CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 393

_id 276c
authors Breen, Jack
year 1995
title Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: “Dynamic Perspective”. The “dynamic” quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: “the architecture of the city”. Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides “traditional” ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id bf5f
authors Chen, Xiangping
year 1995
title Representation, Evaluation and Edition of Feature-based and Constraint- based Design
source Purdue University
summary This thesis investigates a general and systematic approach to feature-based and constraint-based design. We combine feature-based design and constraint-based design by globally decomposing a design into a sequence of feature attachments and locally defining and positioning each feature by constraints. Analogous to the concept of high-level programming languages, we formalize a layered design model that eliminates the dependency of a design representation on a solid modeler. With this design model, design intent, such as feature descriptions and constraints, is stored in an unevaluated, modeler-independent design representation while the geometry to which it corresponds is stored in an evaluated, modeler-dependent design representation. The separation essentially relies on a naming and matching schema that converts between a geometric reference and a generic name, and a design compiler that automatically instantiates the unevaluated design representation to an evaluated design representation with respect to a solid modeler. The geometric references for defining feature attributes and constraints are recorded with their generic names in the unevaluated design representation. We propose several techniques for naming geometric entities unambiguously. The design compilation or instantiation involves remapping a generic name back to a geometric reference in the selected geometric modeler, solving constraints and implementing feature operations or attachments. Instead of developing a constraint solver for this design compiler, we use an independent and general solver. Feature attachment operations are different from classical Boolean operations in solid modeling. However, we provide a semantics for them that is based on existing operations in solid modeling. The layered design model allows users to edit archived conceptual designs to derive new designs quickly. We investigate the coordination of later features in the unevaluated and modeler-independent representation when a feature is edited and provide a method for editing feature-based and constraint-based design. We also discuss how to extend this work to a commercial feature-based and constraint-based CAD system.  
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 1a52
authors Amor, R., Augenbroe, G., Hosking, J., Rombouts and W., Grundy, J.
year 1995
title Directions in modelling environments
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 173-187
summary Schema definition is a vital component in the computerised A/E/C projects. existing tools to manage this task are limited both in terms of the scope Of problems they can tackle and their integration with each other. This paper describes a global modellling and development environment for large modelling projects. This environment provides a total solution from initial design of schemas to validation, manipulation arid navigation through final models. A major benefit of the described system is the ability to provide multiple views of evolving schemas (or models) in both graphical and textual forms This allows modellers to visualise their schemas and instance models either textually or graphically as desired. The system automatically maintains the Conisistency of the informalion in these views even when modifications are made in other views. Simple and intuitive view navigation methods allow required information to he rapidly accessed. The environment supports strict checking of model instances and schemas in one of the major ISO-standardised modelling languages no used in product data technology. Ill this paper we show how such a modelling environment has been constructed for evaluation in the JOULE founded COMBINE project.
keywords Modelling Environment; Consistency; Multiple Views: Views; Building Models; Information Management; Integrated System; Product Modelling
series journal paper
email trebor@cs.auckland.ac.nz
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 12:33

_id df4b
authors Angulo Mendivil, Antonieta Humbelina
year 1995
title On the Conceptual Feasibility of a CAAD-CAAI Integrated Decision Support System: A Computer Aided Environment for Technical Decision Making in Architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This document addresses two questions: What are the ultimate means of design support we can offer to the architect, and how can we devise them? We are not the first ones to address these questions, neither the first ones to point our finger in the direction of Decision Support Systems for such purposes. Nevertheless, we may be among those scholars that understanding 'Decision Support" in terms of "Learning Support", are willing to explore the implications that such an understanding assumes for the concept of Decision Support Systems. Our exploration in such regards has shown us that knowledge application and knowledge acquisition cycles describe a continuum, and that such cycles, encapsulated in our "Practice Based Learning" and "Continuing Professional Development" dynamics are present in both our instructional and professional environments. From such a perspective, our scope regarding feasible Decision Support Systems is not restricted to the use of CAAD instrumental resources, but expanded into a context of CAAD-CAAI integration. Throughout this document we conceive a system that blends CAAD and CAAI resources looking forward to the creation of a Support Environment that seeks to motivate a reflective attitude during design, in such a way, upgrade our capability for acquiring as well as applying knowledge in design. In instrumental terms, this document explains how mainstream CAAD developments in the field of "Intelligent Front End Technology" and CAAI developments in the field of "Knowledge-based Curricular Networks" can complement each other in the establishment of a Decision Support System of trans-environmental relevancy. As an application framework for the concept and instrumental base described above, this document presents an image of the kind of decision-making model that it will intend to support, the kind of task support model it will look forward to implement, and the kind of general instrumental layout it will require. On the basis of such an instrumental layout, the system that is hereby outlined can be regarded as a "CAAD-CAAI Integrated", "Intelligent", and "User-Oriented" Interface System.
series thesis:PhD
email angulo@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ff05
authors Butelski, Kazimierz
year 1995
title A Brief Note on Virtual Space
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 83-92
summary In its efforts to represent space, and then create architecture on the basis of this representation, humanity has taken three major steps. STEP 1. Representation of space in the form of a drawing or model; representations compared to the mental vision and then redrawn or remodelled, until the vision takes the shape of a finished building. This technology of design" followed different conventions, depending on the epoch. In the Middle Ages the method of approximation by triangles was introduced. The Renaissance used Projection, Elevation and Cross-Section. In order to construct a building, a flat, abstract representation is used, supplemented by a model showing spatial relations and a verbal description, impossible to convey graphically. STEP 2. Methods as in Step 1, but, beginning in the 1970s, with the use of computers, which allows also for the gradual integration of these methods in one program. Theoretically speaking, all necessary data can be now recorded, visualized, animated, etc., on a PC class computer. The design-aid software is based on the method of creating a 3D model of the whole building, and then generating the rest (projections, cross-sections) from it. STEP 3. The above step have - brought us to near- perfection in photorealistic representation of space, which remains, however only a 2D abstraction from 3D space. The next step, which is now taking place before (and in?) our very eyes, is to use systems which bring us directly into 3D space.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 695f
authors Galle, P.
year 1995
title Towards integrated, intelligent, and compliant computer modeling of buildings
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 189-211
summary This paper is a survey of current research into computer modeling of buildings. Just as much, however, it is a contribution to a debate on the future of this field of research (and as such expresses the author's opinions, rather than mere facts). It is suggested that more research should be conducted in a top-down "'problem-driven" (rather than in a bottom-up. "technology-driven") manner. As the goal of future research, ten desirable system properties are proposed and grouped together under three headings: integration. intelligence", and compliance. A critical survey of the current state-of-the-art of computer modeling of buildings is given, to assess how far we are from systems with such properties. On that background problems are discussed which are major obstacles to the proposed kind of systems (hence good starting points lot problem-driven research and some ways of approaching these problems are briefly evaluated.
keywords Computer Modeling of Buildings; Product Modeling: Computer Aided Building Design; Critical Survey; Goal-Setting Debate; Concurrency Control: Integrity Constraint Management; Representation; Complexity of Representations
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 12:47

_id a79b
authors Junge, Richard and Liebich, Thomas
year 1995
title New Generation CAD in an Integrated Design Environment: A Path towards Multi-Agent Collaboration
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 277-290
summary Product Modeling is considered to be an established concept not only for semantically based data exchange, but also for the specification of models, dealing with specific application requirements. The product model approach is regarded to be one step towards a new generation of Computer Aided Architectural Design, and to provide underlying means for enabling communication between different applications on a semantic level. After on overview about the background and the basis principles of product modeling, the authors discuss how product models can be used in commercial developments and in applied research projects.
keywords Product Modeling, STEP, Computer-Aided Design, Data Integration
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id a0e2
authors Kim, Inhan and Liebich, Thomas
year 1995
title Representations and Control of Design Information in an Integrated CAAD Environment
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 125-138
summary This paper investigates the mechanisms by which effective data communication between the various design stages and design actors may be facilitated in an Integrated Design Environment. The design team would then be able to cooperate efficiently and easily predict the performance of buildings, thus improving the quality of the design. Within the proposed prototype design environment, a core data model and a data management system have been implemented to connect all applications seamlessly. The core data model supports semantically meaningful descriptions of buildings. The data management system supports consistent and straightforward mechanisms for controlling the data representation through interconnected modules. An existing building is used to test the integration capability of the implemented system.###Product Modelling,.Object-Oriented Database System
series CAAD Futures
email liebich@uumail.de
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 7cc1
authors Kowal, Slawomir
year 1995
title CAD Users Integration – A Current Problem
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 93-103
summary In just about every field of human activities, actions which cover the design processes and the development of "a product", demand the participation of people presenting different professions and specialization. Designers using CAD techniques, usually apply different programs and even computer systems. This means that quite a large number of different applications, realising various elementary tasks, may be used during architectural design process. Very seldom data generated by a single designer, may be used by another one presenting a different specialization and using a different program. As each one of them makes a lot of changes during the design process, the need for a free exchange of the computer generated data may be seen easily. Hitherto proposed solutions of the integration of CAD systems users may be qualified in two following groups: 1.) Those based on a single integrated CAD system; 2.) Those based on a neutral data transfer format.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 750a
authors Oxman, Rivka
year 1995
title Design Case Bases: Graphic Knowledge Bases for the Design Workspace
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 555-565
summary Cases in the domain of architecture and engineering are commonly stored and presented as graphical representations in the form of drawings. The way creative designers fit and adapt graphical representations through drawing and re-drawing is still one of the least understood phenomena in design. Modeling stich processes appears to be a key to graphic knowledge base integration in CAAD environments. The paper reports on a new approach to modeling design adaptation in a graphical environment. This approach is based upon a theory of creativity, the Representation - Re-representation Hypothesis which is here employed in the formalization of design adaptation. A 'multi-layer re-representational model' which assists in the adaptation of design drawings is developed and presented. The model is based on the transformation of chunks of knowledge in design cases into explicit re-representational structures which can support creative design in a graphic environment. This model is utilized in our current work in development of a prototype graphical case-based CAAD system.
keywords Adaptation, Case-based CAAD, Case-based Design, Creativity, Graphical Case-Bases, Representation, Re-Representation.
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 99a3
authors Schaaf, Joerg W. and Voss, Angi
year 1995
title Retrieval of Similar Layouts in FABEL using AspecT
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 617-626
summary In the FABEL project several approaches have been developed and published for retrieving similar cases in the domain of architectural design. In this paper we want to focus on a short description and foremost on integration of these approaches. We will introduce the most important approaches. As a first step towards integration, we suggest decomposing them into their main parts: representation of cases, similarity function and retrieval component. Using the first two parts each approach in a new search algorithm operating on a generic data structure, we built a shell called AspecT for an easy integration. We are positive that one can never have fully considered all aspects of a design. Therefore, we describe an open framework to define new aspects and to apply them depending on the context. Unfortunately, openness brings some difficulties along with it. One can not predict the importance of an aspect, until the situation assessment of the query is completed. In other words, it is impossible to define a static distribution of aspect weights that fits for all purposes. As a consequence, one can not predefine a static structure on the case base to speed tip retrieval processes. Dealing with this problem, we developed and published a special search algorithm that passes through a multidimensional case base, finding the best fitting cases within a short amount of time. This algorithm does not need any predefined structure on the case base except aspect specific relations between cases. Creativity of inventing new aspects of cases should not be hindered but one can ask whether or not a certain aspect are worth being regarded in searching for useful cases. The shell AspecT offers a tool to evaluate aspects. At first, formal criteria influence the initial weights of aspects but later on, the contribution of an aspect to find user accepted cases, determines the survival fitness of an aspect. The rule for living or dying is simple. Seldom used aspects disappear, whereas others become stronger. A short description regarding this work is given in last part.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Retrieval, Integration of Similarity Concepts, Architectural Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id ec17
authors Shelden, D., Bharwani, S., Mitchell, W.J. and Williams, J.
year 1995
title Requirements for Virtual Design Review
source Architectural Research Quarterly 1(2), December
summary Requirements for Virtual Design Review: Fundamental Argument: This article deals primarily with the actual physical components of a virtual design review, and the difficulties associated with their integration. It is a rather refreshing approach to the problem of the virtual studio, in that it provides an empirical model of how the virtual and the real interact. Needless to say, there were numerous difficulties. 1. The reviewers and the students had to adapt to a new system of design review. Thus, traditional protocols and procedures may or may not work when dealing with a project in the virtual realm. The jurors and the students did become more comfortable as the jury progressed, but it is safe to say that those who went first most likely had a difficult and rather unhelpful session. 2. The technology itself was limited in what it could accomplish. The rate of transmissions across the line often hindered the review. Those students who used analog display, such as drawings or sketches, were not able to present these items effectively to remote viewers. The article does state that the virtual design review drew heavily upon the model of tradition review for its procedures. Was this the correct way of conducting the jury? With the introduction of technology into the process, one would think that there would be a significant shift in the model. Though the traditional model may be useful as a point of departure, we must critically engage the unique qualities that technology brings to the review. I would argue that a new model would need to be developed, whether it is a radical departure, a hybrid, or a modest adjustment to the existing model. For a traditional review, all one might need are a few push pins, a table for model display, and a surface upon which to pin his or her drawings. For the digital review, one requires monitors, computers, special lighting, video cameras, electrical outlets and phone jacks, and whatever else might be required to conduct a successful jury. It is in fact more akin to a television production than a traditional jury. The sheer complexity that technology inserts into the process can seem almost overwhelming. Yet if we can narrow our focus, find the essentials, by critically engaging those areas that will be affected by its introduction, then we can begin to imagine a true digital review.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2068
authors Frazer, John
year 1995
title AN EVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE
source London: Architectural Association
summary In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems which are more environmentally aware and sustainable physically, sociologically and economically. The range of topics which Frazer discusses is a good illustration of the breadth and depth of the evolutionary design problem. Environmental Modelling One of the first topics dealt with is the importance of environmental modelling within the design process. Frazer shows how environmental modelling is often misused or misinterpreted by architects with particular reference to solar modelling. From the discussion given it would seem that simplifications of the environmental models is the prime culprit resulting in misinterpretation and misuse. The simplifications are understandable given the amount of information needed for accurate modelling. By simplifying the model of the environmental conditions the architect is able to make informed judgments within reasonable amounts of time and effort. Unfortunately the simplications result in errors which compound and cause the resulting structures to fall short of their anticipated performance. Frazer obviously believes that the computer can be a great aid in the harnessing of environmental modelling data, providing that the same simplifying assumptions are not made and that better models and interfaces are possible. Physical Modelling Physical modelling has played an important role in Frazer's research. Leading to the construction of several novel machine readable interactive models, ranging from lego-like building blocks to beermat cellular automata and wall partitioning systems. Ultimately this line of research has led to the Universal Constructor and the Universal Interactor. The Universal Constructor The Universal Constructor features on the cover of the book. It consists of a base plug-board, called the "landscape", on top of which "smart" blocks, or cells, can be stacked vertically. The cells are individually identified and can communicate with neighbours above and below. Cells communicate with users through a bank of LEDs displaying the current state of the cell. The whole structure is machine readable and so can be interpreted by a computer. The computer can interpret the states of the cells as either colour or geometrical transformations allowing a wide range of possible interpretations. The user interacts with the computer display through direct manipulation of the cells. The computer can communicate and even direct the actions of the user through feedback with the cells to display various states. The direct manipulation of the cells encourages experimentation by the user and demonstrates basic concepts of the system. The Universal Interactor The Universal Interactor is a whole series of experimental projects investigating novel input and output devices. All of the devices speak a common binary language and so can communicate through a mediating central hub. The result is that input, from say a body-suit, can be used to drive the out of a sound system or vice versa. The Universal Interactor opens up many possibilities for expression when using a CAD system that may at first seem very strange.However, some of these feedback systems may prove superior in the hands of skilled technicians than more standard devices. Imagine how a musician might be able to devise structures by playing melodies which express the character. Of course the interpretation of input in this form poses a difficult problem which will take a great deal of research to achieve. The Universal Interactor has been used to provide environmental feedback to affect the development of evolving genetic codes. The feedback given by the Universal Interactor has been used to guide selection of individuals from a population. Adaptive Computing Frazer completes his introduction to the range of tools used in his research by giving a brief tour of adaptive computing techniques. Covering topics including cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems and artificial evolution. Cellular Automata As previously mentioned Frazer has done some work using cellular automata in both physical and simulated environments. Frazer discusses how surprisingly complex behaviour can result from the simple local rules executed by cellular automata. Cellular automata are also capable of computation, in fact able to perform any computation possible by a finite state machine. Note that this does not mean that cellular automata are capable of any general computation as this would require the construction of a Turing machine which is beyond the capabilities of a finite state machine. Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms were first presented by Holland and since have become a important tool for many researchers in various areas.Originally developed for problem-solving and optimization problems with clearly stated criteria and goals. Frazer fails to mention one of the most important differences between genetic algorithms and other adaptive problem-solving techniques, ie. neural networks. Genetic algorithms have the advantage that criteria can be clearly stated and controlled within the fitness function. The learning by example which neural networks rely upon does not afford this level of control over what is to be learned. Classifier Systems Holland went on to develop genetic algorithms into classifier systems. Classifier systems are more focussed upon the problem of learning appropriate responses to stimuli, than searching for solutions to problems. Classifier systems receive information from the environment and respond according to rules, or classifiers. Successful classifiers are rewarded, creating a reinforcement learning environment. Obviously, the mapping between classifier systems and the cybernetic view of organisms sensing, processing and responding to environmental stimuli is strong. It would seem that a central process similar to a classifier system would be appropriate at the core of an organic building. Learning appropriate responses to environmental conditions over time. Artificial Evolution Artificial evolution traces it's roots back to the Biomorph program which was described by Dawkins in his book "The Blind Watchmaker". Essentially, artificial evolution requires that a user supplements the standard fitness function in genetic algorithms to guide evolution. The user may provide selection pressures which are unquantifiable in a stated problem and thus provide a means for dealing ill-defined criteria. Frazer notes that solving problems with ill-defined criteria using artificial evolution seriously limits the scope of problems that can be tackled. The reliance upon user interaction in artificial evolution reduces the practical size of populations and the duration of evolutionary runs. Coding Schemes Frazer goes on to discuss the encoding of architectural designs and their subsequent evolution. Introducing two major systems, the Reptile system and the Universal State Space Modeller. Blueprint vs. Recipe Frazer points out the inadequacies of using standard "blueprint" design techniques in developing organic structures. Using a "recipe" to describe the process of constructing a building is presented as an alternative. Recipes for construction are discussed with reference to the analogous process description given by DNA to construct an organism. The Reptile System The Reptile System is an ingenious construction set capable of producing a wide range of structures using just two simple components. Frazer saw the advantages of this system for rule-based and evolutionary systems in the compactness of structure descriptions. Compactness was essential for the early computational work when computer memory and storage space was scarce. However, compact representations such as those described form very rugged fitness landscapes which are not well suited to evolutionary search techniques. Structures are created from an initial "seed" or minimal construction, for example a compact spherical structure. The seed is then manipulated using a series of processes or transformations, for example stretching, shearing or bending. The structure would grow according to the transformations applied to it. Obviously, the transformations could be a predetermined sequence of actions which would always yield the same final structure given the same initial seed. Alternatively, the series of transformations applied could be environmentally sensitive resulting in forms which were also sensitive to their location. The idea of taking a geometrical form as a seed and transforming it using a series of processes to create complex structures is similar in many ways to the early work of Latham creating large morphological charts. Latham went on to develop his ideas into the "Mutator" system which he used to create organic artworks. Generalising the Reptile System Frazer has proposed a generalised version of the Reptile System to tackle more realistic building problems. Generating the seed or minimal configuration from design requirements automatically. From this starting point (or set of starting points) solutions could be evolved using artificial evolution. Quantifiable and specific aspects of the design brief define the formal criteria which are used as a standard fitness function. Non-quantifiable criteria, including aesthetic judgments, are evaluated by the user. The proposed system would be able to learn successful strategies for satisfying both formal and user criteria. In doing so the system would become a personalised tool of the designer. A personal assistant which would be able to anticipate aesthetic judgements and other criteria by employing previously successful strategies. Ultimately, this is a similar concept to Negroponte's "Architecture Machine" which he proposed would be computer system so personalised so as to be almost unusable by other people. The Universal State Space Modeller The Universal State Space Modeller is the basis of Frazer's current work. It is a system which can be used to model any structure, hence the universal claim in it's title. The datastructure underlying the modeller is a state space of scaleless logical points, called motes. Motes are arranged in a close-packing sphere arrangement, which makes each one equidistant from it's twelve neighbours. Any point can be broken down into a self-similar tetrahedral structure of logical points. Giving the state space a fractal nature which allows modelling at many different levels at once. Each mote can be thought of as analogous to a cell in a biological organism. Every mote carries a copy of the architectural genetic code in the same way that each cell within a organism carries a copy of it's DNA. The genetic code of a mote is stored as a sequence of binary "morons" which are grouped together into spatial configurations which are interpreted as the state of the mote. The developmental process begins with a seed. The seed develops through cellular duplication according to the rules of the genetic code. In the beginning the seed develops mainly in response to the internal genetic code, but as the development progresses the environment plays a greater role. Cells communicate by passing messages to their immediate twelve neighbours. However, it can send messages directed at remote cells, without knowledge of it's spatial relationship. During the development cells take on specialised functions, including environmental sensors or producers of raw materials. The resulting system is process driven, without presupposing the existence of a construction set to use. The datastructure can be interpreted in many ways to derive various phenotypes. The resulting structure is a by-product of the cellular activity during development and in response to the environment. As such the resulting structures have much in common with living organisms which are also the emergent result or by-product of local cellular activity. Primordial Architectural Soups To conclude, Frazer presents some of the most recent work done, evolving fundamental structures using limited raw materials, an initial seed and massive feedback. Frazer proposes to go further and do away with the need for initial seed and start with a primordial soup of basic architectural concepts. The research is attempting to evolve the starting conditions and evolutionary processes without any preconditions. Is there enough time to evolve a complex system from the basic building blocks which Frazer proposes? The computational complexity of the task being embarked upon is not discussed. There is an implicit assumption that the "superb tactics" of natural selection are enough to cut through the complexity of the task. However, Kauffman has shown how self-organisation plays a major role in the early development of replicating systems which we may call alive. Natural selection requires a solid basis upon which it can act. Is the primordial soup which Frazer proposes of the correct constitution to support self-organisation? Kauffman suggests that one of the most important attributes of a primordial soup to be capable of self-organisation is the need for a complex network of catalysts and the controlling mechanisms to stop the reactions from going supracritical. Can such a network be provided of primitive architectural concepts? What does it mean to have a catalyst in this domain? Conclusion Frazer shows some interesting work both in the areas of evolutionary design and self-organising systems. It is obvious from his work that he sympathizes with the opinions put forward by Kauffman that the order found in living organisms comes from both external evolutionary pressure and internal self-organisation. His final remarks underly this by paraphrasing the words of Kauffman, that life is always to found on the edge of chaos. By the "edge of chaos" Kauffman is referring to the area within the ordered regime of a system close to the "phase transition" to chaotic behaviour. Unfortunately, Frazer does not demonstrate that the systems he has presented have the necessary qualities to derive useful order at the edge of chaos. He does not demonstrate, as Kauffman does repeatedly, that there exists a "phase transition" between ordered and chaotic regimes of his systems. He also does not make any studies of the relationship of useful forms generated by his work to phase transition regions of his systems should they exist. If we are to find an organic architecture, in more than name alone, it is surely to reside close to the phase transition of the construction system of which is it built. Only there, if we are to believe Kauffman, are we to find useful order together with environmentally sensitive and thermodynamically open systems which can approach the utility of living organisms.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/22 12:12

_id 02f7
authors Liebich, Thomas and Kim, Inhan
year 1995
title ID'EST: An Integrated Modelling Framework for Management of Architectural Data
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 377-387
summary An Integrated Design Environment, IDE, facilitates cooperation between different disciplines. The paper investigates the data modelling framework, distinguishes between homogeneous and heterogeneous model worlds, discusses the formal mapping mechanisms available to establish a heterogeneous model world, and introduces a way to incorporate CAD systems into IDE A prototype IDE has been developed to prove these methods. The ID'EST prototype comprises its own core data model, different schemas to cope with several design views, and interfaces to incorporate external CAD systems. A prototype architectural data model has been defined, that includes core data models and aspect models for enclosure system and spatial system. Conventional CAD systems can be integrated into ID'EST, if they are able to map data from the aspect models into their own data structure, and vice versa, on a high semantic level. The inherent methods of classifying data in CAD, layers, macros and attached attributes, have been used to retrieve product data from CAD data files. The usability of conventional CAD systems as data instantiation tools for IDE has been proved and a path has been shown, by which existing tools can be integrated into new technology solutions.
keywords Product Modelling, Formal Mapping Specification, Computer-Aided Design
series CAAD Futures
email liebich@uumail.de
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 7671
authors Roozenburg, N.F.M. and Eekels, J.
year 1995
title Product Design: Fundamentals and Methods
source John Wiley & Son Ltd., Chichester
summary More and more the product becomes the key to competitiveness in the manufacturing industry. Designing and developing products is a complex process that requires a systematic approach. This book addresses the methodological problems of that process. The authors deal with the foundations of thinking and practice in product design and product development and give critical overview of the current models, methods and techniques. The overall structure of the product development process exemplified by four case histories.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ˇ§too newˇ¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 22cd
authors Wojtowicz, Jerzy and Gilliard, Jeff
year 1995
title Purist Lessons: Constructing the Unrealized Villas of Le Corbusier
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 507-516
summary The villas of Le Corbusier from his Purist Corpus (1923-1929) are appropriate for reconstruction using computational tools for how their inherent logic is revealed by this process. Conceived but never built, the following seven design examples are inferred from incomplete and fragmentary original documentation and rebuilt as three-dimensional computer models. The analytic process of reconstruction depends upon available descriptive information, but more significant is the assumption of a design methodology based in geometry and elemental volumes. Understanding the basis of this method and its rules begins the systematic geometric reconstruction of the villas. The record of this process and the role of the machine in representing the object and its cognitive aspects is supported by the syntactic organization of images.
series CAAD Futures
email jerzy@post.harvard.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c078
authors Allegra, M, Fulantelli, G. and Mangiarotti, G.
year 1995
title A New Methodology to Develop Hypermedia Systems for Architecture History
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 43-52
summary This paper illustrates a research project concerning the analysis of architectural works through a comparative study based on hypermedia tools; by exploring the hypermedia, users can find the main subjects relative to the "method " of architectural planning. The use of multimedia in architecture allows the integration in a single system of different types of information which are necessary for the description of a work. texts, designs, photos and sounds. In addition, the hypertext information structure allows the direct intervention on analyzed projects, by pointing out the more important themes and their relationships. Users have the opportunity to immerse themselves in hypermedia and choose the subject to navigate through on each occasion. Our research project aims at developing a prototype concerning two architects. I.L.Kahn and F.L. Wright. The development methodology is based on the key role played by the components of architectonic works, thus allowing users to compare them in a simple and correct way. The methodology used in this work can be extended to other architects or periods, by simply changing the possibility of navigation, i.e. by changing the reading keys.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_6.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8991
authors Danahy, John and Hoinkes, Rodney
year 1995
title Polytrim: Collaborative Setting for Environmental Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 647-658
summary This paper begins with a review of the structuring values and questions the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) is interested in answering with its testbed software system Polytrim (and its derivatives; CLRview, CLRpaint, CLRmosaic available via anonymous ftp over the internet). The mid section of the paper serves as a guide to Polytrim's structure and implementation issues. Some of the most enduring and significant principles learned from Polytrim's use over the last six years of use in research, teaching and professional practice are introduced. The paper will end with an overview of characteristics that we believe our next generation of software should achieve. The CLR's digital library on the World-Wide Web provides an extensive Set of illustrations and detailed descriptions of the ideas and figures presented in this paper. Endnotes provide specific internet addresses for those that wish to read, see or use the system.
keywords Dialogue, Interaction, Collaboration, Integration, Setting
series CAAD Futures
email jwdanahy@rogers.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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