CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id eff2
authors Sinclair, Brian
year 1995
title Architecture in the Environment: A Technology-Centered Model for Priomary, Secondary & Post-Secondary Educational Partnership
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 357-370
summary Societal appreciation of architecture, the environment and the role of design & planning professionals should begin early in the educational stream. Working from this premise, a model was developed which relied on a combination of learning strategies: Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective. The project’s primary goal was to build knowledge of architecture and the environment in K-12 children, with particular emphasis on primary levels. More specifically, the ARCH was selected thematically as a strong architectonic element through which to promote a better connection with and responsibility for the environment. The educational experience comprised three sequential forms: visual history of the ARCH, physical construction using foam blocks, and finally "construction” in the computer using a multi-media interactive three-dimensionally focused program. Pedagogically the sequencing provided explanation and context, built awareness through making, and finally reinforced the lessons of the previous steps while highlighting the potential of information technology. To deliver the curriculum an installation was built at a local museum, with primary grade children arriving on field trips. Architecture faculty and students designed the curriculum and installation, including the computer modules. Secondary school students were trained, with the intention that they would in turn educate primary school students at the installation. In disseminating knowledge downwards through the various educational levels, awareness was promoted concerning the architects role, architectural elements, and the broader built environment. Using the ARCH as the theme, realization of the inter-connectedness of the environment was advanced. Through linking and learning, participants came to better understand the value of their individual contributions and the critical need for collaboration.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 22cd
authors Wojtowicz, Jerzy and Gilliard, Jeff
year 1995
title Purist Lessons: Constructing the Unrealized Villas of Le Corbusier
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 507-516
summary The villas of Le Corbusier from his Purist Corpus (1923-1929) are appropriate for reconstruction using computational tools for how their inherent logic is revealed by this process. Conceived but never built, the following seven design examples are inferred from incomplete and fragmentary original documentation and rebuilt as three-dimensional computer models. The analytic process of reconstruction depends upon available descriptive information, but more significant is the assumption of a design methodology based in geometry and elemental volumes. Understanding the basis of this method and its rules begins the systematic geometric reconstruction of the villas. The record of this process and the role of the machine in representing the object and its cognitive aspects is supported by the syntactic organization of images.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ń either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Đ seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 700a
authors Martini, Kirk
year 1995
title Hierarchical geometric constraints for building design
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27 (3) (1995) pp. 181-191
summary Research and applications in parametric manipulation of geometry through constraints has been applied to the description of individual parts, and to the configuration of rigidparts within an assembly. Manipulating the geometry of an assembly such as a building often requires accounting for interaction between constraints governing shape andthose governing location. Most approaches use a nonhierarchical organization of constraints which makes it difficult to account for interaction of shape and locationconstraints. The paper describes a hierarchical constraint approach and implementation which addresses these issues.
keywords Geometric Constraints, Assembly Modelling, Building Design
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id e655
authors Paoluzzi, A., Pascucci, V. and Vicentino, M.
year 1995
title Geometric programming: A programming approach to geometric design
source ACM Transactions on Graphics
summary This article presents a functional programming approach to geometric design with embedded polyhedral complexes. Its main goals are to show the expressive power of the language as well as its usefulness for geometric design. The language, named PLASM (the Programming LAnguage for Solid Modeling), introduces a very high level approach to "constructive" or "generative" modeling. Geometrical objects are generated by evaluating some suitable language expressions. Because generating expressions can be easily combined, the language also extends the standard variational geometry approach by supporting classes of geometric objects with varying topology and shape. The design language PLASM can be roughly considered as a geometry-oriented extension of a subset of the functional language FL. The language takes a dimension-independent approach to geometry representation and algorithms. In particular it implements an algebraic calculus over embedded polyhedra of any dimension. The generated objects are always geometrically consistent because the validity of geometry is guaranteed at a syntactical level. Such an approach allows one to use a representation scheme which is weaker than those usually adopted in solid modelers, thus encompassing a broader geometric domain, which contains solids, surfaces, and wire-frames, as well as higher-dimensional objects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id c65a
id c65a
authors Sanly, Suzan and Saglamer, Gulsun
year 1995
title An Architect/An Architectural Language and A Shape Grammar
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 453-467
summary Every architect, whose goal is to create valuable artifacts, should own a unique architectural language. This language is composed of a vocabulary and a set of grammar rules to combine them. In this study, a number of ground and first floor plans of single family houses designed by an individual architect are analyzed. Plan lay-outs are decomposed into their components, and the composition rules are examined. Vocabulary elements, and geometric and semantic relationships among these elements are specified and a shape grammar is formed. Finally, different design possibilities are generated in terms of the defined language rules.
keywords Architectural Language, Shape Grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/01 13:35

_id cf2009_673
id cf2009_673
authors Tamke, Martin; Thomsen, Mette, Ramsgard
year 2009
title Digital wood craft
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 673- 686
summary In 1995, Robin Evans points out in his book The Projective Cast how the development of techniques changed architecture and the space inhabited in times of Gothic and early Renaissance. We see a parallel phenomenon today, where the interplay of technology and tool gives shape to new design (Kolarevic 2005). Yet in opposition to the interwoven fields of design and craft of the late Gothic, today’s building sector is enormously diversified, and a growing complexity in the building process and number of used materials can be observed. This gives an opposite point of departure into a more integrated field of design and innovation in architectural design and building industry.
keywords Digital production, CAD/CAM, parametric design, complex form, mass customization
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id 07da
authors Wohlers, T.
year 1995
title 3D Digitizers for Engineering
source Computer Graphics World, (March 1995), p. 112-115
summary 3D digitizing systems permit you to create a digital model from a physical part. The process is appealing because it can be difficult to create models of complex objects using computer tools without the aid of a 3D input device. Recreating an existing part from scratch, even with a computer, is like copying a printed page by retyping it. Although 3D digitizers are not as straightforward as a photocopy machine, the intent is the same. You can render and print a digitized model to communicate shape information, extract dimensions from it to show size information, and use the 3D database to manufacture a replica using rapid prototyping (RP) and CNC machines. You can also include the 3D model in multimedia or animation software as a learning or assembly aid. The challenge of the digitization process in manufacturing is to capture adequate detail and resolution. Adding a digitized model to a Hollywood film is often much easier than reverse engineering a part for prototyping or manufacturing. The only criteria for a movie or TV commercial is whether or not it looks good. No one from the audience measures the object to see if it meets a given tolerance. In manufacturing, RP and CNC machines require clean, complete, and accurate information. If areas on the model are incomplete or missing, it may be difficult or impossible to build the part. If edges, grooves, and features of the part are not fine and crisp, the results may be less than satisfactory. Most 3D digitizing systems are best at digitizing organic shapes such as free-form sculpted surfaces. When you see an advertisement or a catalog from companies offering digitized models, often you see objects such as human anatomy, animals, bones, skeletons, and so on. You may also see cars, trucks, motorcycles and airplanes, although they can be more difficult to digitize. Highly engineered parts, such as enclosures for electronic devices are usually the most difficult for 3D digitizers. That's why these systems aren't used widely for the reverse engineering of precision mechanical parts.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 80df
authors Cook, Alan R.
year 1995
title Stereopsis in the Design and Presentation of Architectural Works
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 113-137
summary This article presumes the primacy of spatial cognition in evaluating architectural designs and begins by describing key concepts involved in the perception of spatial form, focussing on parallax and stereoscopy. The ultimate emphasis is directed at presenting techniques which employ computers with modest hardware specifications and a basic three-dimensional modeling software application to produce sophisticated imaging tools. It is argued that these techniques are comparable to high end computer graphic products in their potentials for carrying information and in some ways are superior in their speed of generation and economies of dissemination. A camera analogy is considered in relation to controlling image variables. The ability to imply a temporal dimension is explored. An abbreviated summary of pertinent binocular techniques for viewing stereograms precedes a rationalization and initiation for using the cross-convergence technique. Ways to generate and view stereograms and other multiscopic views using 3-D computer models are described. Illustrations from sample projects show various levels of stereogram rendering including the theoretically 4-D wireframe stereogram. The translated perspective array autostereogram is presented as an economical and easily reproducible alternative to holography as well as being a substitute for stop action animation.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 0c8e
authors Ager, Mark Thomas and Sinclair, Brian R.
year 1995
title StereoCAD: Three Dimensional Representation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 343-355
summary Concepts of stereoscopic vision have been around for more than two thousand years. Despite this long history, its application to the field to architecture and design seems relatively unexplored. Synthesis of two technologies, the stereoscope and the computer, was the focus of the present study. The goal of the research was to determine if computer-generated stereoscopic pairs hold value for architectural design. Using readily available computer technology (Apple Macintosh) the research team modelled and rendered an existing project to verify the degree of correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant rendered stereo-paired representation. The experiments performed in this study have shown that producing stereo-paired images that highly correlate to reality is possible using technology that is readily available in the marketplace. Both the technology required to produce (i.e., personal computer and modelling/rendering software) and view (i.e., modified stereoscope) the images is unimposing. Both devices can easily fit in a studio or a boardroom and together can be utilized effectively to permit designers, clients and end-users to experience proposed spaces and projects. Furthermore, these technologies are familiar (clients and end-users have already experienced them in other applications and settings) and assume a fraction of the cost of more dynamic, immersive virtual reality systems. Working from this base, limitations of the process as well as future applications of computer-generated stereoscopic images are identified.
keywords Stereovision, Representation, Computers, Architects, Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c078
authors Allegra, M, Fulantelli, G. and Mangiarotti, G.
year 1995
title A New Methodology to Develop Hypermedia Systems for Architecture History
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 43-52
summary This paper illustrates a research project concerning the analysis of architectural works through a comparative study based on hypermedia tools; by exploring the hypermedia, users can find the main subjects relative to the "method " of architectural planning. The use of multimedia in architecture allows the integration in a single system of different types of information which are necessary for the description of a work. texts, designs, photos and sounds. In addition, the hypertext information structure allows the direct intervention on analyzed projects, by pointing out the more important themes and their relationships. Users have the opportunity to immerse themselves in hypermedia and choose the subject to navigate through on each occasion. Our research project aims at developing a prototype concerning two architects. I.L.Kahn and F.L. Wright. The development methodology is based on the key role played by the components of architectonic works, thus allowing users to compare them in a simple and correct way. The methodology used in this work can be extended to other architects or periods, by simply changing the possibility of navigation, i.e. by changing the reading keys.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1a52
authors Amor, R., Augenbroe, G., Hosking, J., Rombouts and W., Grundy, J.
year 1995
title Directions in modelling environments
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 173-187
summary Schema definition is a vital component in the computerised A/E/C projects. existing tools to manage this task are limited both in terms of the scope Of problems they can tackle and their integration with each other. This paper describes a global modellling and development environment for large modelling projects. This environment provides a total solution from initial design of schemas to validation, manipulation arid navigation through final models. A major benefit of the described system is the ability to provide multiple views of evolving schemas (or models) in both graphical and textual forms This allows modellers to visualise their schemas and instance models either textually or graphically as desired. The system automatically maintains the Conisistency of the informalion in these views even when modifications are made in other views. Simple and intuitive view navigation methods allow required information to he rapidly accessed. The environment supports strict checking of model instances and schemas in one of the major ISO-standardised modelling languages no used in product data technology. Ill this paper we show how such a modelling environment has been constructed for evaluation in the JOULE founded COMBINE project.
keywords Modelling Environment; Consistency; Multiple Views: Views; Building Models; Information Management; Integrated System; Product Modelling
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 12:33

_id df4b
authors Angulo Mendivil, Antonieta Humbelina
year 1995
title On the Conceptual Feasibility of a CAAD-CAAI Integrated Decision Support System: A Computer Aided Environment for Technical Decision Making in Architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This document addresses two questions: What are the ultimate means of design support we can offer to the architect, and how can we devise them? We are not the first ones to address these questions, neither the first ones to point our finger in the direction of Decision Support Systems for such purposes. Nevertheless, we may be among those scholars that understanding 'Decision Support" in terms of "Learning Support", are willing to explore the implications that such an understanding assumes for the concept of Decision Support Systems. Our exploration in such regards has shown us that knowledge application and knowledge acquisition cycles describe a continuum, and that such cycles, encapsulated in our "Practice Based Learning" and "Continuing Professional Development" dynamics are present in both our instructional and professional environments. From such a perspective, our scope regarding feasible Decision Support Systems is not restricted to the use of CAAD instrumental resources, but expanded into a context of CAAD-CAAI integration. Throughout this document we conceive a system that blends CAAD and CAAI resources looking forward to the creation of a Support Environment that seeks to motivate a reflective attitude during design, in such a way, upgrade our capability for acquiring as well as applying knowledge in design. In instrumental terms, this document explains how mainstream CAAD developments in the field of "Intelligent Front End Technology" and CAAI developments in the field of "Knowledge-based Curricular Networks" can complement each other in the establishment of a Decision Support System of trans-environmental relevancy. As an application framework for the concept and instrumental base described above, this document presents an image of the kind of decision-making model that it will intend to support, the kind of task support model it will look forward to implement, and the kind of general instrumental layout it will require. On the basis of such an instrumental layout, the system that is hereby outlined can be regarded as a "CAAD-CAAI Integrated", "Intelligent", and "User-Oriented" Interface System.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e72e
authors Asaro, N., Corrao, R., Faconti, D., Fiandaca, O., Grifoni, P. and Silvani, A.
year 1995
title Riesce: An Hypertextual Tool for Browsing Information Produced in the Building Sector by PFEd
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 401-408
summary The structure of a set of documents allow for navigation inside single texts. Yet it is often also an obstacle to comparability between different parts and concepts. Even document formatting is only a partial answer to the problem, since it fails to develop the matter of relationships between enunciation and results. It was need to retrieve information about the scientific findings made by Research Units (Operating Units) during the first three year period of the "Progetto Finalizzato Edilizia" (PFEd) for assessment and transfer purposes which led us to design and develop a system to facilitate the retrieval of the relevant information. We chose the building sector for this application because of its relative lack of previous experience of this type, the variety and complexity of documentation available and, last but not least, the general underestimation of research topics and results vis-ŕ-vis the development of the sector. By making the suggestion and information inherent in its findings more available, in terms of method and ambit, as well as more explicit, the research has already achieved a significant result. In view of the prototype character of the experiment, the information will probably be adopted to produce an hypertext on the final results.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c777
authors Bach, Fr.-W., Rachkov, M., Seevers, J. and Hahn, M.
year 1995
title High tractive power wall-climbing robot
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 213-224
summary There are a lot of tasks in building construction and maintenance which demand either the carriage of heavy technological equipment along vertical and sloping surfaces and/or provision for force technological operations on such surfaces For example, surface cleaning or grinding by automatic equipment, the mounting of expansion bolts and anchors by drilling or by driving in. Additionally surface inspection by heavy measuring devices and the painting of big construction areas are difficult and expensive to perform manually. It is therefore expedient to apply climbing robots to automate these tractive power operations. The climbing robot was developed for such purposes. The design of the robot with increased load capacity and improved gripper system was carefully considered. The robot has a video camera for orientation and for the monitoring of processes. A sensor-based computer control system is used. This paper contains a brief overview of the technical parameters and experimental characteristics of the robot's transport module, control system with video camera unit, and the different schemes of the robot's application.
keywords Climbing robot; Two-staged gripper system Monitoring Sensor-based computer control system; Automatic Technological equipment
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 07:36

_id 30d7
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1995
title Childishly Honest Associate of the Trickery
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 209-219
summary Perspective is a method of presentation of 3- dimensional space on the 2-dimensional surface. It can only approximately express the complexity of the authentic perception of reality. During the centuries canons of presentation varied in different epochs. It is quite possible that conventions of presentation considered today as exact expressions of reality may seem for the future generations as untrue as the ancient Egypt paintings seem for us. Our mind plays the major role in all kinds of presentation. During the whole life we learn to perceive the surrounding reality. We have formed also ability to ,see" the perspective. The linear perspective is not so easy in perception without factors of colour and light. These factors play a very important role in perception of the distance. The perception of perspective is not always unmistakable. Introduction of light and shadow is one of the measures to limit the ambiguity. Objects shown in perspective with appropriately chosen colouring and light-and-shade effects reveal impression of the distance inside the flat picture. Illusions of perspective are most astonishing when one can assume deep-rooted expectations and suppositions of the addressee. The computer monitor, like the picture, has only one plane on which our project can be presented. The major feature of architecture programs is both the possibility of creating various architecture spaces and the possibility to examine how (in our opinion) the created space would affect the addressee. By means of computer programs we are able to generate drawings and objects of two kinds: first - being the ideal projection of reality (at least in the same measure as the photograph), and the second - being the total negation of perspective rules. By means of CAD programs enabling 3-dimensional job we can check how all sorts of perspective tricks and artifices affect our imagination. The program cooperates with us trying to cheat the imperfect sense of sight. The trickeries can be of various type, starting from play of lights, through the elements changing the perception of perspective, and terminating with objects totally negating the rules of sound construction of solids. The knowledge contained in these programs is an encyclopaedic recapitulation of all sorts of achievements in the field of perspective and application of colour and light effects. All that remains to the users is to exploit this tremendous variety of capabilities.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id cb18
authors Belibani, R., Gadola, A. and Marinelli, A.
year 1995
title Hypervisible Cities: Seville, Barcelona, Lisbon
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 161-168
summary The Hypertext 'HYPERVISIBLE CITIES: SEVILLE, BARCELONA, LISBON" was realised within the interuniversity scientific research "La Prodazione dei circuiti multimediali didattici per l'architettura e l'urbanisticai (The production of multimedia didactic circuits for architecture and urban planning), co-ordinator Prof Paola Coppola Pignatelli - Dipartimento di Progettozione Architettonica e Urbana - Facolta di Architettura, Universita "La Sapienza", Roma, Italia. The aim of the research is the representation through the hypermedia tool of the significant of the cities, perceived through their images. The hypertext it has been attempted to make hypervisible three major cities - Seville, Barcelona, Lisbon - through a horizontal/vertical reading, according to three directions of probing, for comparisons purposes among different methods of growth of the city form.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aab6
authors Bermudez, Julio
year 1995
title Designing Architectural Experiences: Using Computers to Construct Temporal 3D Narratives
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 139-149
summary Computers are launching us into a representational revolution that fundamentally challenges the way we have hitherto conceived and practiced architecture. This paper will explore one of its fronts: the simulation of architectural experiences. Today's off-the-shelf softwares (e.g. 3D modeling, animations, multimedia) allow us for first time in history to depict and thus approach architectural design and criticism truly experientially. What is so appealing about this is the possibility of shifting our attention from the object to the experience of the object and in so doing reconceptualizing architectural design as the design of architectural experiences. Carrying forward such a phenomenological proposition requires us to know (1) how to work with non-traditional and 'quasi-immersive' (or subject-centered) representational systems, and (2) how to construct temporal assemblages of experiential events that unfold not unlike 'architectural stories'. As our discipline lacks enough knowledge on this area, importing models from other fields appears as an appropriate starting point. In this sense, the narrative arts (especially those involved with the temporal representation of audio-visual narratives) offer us the best insights. For example, principles of cinema and storytelling give us an excellent guidance for designing architectural experiences that have a structuring theme (parti), a plot (order), unfolding episodes (rhythm), and special events (details). Approaching architecture as a temporal 3D narrative does transform the design process and, consequently, its results. For instance, (1) phenomenological issues enter the decision making process in an equal footing to functional, technological, or compositional considerations; (2) orthographic representations become secondary sources of information, mostly used for later accurate dimensioning or geometrization; (3) multi-sensory qualities beyond sight are seriously considered (particularly sound, texture, and kinesthetic); etc.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c6bb
authors Bottelli, Valeria and Fogh, Christian
year 1995
title Galathea: A Case-Based Planning Tool for Knowledge Navigation in the Architectural Design Process
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 427-436
summary We report on an on-going Ph.D. research aimed at the analysis of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design and the development of a conceptual model for a case-based navigation tool for its support. We describe architectural design from a process viewpoint and assume it as a form of intentional planning, leading from an initial state configuration toward a desired situation, by means of an incremental specification of goals, constraints and involved variables. We consider the very essence of design and of the specific professional skill characterising designers as the continual recursive transformation of the initial solution model, in order to map the desired state onto the enacted one and the capability to govern a number of continually changing variables in this direction. On the basis of this general concept of the design process, we describe the model of Galathea, a case-based planning tool, aimed at progressively representing the enlarging space of acquired knowledge, and at supporting the designer´s central role in the management of the design process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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