors Hall, A.C.
year 1996
title Assessing the Role of Computer Visualisation in Planning Control: a recent case study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In papers to previous DDSS Conferences, and elsewhere, the author has developed an argument concerning the use of computer visualisation in the planning process. In essence, it proposes that: • visualisation can enable lay persons to play a more effective role and this can result in different and more effective decisions; • the level of realism employed should result from the basic requirements necessary to resolve the issue minimising the cost of production of the images. These points have been tested in repeated examples. The latest one concerns a new site that Anglia Polytechnic University has established in the centre of Chelmsford, UK. A computer model of the new campus showing both the existing and proposed buildings was commissioned from the author by the University for a visit by HM the Queen in June 1995. This model was subsequently adapted for use in the process of obtaining planning consent and the marketing of floorspace for the next building to be constructed. For this purpose, a higher level of realism was requested. The experience of achieving it confirmed the results of the previous research indicating the strong link between realism and cost. It also contributed new insights into the varying expectations of different professionals concerning the role of such a visualisation. The requirement of the architect for demonstrating all aspects of the design required a high level of realism than that required for planning and marketing purposes and was considerably more expensive. The low cost of use for planning purposes should be stressed but surprisingly, the lower level of realism implied may be easier for the lay person than the professional to accept.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2115
authors Ingram, R. and Benford, S.
year 1995
title Improving the legibility of virtual environments
source Second Euro graphics Workshop on Virtual Environments
summary Years of research into hyper-media systems have shown that finding one's way through large electronic information systems can be a difficult task. Our experiences with virtual reality suggest that users will also suffer from the commonly experienced "lost in hyperspace" problem when trying to navigate virtual environments. The goal of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a technique which is currently under development with the aim of overcoming this problem. Our approach is based upon the concept of legibility, adapted from the discipline of city planning. The legibility of an urban environment refers to the ease with which its inhabitants can develop a cognitive map over a period of time and so orientate themselves within it and navigate through it [Lynch60]. Research into this topic since the 1960s has argued that, by carefully designing key features of urban environments planners can significantly influence their legibility. We propose that these legibility features might be adapted and applied to the design of a wide variety of virtual environments and that, when combined with other navigational aids such as the trails, tours and signposts of the hyper-media world, might greatly enhance people's ability to navigate them. In particular, the primary role of legibility would be to help users to navigate more easily as a result of experiencing a world for some time (hence the idea of building a cognitive map). Thus, we would see our technique being of most benefit when applied to long term, persistent and slowly evolving virtual environments. Furthermore, we are particularly interested in the automatic application of legibility techniques to information visualisations as opposed to their relatively straight forward application to simulations of the real-word. Thus, a typical future application of our work might be in enhancing visualisations of large information systems such the World Wide Web. Section 2 of this paper summarises the concept of legibility as used in the domain of city planning and introduces some of the key features that have been adapted and applied in our work. Section 3 then describes in detail the set of algorithms and techniques which are being developed for the automatic creation or enhancement of these features within virtual data spaces. Next, section 4 presents two example applications based on two different kinds of virtual data space. Finally, section 5 presents some initial reflections on this work and discusses the next steps in its evolution.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d7f7
authors Jeng, Hoang-Ell
year 1995
title A Dialogical Model for Participatory Design; A Computational Approach to Group Planning
source Delft University of Technology
summary In participatory design, design concepts are generated collectively through discussion, dialogical interactions, in which the interchange of normative and supporting factual descriptions builds a collective design discourse. The goal of this research is to develop a method for participatory design to support this collective, face-to-face design problem-solving, in order to increase the acceptability of the design product. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an important movement towards increasing the participation of citizens in determining their built environment. At first, the movement was associated with social-political ideologies and rhetoric. By the end of the 1970s, participatory design had become an accepted component of professional practice. The objectives of the movement became more pragmatically and more modestly focused on exchanging practical information, resolving conflicts, and supplementing design. Today, participatory design is in a new phase. Traditional participatory design methods are seen as insufficient to fulfill an increasing demand for dialogue. The point of departure of the study is the assumption that new information technologies can satisfy this demand. The method includes: (1) a group-reasoning model, (2) a dialogical system and (3) a framework for participation-based design guidelines. The group-reasoning model formulates the process of knowledge acquisition, the learning and sharing of belief systems, the generation of design alternatives and design evaluations--by which reasoning takes place dialogically. The dialogical system provides a clear description of how the information should be processed, what aspects should be paid attention to, what results can be anticipated, and when and how to control the process. The framework for participation-based design guidelines guides and structures the design process. It facilitates a reconstruction of the implicit cognitive structure which underlines dialogue and is generated through the discussion of a group.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a79b
authors Junge, Richard and Liebich, Thomas
year 1995
title New Generation CAD in an Integrated Design Environment: A Path towards Multi-Agent Collaboration
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 277-290
summary Product Modeling is considered to be an established concept not only for semantically based data exchange, but also for the specification of models, dealing with specific application requirements. The product model approach is regarded to be one step towards a new generation of Computer Aided Architectural Design, and to provide underlying means for enabling communication between different applications on a semantic level. After on overview about the background and the basis principles of product modeling, the authors discuss how product models can be used in commercial developments and in applied research projects.
keywords Product Modeling, STEP, Computer-Aided Design, Data Integration
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ca47
authors Lee, Shu Wan
year 1996
title A Cognitive Approach to Architectural Style Several Characteristics of Design Thinking in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 223-226
summary Designing is a complicated human behaviour and method, and is often treated as a mysterious "black box” operation in human mind. In the early period as for theory-studying of design thinking, the way of thinking that the researchers took were mostly descriptive discussions. Therefore, they lacked direct and empirical evidence although those studies provided significant exploration of design thinking (Wang, 1995). In recent years as for the study of cognitive science, they have tried to make design "glass box”. That is to try to make the thinking processes embedded in designers publicized. That is also to externalize the design procedure which provided the design studies another theoretical basis of more accurate and deeply researched procedure (Jones, 1992). Hence the studying of design thinking has become more important and the method of designing has also progressed a lot. For example, the classification of the nature of design problem such as ill-defined and well-defined (Newell, Shaw, and Simon, 1967), and different theoretical procedure modes for different disciplines, such as viewing architectural models as conjecture-analysis models and viewing engineering models as analysis-synthesis (Cross, 1991).
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:14

_id 02f7
authors Liebich, Thomas and Kim, Inhan
year 1995
title ID'EST: An Integrated Modelling Framework for Management of Architectural Data
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 377-387
summary An Integrated Design Environment, IDE, facilitates cooperation between different disciplines. The paper investigates the data modelling framework, distinguishes between homogeneous and heterogeneous model worlds, discusses the formal mapping mechanisms available to establish a heterogeneous model world, and introduces a way to incorporate CAD systems into IDE A prototype IDE has been developed to prove these methods. The ID'EST prototype comprises its own core data model, different schemas to cope with several design views, and interfaces to incorporate external CAD systems. A prototype architectural data model has been defined, that includes core data models and aspect models for enclosure system and spatial system. Conventional CAD systems can be integrated into ID'EST, if they are able to map data from the aspect models into their own data structure, and vice versa, on a high semantic level. The inherent methods of classifying data in CAD, layers, macros and attached attributes, have been used to retrieve product data from CAD data files. The usability of conventional CAD systems as data instantiation tools for IDE has been proved and a path has been shown, by which existing tools can be integrated into new technology solutions.
keywords Product Modelling, Formal Mapping Specification, Computer-Aided Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c449
authors Millard, Lesley
year 1995
title A Strategic Approach to Climate Responsive Design Using Computer Based Learning
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 177-182
summary Existing computer software to support the teaching of environmental issues to architecture students is mainly based on energy calculation methods or packages of information split into subject areas. Neither approach seems to adequately support the early stages of the design process. The paper explores the construction of a model for a computer based learning system to teach the development of environmental strategies. Different strands of educational theory were used to develop teaching principles based around consideration of the subjective quality of knowledge influenced by ideas and theories from different sources, the importance of learning a "language" consisting of methods and theories of a subject and their application in context and the suggestion that "deep" learning requires conceptual changes. A suitable framework for the development of environmental strategies is suggested and its implementation using multi-media software as a method of integrating different types of information and learning materials is proposed. The paper concludes that the process of analysis is a key part of the system and should be made the focus of the structure and contents.

series eCAADe
last changed 2000/12/02 12:53

_id fc79
authors Ostwald, J.
year 1995
title Supporting Collaborative Design with Representations for Mutual Understanding
source ACM CHI
summary This paper describes a research effort to investigate cross-cultural collaboration in software development. The work is based on a model of collaborative design that calls for stakeholders (including developers and end-users) to iteratively construct an understanding of design problems and potential solutions through the construction and refinement of design representations. The Evolving Artifact (EVA) software design environment has been implemented to support this process. EVA has been used in a development project in a regional telephone company. A case study of this project will be analyzed to yield guidelines and design principles for constructing representations for mutual understanding.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 24
authors PayssÈ, M., Piperno, P., Grompone, J. and Somma, P.
year 1998
title ReconstrucciÛn Virtual de la Colonia del Sacramento de 1762 (Virtual Reconstruction of "Colonia del Sacramento" of 1762)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 192-197
summary Colonia del Sacramento (capital of Colonia department, in Uruguay) has been registered in the list of the Convention Heritage concerning the protection of worldwide cultural and natural heritage. The registration on this list (December 6th 1995) confirms the exceptional and universal value of a cultural or natural places which deserves protection for the whole humanity. The ancient Colonia del Sacramento founded in 1680 by Portugal, was a commercial and military site leading role of the historical controversy between Spain and Portugal. Main place of wars and treaties during a century, it keeps an urban design, unique in the area and valuable architectonical testimonies of different periods of this rich past, with a simple, popular profile. This work has been effected within the Clemente Estable Found 1996, which is promoted by National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICYT). Through virtual reality techniques, a three-dimensional model of Colonia del Sacramento city was built as it was in its period of prosperity (around 1762). For the achievement of this digital maquette, a great deal of written and graphic information was compiled and processed. This information was organized in an inventory way (with numerous readings and searches). The inventory and the digital maquette were joined in a multimedia application (CD-ROM) which allows potential users to move through virtual city and friendly and interactively consult images, graphics and texts.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id b731
authors Ramstein, Christophe
year 1995
title An Architecture Model for Multimodal Interfaces with Force Feedback I.14 Virtual Reality 2
source Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995 v.I. Human and Future Computing pp. 455-460
summary Multimodal interfaces with force feedback pose new problems both in terms of their design and for hardware and software implementation. The first problem is to design and build force-feedback pointing devices that permit users both to select and manipulate interface objects (windows, menus and icons) and at the same time feel these objects with force and precision through their tactile and kinesthetic senses. The next problem is to model the interface such that it can be returned to the user via force-feedback devices: the task is to define the fields of force corresponding to interface objects and events, and to design algorithms to synthesize these forces in such a way as to provide optimum real-time operation. The final problem concerns the hardware and software architecture to be used to facilitate the integration of this technology with contemporary graphic interfaces. An architecture model for a multimodal interface is presented: it is based on the notion of a multiagent model and breaks down inputs and outputs according to multiple modalities (visual, auditory and haptic). These modalities are represented by independent software components that communicate with one another via a higher-level control agent.
keywords Multimodal Interface; Software Architecture Model; Force Feedback; Haptic Device; Physical Model
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id c28b
authors Rostanski, Krzysztof and Bugno, Agnieszka
year 1995
title Greenery Designing in CAD Programs
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 15-23
summary In this article we want to present our experiences with greenery designing and possibilities of presentation such designs using CAD programs. Architectural design is more than only building - we always try to show how it is connected with surrounding. Greenery is one of the most important element of space, it creates environment, CAD programs gives us a lot of possibilities for presentations of architectural designs, but they are very limited in as to showing greenery. The very useful thing in computer aided landscaping is the plant specifier and the simulator of plants growth, You can estimate number of trees used for design and shades of tree crowns and quickly correct the plan to avoid effect of shading the windows or other places. CAD programs of the international range are not very adequate to plants selection, because the plants in database are not suitable for polish climate. For example, LANDCADD"s Plant Specifier contain information about more than 1000 plants of different climate zones from all over the world (trees, shrubs and flowers.), but in Poland we use commonly about 1500 of only trees and shrubs, the number of flowers is even bigger, so this specifier seems to be completely inadequate to our country. As to visual presentations of plants in design they are to simple to express the diversity of plant species and their shapes. There are no possibilities for common computers to process such great number of data to create natural outlook of designed trees.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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