CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 394

_id ebc4
authors Brusasco, Pio Luigi and Caneparo, Luca
year 1995
title Coordinative Model of Design and Building Process
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 297-306
summary The paper presents a coordinative model of the design and building process. It is divided into three main sections. The first presents a brief formalization of the model and of its representations, respectively the argumentative, rhetorical and semantic graphs. The second introduces the framework adopted for the development of the model, and describes the two main sub- systems: communicative and coordinative. The third presents the computer implementation, based on the Client,/Client model for the communicative system and on the Client/Server for the coordinative system.
series eCAADe
email luca.caneparo@polito.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_36.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 6378
authors Burry, M., Prentice, R. and Wood, P.
year 1995
title Walking Before Running: A Prelude to Multimedia Construction Information
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 257-266
summary An inherent problem with creating a multimedia application is generating the mass of information needed in order for it to be comprehensively useful. This is especially true when the subject is building construction for which any informative resource must cover the whole range of the material within its scope from the outset rather than merely be a sampler. Construction studies involve a large and diverse range of ┤generic┤ or ┤model solutions┤ which, in an ideal learning situation, are placed in context with historical and contemporary examples to aid a sense of critical evaluation. An obstacle, then, against creating resources dealing with detailed design is the risk that if it is not completed in its entirely there is no useful outcome. This paper also describes the problems and solutions involved in treating this material as data in a generic format so that its future usefulness is not compromised by current needs. It also outlines the programmes written to streamline an otherwise unwieldy process and deal with the inevitable non-conforming output from the participants.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_31.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:22

_id 05f7
authors Carrara, G., Confessore, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 1995
title Multimedia and Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 323-330
summary It appears by now fairly accepted to many researchers in the field of the Computer Aided Architectural Design that the way to realize support tools for these aims is by means of the realization of Knowledge Based Assistants. This kind of computer programs, based on the knowledge engineering, finds their power and efficaciousness by their knowledge base. Nowadays this kind of tools is leaving the research world and it appears evident that the common graphic interfaces and the modalities of dialogue between the architect and the computer, are inadequate to support the exchange of information that the use of these tools requires. The use of the knowledge bases furthermore, presupposes that the conceptual model of the building realized by others, must be made entirely understandable to the architect. The CAAD Laboratory has carried out a system software prototype based on Knowledge Engineering in the field of hospital buildings. In order to overcome the limit of software systems based on usual Knowledge Engineering, by improving architect-computer interaction, at CAAD Lab it is refining building model introducing into the knowledge base two complementary each other methodologies: the conceptual clustering and multimedia technics. This research will make it possible for architects navigate consciously through the domain of the knowledge base already implemented.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_39.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:27

_id 83fe
authors Choi, Jin Won
year 1995
title Digital Athens: An Application of ArchiTOUR, A Multimedia Authoring System
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 517-527
summary This paper presents an educational software package for teaching and learning architectural history and theory. The package called Digital Athens is intended to teach architecture in Ancient Athens. It has been developed with the ArchiTOUR multimedia authoring system for architectural education, especially architectural history and theory. It proposes an efficient way to handle and present the diverse multimedia data that architectural education requires. The first section of this paper describes the ArchiTOUR multimedia authoring system. ArchiTOURÝs main features include 1) three different working modes; 2) ArchiTOUR objects; 3) linking ArchiTOUR objects; and 4) ArchiTOUR hotspots. The next part presents Digital Athens as an application of ArchiTOUR. This segment demonstrates the main ideas involved in the package and the authoring system by illustrating the contents of Digital Athens. Finally, the last part discusses future extensions of ArchiTOUR as well as the Digital Athens package itself.
keywords Multimedia, Hypermedia, Authoring, 3D Visualization
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 67cd
authors Clibbon, K., Candy, L. and Edmonds, E.
year 1995
title A Logic-Based Framework for Representing Architectural Design Knowledge
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 91-102
summary This paper proposes a logic-based framework for representing and manipulating knowledge during Computer-Aided Architectural Design. The framework incorporates a meta-level architecture to represent declarative design knowledge and strategic knowledge used by the designer. It consists of an object layer, a design requirements layer and strategies for navigating through the design space. An extended first-order logic is described which has been used to represent some examples of architectural knowledge. This computational model is being implemented in KAUS (Knowledge Acquisition and Utilisation System), a general purpose knowledge-based system, founded in Multi-Layered Logic.
keywords Design Knowledge, Strategic Knowledge, Multi-Layered Logic.
series CAAD Futures
email L.Candy@lboro.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 30ec
authors Coates, Paul and Hall, Miles Robin
year 1995
title The Use of CAAD to Generate Urban Form
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 599-616
summary The paper describes a computer modelling process suitable for the generation of townscape elements using a statistical simulation based on aesthetic theory in mathematics. This approach is also used to analyse existing urban settings and thereby allow comparison with the generated output of the model indicating close agreement between the model and attractive historical townscape. This agreement depends closely upon the size of the unit chosen for measurement of the existing townscape thereby determining how the output from the model should be scaled for construction. An independent low-level designing ability appears inherent in the model and there is a discussion as to how this might be further developed.
keywords Emergent Form, Generative Model, Power Laws, Townscape, Vernacular Style
series CAAD Futures
email p.s.coates@btinternet.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 44f6
authors Colajanni, Benedetto and Pellitteri, Giuseppe (Eds.)
year 1995
title Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4 / Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, 436 p.
summary The rapid development of the potentialities of multimedia imposes a reflection about its use in teaching architecture. Multimedia is multifaceted and each facet deserves a particular attention inasmuch as it can change the traditional approach to learning. A direct experience of an architectural work can be simulated with a impact far stronger than an experience trough photographs, drawings and books can do. But, as every positive fact can have in certain cases also some negative consequences. the intensity of the participation to an experience structured by someone else can leave less space to a personal approach to the object of the presentation. The same problem is posed if we consider the structure of an hypertext. The essence of the hypertext lies in the net of relationships between very different kinds of documents that it is able to manage in order to express the complexity of its theme. But who has to create the net, the teacher choosing the relationship that he thinks important or the learner to build a personal image of the hypertext matter. It is an old question about the two faces of teaching: transmitting knowledge or giving the learner the instruments to build by oneself his store of knowledge. Easy and trivial answer that both approaches can be useful. The accomplishment of a multimedial sequence of average complexity requires at present a lot of time. Hence, to be convenient, it is to be used many times, then by many students. The effectiveness of the tool partly depends on the rapidity with which it can be constructed. Speeding it up would allow to use this kind of tools with the same easiness than mare traditional means of representation. Besides those general considerations a check is to do on the peculiarities, if any, of the use of multimedia in the different disciplines of the formative curriculum of an architect. This is theme of our thirteenth conference. The programme has been articulated into sessions, dealing separately with history teaching, design teaching and research. Of course the sessions dealing with design are more numerous than the other, since design is the axis of teaching architecture. The presented paper cover a large arc of arguments, dealing with many facets of the proposed themes with plenty of examples and documentation on practical experiences. constituting a corpus of great usefulness for any operator in the field of architectural teaching.

series eCAADe
email bcolajan@biblio.unipa.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Home.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 13:04

_id c3d0
authors Cotton, John
year 1995
title Solid Modeling as a Tool for Constructing Solar Envelopes
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 253-260
summary This paper presents a method for constructing solar envelopes in site planning using a 3D solid-modeling program as the tool. The solar envelope for a building site is a mechanism for ensuring that planning regulations on the solar access rights of other sites are observed. In this application, solid modeling offers the practical advantage of being a general-purpose tool having the capability to handle sets of site conditions that are quite complex. The paper reviews the concept of solar envelopes and demonstrates the method of application of solar-envelope construction to a site defined to avoid overly simplifying conditions. Techniques for displaying the constraints on building sections imposed by a solar envelope are presented as well.
series ACADIA
email auntrachel@hotmail.com
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id eb51
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1996
title CAAD, Curriculum and Controversy
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 121-130
summary This paper brings some of the debate within educational theory to bear on CAAD teaching, outlining the contributions of conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics and pragmatism. The paper concludes by recommending that CAAD teaching move away from conservative concepts of teaching, design and technology to integrate it into the studio. In a highly illuminating book on education theory, Shaun Gallagher (1991) outlines four current views on education that correspond to four major positions in contemporary social theory and philosophy. I will extend these categories to a consideration of attitudes to information technology, and the teaching of computing in architecture. These four positions are conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics, and pragmatism. I will show how certain issues cluster around them, how each position provides the focus of various discursive practices, or intellectual conversations in contemporary thinking, and how information technology is caught up in those conversations. These four positions are not "cognitive styles," but vigorously argued domains of debate involving writers such as Gadamer, Habermas and Derrida about the theory of interpretation. The field of interpretation is known as hermeneutics, which is concerned less with epistemology and knowledge than with understanding. Interpretation theory applies to reading texts, interpreting the law, and appreciating art, but also to the application of any practical task, such as making art, drawing, defining and solving problems, and design (Coyne and Snodgrass, 1995). Hermeneutics provides a coherent focus for considering many contemporary issues and many domains of practice. I outline what these positions in education mean in terms of CAAD (computer-aided architectural design) in the curriculum.

series eCAADe
email richard@caad.ed.ac.uk
more http://www.caad.ac.uk/~richard
last changed 1998/08/17 13:35

_id 95bf
authors Culverhouse, P.F.
year 1995
title Constraining designers and their CAD tools
source Design Studies 16 (1) (1995) pp. 81-101
summary Electronics product designs can fail for technological reasons and also for human reasons. Both computer-aided design (CAD) tools and formal methods have attempted to limit the risk of product failure by logical assessment of the design and its technology. However, to improve design effectiveness and efficiency the contribution of people to a design's risk of failure must also be assessed and controlled. A method is presented of controlling and limiting human design through the application of a four-path model of design previously developed by the author. The model categorizes designs as repeat design, variant design, innovative design or strategic design. Each has its own set of pre-existent constraints that limit the capacity for unwanted innovation to the product at the outset of each development programme. This provides a mechanism by which designer creativity may be controlled. The manner in which designers are constrained may also be applied to the control of CAD tools commonly employed in the design process.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 1ffd
authors Dave, Bharat
year 1995
title Towards Distributed Computer-Aided Design Environments
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 659-666
summary Computing in architectural design has followed a number of different visions, hopes and research agendas. One of the dominant themes in design Computing seeks to support various activities of 'individual' designers acting within a 'personal' design realm. Parallel to this is another theme which seeks to blend computing aids into normal working environments of groups of designers. The recent interest in and resurgence of collaborative design tools are steps towards what we view as an emerging theme in design computing, namely distributed design environments. This paper describes experiments in collaborative design using computers, and their observations are used to suggest future directions for integrating computing and design in distributed environments.
keywords Design Computing, Collaborative Work, Distributed Processing, Design Services, Design Products
series CAAD Futures
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 27b5
authors Die▀enbacher, Claus and Rank, Ernst
year 1995
title A Multimedia Archaeological Museum
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 13-20
summary This paper will present a project, which was first initiated in 1994 as a graduate students seminar and is now being continued as a research project in a cooperation of computer scientists, architects and archaeologists. An ancient roman city (Colonia Ulpia Traiana near todays Xanten in Germany) has been reconstructed, using various levels of abstraction. On the coarsest level, a 3D-model of the whole city was established, distinguishing between different historical periods of the city. The second level picks places of special interest (temples, the forum, the amphitheater, the townbaths etc.) and reconstructs these buildings or groups of buildings. On the finest level important interior parts or functional details like the Hypocaustae in the town-baths are modelled. All reconstructions are oriented as close as possible to results from excavations or other available documents. All levels of the 3D-model have been visualized using photorealistic images and sequences of video animations. The 3D model is integrated into a multimedia environment, augmenting the visualization elements with plans of the city and individual buildings and with text documents. It is intended, that parts of the outlined system will be available at the site of the ancient city, where today a large public archaeological park is located.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_2.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:36

_id a56e
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 1995
title What's in a Diagram That a Computer Should Understand?
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 469-480
summary This paper reports on an experiment to test the feasibility of using a diagramming tool to access an architectural knowledge base. Our hypothesis is that designers only use a small set of conventional elements to make diagrams of architectural concepts. If this is true, then a scheme for retrieving information from computer knowledge bases using diagrams would work. Therefore we asked designers to make diagrams from texts, to interpret diagrams into texts, to pair diagrams and texts, and to comment on existing pairs from the case base. We found from the experiment that common features are shared between different designerÝs diagrams and texts.
keywords Architectural Diagrams, Graphic Interface, Knowledge Bases
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 2036
authors Dzeng, R.J.
year 1995
title Caseplan: A Case-based Planer and Scheduler for Construction Using Product Modeling
source University of Michigan
summary Construction planning and scheduling are important to contractors for estimating the cost and duration of a project they are to bid on and construct. Many projects specify incentive and disincentive clauses for completing projects early and late. The timely completion and success of a project rely on good planning and scheduling. Contractors who repeatedly build the same kind of facilities acquire experience in scheduling the needed construction work. When parts of a facility's design are copied from one project to the next, the previously developed schedules could possibly be reused to schedule future work. This dissertation presents a construction planner and scheduler, named CasePlan, that automates the planning and scheduling process through the use of experience encoded in cases. CasePlan enables a contractor to specify a facility design using a product model, describe the relationships between product components and parts of a schedule (e.g., activity subnetworks, construction crews), and store this information as a case. As a decision support tool, CasePlan enables the contractor to search for cases whose facility designs are similar to that of a new project. The similarity assessment is based on the relative importance values that the contractor assigns to the components and their attributes in the product model. As an automation tool, CasePlan creates the schedule of a new project by reusing parts of the schedules whose associated designs are most similar to that project's design. The result is a schedule in which construction alternatives are chosen from those used in previous cases based on the new project scheduling constraints. The contractor / system-user can interact with CasePlan during its operation or modify the resulting schedule to add detail needed for executing the schedule in the field. Two types of construction projects have been studied for the development of CasePlan. One is the Kit-of-Parts post offices, in which designs are made by reusing design modules defined as Parts. The other is the boiler erection for fossil-fueled power plants, in which the design process is standardized and component configurations are similar across designs. These projects were chosen because their schedules are similar within each project type, which suggested that practitioners had a high incentive and were likely to reuse schedules. CasePlan's similarity assessment for boiler erection projects was validated using a survey. CasePlan's schedules and usability was subjectively evaluated also by the interviewed professionals.
series thesis:PhD
email rjdzeng@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 2508
authors Eggli, L. and Bruderlin, B.D. (et al.)
year 1995
title Sketching as a Solid Modeling Tool
source Third Symposium on Solid Modeling and Applications. C. Hoffmann and J. Rossignac. Salt Lake City, ACM: 313-321
summary This paper describes 'Quick-sketch', a 2d and 3d modeling tool for pen based computers. Users of this system define a model by simple pen strokes drawn directly on the screen of a pen-based PC. Lines, circles, arcs, or B-spline curves are automatically distinguished, and interpreted from these strokes. The system also automatically determines relations, such as right angles, tangencies, symmetry, and parallelism, from the sketch input, These relationships are then used to clean up the drawing by making the approximate relationships exact. Constraints are established to maintain the relationships in further editing. A constraint maintenance system, which is based on gestural manipulation and soft constraints, is employed in this system. Several techniques for sketch based definitions of solid objects are provided as well, including extrusion, surface of revolution, ruled surfaces and sweep. Feat ures can be sketched on the surfaces of 3d objects, using the same 2d- and 3d techniques. This way, objects of medium complexity can be sketched in seconds. The system can be used as a front-end to more sophisticated modeling, rendering or animation environments, serving as a hand sketching tool in the preliminary design phase.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6a3a
authors Ekholm, A., Fridqvist, S. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1995
title BAS.CAAD - Building and User Activity Systems Modelling for Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 217-230
summary In the early stages of the building design process not only building and site but also user activities and experiences are formed. This paper presents a development programme for CAAD where conceptual models of some fundamental characteristics of building, site and user organisation will be developed and implemented in a prototype CAAD-programme. The models are based both on empirical studies and an ontological Framework which is also used for organising the basic object structure of the prototype CAD program. The architectural design process has several characteristics which a CAAD-programme must support, e.g incremental determination of properties, change of scale and shift of focus. The research investigates how the design object and the user interface can be formed to serve this working method. One important field is to study the usefulness of the user organisation model for the brief and building management stages. The programming work for the prototypes is done with Smalltalk on Macintosh computers. The tests of the prototype includes spatial co-ordination of the three systems.

series eCAADe
email Sverker.Fridqvist@caad.lth.se
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_28.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:39

_id 0128
authors Engeli, M., Kurmann, D. and Schmitt, G.
year 1995
title A New Design Studio: Intelligent Objects and Personal Agents
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 155-170
summary As design processes and products are constantly increasing in complexity, new tools are being developed for the designer to cope with the growing demands. In this paper we describe our research towards a design environment, within which different aspects of design can be combined, elaborated and controlled. New hardware equipment will be combined with recent developments in graphics and artificial intelligence programming to develop appropriate computer based tools and find possible new design techniques. The core of the new design studio comprises intelligent objects in a virtual reality environment that exhibit different behaviours drawn from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life (AL) principles, a part already realised in a tool called 'Sculptor'. The tasks of the architect will focus on preferencing and initiating good tendencies in the development of the design. A first set of software agents, assistants that support the architect in viewing, experiencing and judging the design has also been conceptualised for this virtual design environment. The goal is to create an optimised environment for the designer, where the complexity of the design task can be reduced thanks to the support made available from the machine.
keywords Architectural Design, Design Process, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Personal Agents
series ACADIA
email maia@enge.li
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id a036
authors Ervin, Stephen and Westort, Caroline
year 1995
title Procedural Terrain: A Virtual Bulldozer
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 257-265
summary We describe a system for procedural landform design, which uses the simple metaphor of a two-dimensional profile or ăbladeŰ, swept along a three-dimensional trajectory, or ăpathŰ, leaving behind a modeled surface in its wake. This ăpathŰ and ăbladeŰ system can mimic a common bulldozer ˝ a simple rectangular blade moved along a path constrained to straight lined and large radius curves ˝ as well as more fanciful landform designs ˝ a blade of continually changing profile swept along an exponential spiral path, for instance. Our prototype ăbulldozerŰ (implemented in AutoLisp) operates in a field of procedurally defined landform ăprimitivesŰ to create a virtual surface, and uses a standard rectangular mesh for displaying the resultant landform.
keywords Digital Terrain Model, Procedural Model, Landscape Design, Landform
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 14b5
authors Fang, Lian and Gossard, David C.
year 1995
title Multidimensional curve fitting to unorganized data points by nonlinear minimization
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27 (1) (1995) pp. 48-58
summary Many papers have addressed the problem of fitting curves to data points. However, most of the approaches are subject to a restriction that the data points must be ordered.The paper presents a method for generating a piecewise continuous parametric curve from a set of unordered and error-filled data points. The resulting curve not only providesa good fit to the original data but also possesses good fairness. Excluding the endpoints of the curve, none of the connectivity information needs to be specified, thuseliminating the necessity of an initial parameterization. The standard regularization method for univariate functions is modified for multidimensional parametric functions andresults in a nonlinear minimization problem. Successive quadratic programming is applied to find the optimal solution. A physical model is also supplied to facilitate anintuitive understanding of the mathematical background.
keywords Data Interpolation, Regularization, Nonlinear Minimization
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id cbe2
authors Fenves, S., Rivard, H., Gomez, N. and Chiou S.
year 1995
title Conceptual Structural Design in SEED
source Journal of Architectural Engineering -- December 1995 -- Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 179-186
summary Although there are many computer-based tools for analyzing structures whose geometry, topology, and member properties have already been determined, there are very few general-purpose tools to assiststructural designers in synthesizing structural configurations to be subsequently sized, analyzed, and detailed. The comceptual-structural-design submodule of the Software Environment to Support the EarlyPhases in Building Design (SEED-Config) is intended to fill this void. The process starts with a geometric model of the building's massing, a set of functional requirements to be satisfied, and a toolkit oftechnologies capable of generating potential structural system and subsystem alternatives. Structural alternatives can be rapidly generated under designer control to the level of detail desired and evaluated against arange of criteria. Provisions are made to store design cases as well as to retrieve and adapt these to meet new requirements.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

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