CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 393

_id 07de
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1995
title Linking the Virtual to Reality: CAD & Physical Modeling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 303-311
summary Using both study models and digital models for schematic design allows us to take advantage of the strengths of each. Models constructed manually benefit from spontaneous juxtapositions and serendipitous interactions with light and gravity. Converting these models into the digital realm allows the computer to take over in areas that it does best: geometric transformation, rigorous analysis, elaboration and co-ordination of details and complexity. As a project develops, CAD/CAM methods can generate forms or components for verifying the virtual representation. The paradigm of porting data to appropriate software tools needs to be extended to exporting out of and into the physical realm. Connecting to models in real space allows us to use senses that are not yet completely addressed by digital models.
keywords Modeling, Representation, Design
series CAAD Futures
email nywc@uoregon.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a9ff
authors Chiou, Shang Chia and Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1997
title A Grammar of Taiwanese Temples
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 297-311
summary Many different types of traditional Chinese buildings share quite similar architectural forms. This paper extends a shape grammar for Taiwanese vernacular dwellings (Chiou and Krishnamurti, 1995 a, b, c; 1996) to the traditional temple designs. Our grammar was derived from considerations of the traditional processes of design and construction of Taiwanese vernacular dwellings and from cultural influences. The processes for temple design and construction were similar; consequently, a temple grammar can be derived from this grammar. In this paper, we do so by augmenting the latter with additional rules that take into consideration specific changes to the spatial form that distinguish the traditional temples.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 13:55

_id 44f6
authors Colajanni, Benedetto and Pellitteri, Giuseppe (Eds.)
year 1995
title Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4 / Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, 436 p.
summary The rapid development of the potentialities of multimedia imposes a reflection about its use in teaching architecture. Multimedia is multifaceted and each facet deserves a particular attention inasmuch as it can change the traditional approach to learning. A direct experience of an architectural work can be simulated with a impact far stronger than an experience trough photographs, drawings and books can do. But, as every positive fact can have in certain cases also some negative consequences. the intensity of the participation to an experience structured by someone else can leave less space to a personal approach to the object of the presentation. The same problem is posed if we consider the structure of an hypertext. The essence of the hypertext lies in the net of relationships between very different kinds of documents that it is able to manage in order to express the complexity of its theme. But who has to create the net, the teacher choosing the relationship that he thinks important or the learner to build a personal image of the hypertext matter. It is an old question about the two faces of teaching: transmitting knowledge or giving the learner the instruments to build by oneself his store of knowledge. Easy and trivial answer that both approaches can be useful. The accomplishment of a multimedial sequence of average complexity requires at present a lot of time. Hence, to be convenient, it is to be used many times, then by many students. The effectiveness of the tool partly depends on the rapidity with which it can be constructed. Speeding it up would allow to use this kind of tools with the same easiness than mare traditional means of representation. Besides those general considerations a check is to do on the peculiarities, if any, of the use of multimedia in the different disciplines of the formative curriculum of an architect. This is theme of our thirteenth conference. The programme has been articulated into sessions, dealing separately with history teaching, design teaching and research. Of course the sessions dealing with design are more numerous than the other, since design is the axis of teaching architecture. The presented paper cover a large arc of arguments, dealing with many facets of the proposed themes with plenty of examples and documentation on practical experiences. constituting a corpus of great usefulness for any operator in the field of architectural teaching.

series eCAADe
email bcolajan@biblio.unipa.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Home.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 13:04

_id 8cdd
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1995
title Multimedia Metaphors in the Design Studio
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 129-138
summary In this paper I examine some of he ways that multimedia impacts upon the design studio. I show how multimedia affects design products and processes in so far as it is caught up in the metaphors we use in structuring design tasks. But this influence is far from deterministic. Metaphors entail various oppositions, the resolution of which sets the problems for the designer in the particular design situation. The article describes two cases of using multimedia in a design studio teaching situation. The first explores how multimedia brings to light the opposition between the design and the presentation of the design. I explore how students cope with the tensions that arise when using multimedia. The second case study looks at the conventional privileging of the visual over the other senses in architectural design. I describe a design studio in which we deliberately privileged the audile sense over the visual. This was established through the way we set the brief, hut also through the use of multimedia technology. Students used sound recorded from the site in conjunction with MIDI keyboard and sound processing technology to analyse and synthesise sound pertinent to the design of a pavilion at the Circular Quay area on the busy Sydney foreshore. We examine what difference this emphasis upon the audile made to the design process and to the design product, and how multimedia affects design.

series eCAADe
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_17.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id eb51
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1996
title CAAD, Curriculum and Controversy
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 121-130
summary This paper brings some of the debate within educational theory to bear on CAAD teaching, outlining the contributions of conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics and pragmatism. The paper concludes by recommending that CAAD teaching move away from conservative concepts of teaching, design and technology to integrate it into the studio. In a highly illuminating book on education theory, Shaun Gallagher (1991) outlines four current views on education that correspond to four major positions in contemporary social theory and philosophy. I will extend these categories to a consideration of attitudes to information technology, and the teaching of computing in architecture. These four positions are conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics, and pragmatism. I will show how certain issues cluster around them, how each position provides the focus of various discursive practices, or intellectual conversations in contemporary thinking, and how information technology is caught up in those conversations. These four positions are not "cognitive styles," but vigorously argued domains of debate involving writers such as Gadamer, Habermas and Derrida about the theory of interpretation. The field of interpretation is known as hermeneutics, which is concerned less with epistemology and knowledge than with understanding. Interpretation theory applies to reading texts, interpreting the law, and appreciating art, but also to the application of any practical task, such as making art, drawing, defining and solving problems, and design (Coyne and Snodgrass, 1995). Hermeneutics provides a coherent focus for considering many contemporary issues and many domains of practice. I outline what these positions in education mean in terms of CAAD (computer-aided architectural design) in the curriculum.

series eCAADe
email richard@caad.ed.ac.uk
more http://www.caad.ac.uk/~richard
last changed 1998/08/17 13:35

_id 95bf
authors Culverhouse, P.F.
year 1995
title Constraining designers and their CAD tools
source Design Studies 16 (1) (1995) pp. 81-101
summary Electronics product designs can fail for technological reasons and also for human reasons. Both computer-aided design (CAD) tools and formal methods have attempted to limit the risk of product failure by logical assessment of the design and its technology. However, to improve design effectiveness and efficiency the contribution of people to a design's risk of failure must also be assessed and controlled. A method is presented of controlling and limiting human design through the application of a four-path model of design previously developed by the author. The model categorizes designs as repeat design, variant design, innovative design or strategic design. Each has its own set of pre-existent constraints that limit the capacity for unwanted innovation to the product at the outset of each development programme. This provides a mechanism by which designer creativity may be controlled. The manner in which designers are constrained may also be applied to the control of CAD tools commonly employed in the design process.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ae9f
authors Damer, B.
year 1996
title Inhabited Virtual Worlds: A New Frontier for Interaction Design
source Interactions, Vol.3, No.5 ACM
summary In April of 1995 the Internet took a step into the third dimension with the introduction of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as a commercial standard. Another event that month caused fewer headlines but in retrospect was just as significant. A small company from San Francisco, Worlds Incorporated, launched WorldsChat, a three dimensional environment allowing any Internet user to don a digital costume, or avatar, and travel about and converse with other people inhabiting the space. WorldsChat was appropriately modeled on a space station complete with a central hub, hallways, sliding doors, windows, and escalators to outlying pods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 1ffd
authors Dave, Bharat
year 1995
title Towards Distributed Computer-Aided Design Environments
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 659-666
summary Computing in architectural design has followed a number of different visions, hopes and research agendas. One of the dominant themes in design Computing seeks to support various activities of 'individual' designers acting within a 'personal' design realm. Parallel to this is another theme which seeks to blend computing aids into normal working environments of groups of designers. The recent interest in and resurgence of collaborative design tools are steps towards what we view as an emerging theme in design computing, namely distributed design environments. This paper describes experiments in collaborative design using computers, and their observations are used to suggest future directions for integrating computing and design in distributed environments.
keywords Design Computing, Collaborative Work, Distributed Processing, Design Services, Design Products
series CAAD Futures
email b.dave@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 683a
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D.
year 1995
title Shape Based Reminding as an Aid to Creative Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 79-89
summary This paper describes "Drawing Analogies", a shape based reminding program that uses freehand sketches to index and retrieve visual references for creative designing. Architects often employ reference images from books, magazines, and other visual collections to find forms they can adopt and adapt into their designs. We give examples of how designers use drawing and analogies and describe our approach to finding similar drawings. We argue that a graphical reminding scheme based on sketching can help designers find interesting references from various domains.
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id a56e
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 1995
title What's in a Diagram That a Computer Should Understand?
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 469-480
summary This paper reports on an experiment to test the feasibility of using a diagramming tool to access an architectural knowledge base. Our hypothesis is that designers only use a small set of conventional elements to make diagrams of architectural concepts. If this is true, then a scheme for retrieving information from computer knowledge bases using diagrams would work. Therefore we asked designers to make diagrams from texts, to interpret diagrams into texts, to pair diagrams and texts, and to comment on existing pairs from the case base. We found from the experiment that common features are shared between different designerís diagrams and texts.
keywords Architectural Diagrams, Graphic Interface, Knowledge Bases
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 2036
authors Dzeng, R.J.
year 1995
title Caseplan: A Case-based Planer and Scheduler for Construction Using Product Modeling
source University of Michigan
summary Construction planning and scheduling are important to contractors for estimating the cost and duration of a project they are to bid on and construct. Many projects specify incentive and disincentive clauses for completing projects early and late. The timely completion and success of a project rely on good planning and scheduling. Contractors who repeatedly build the same kind of facilities acquire experience in scheduling the needed construction work. When parts of a facility's design are copied from one project to the next, the previously developed schedules could possibly be reused to schedule future work. This dissertation presents a construction planner and scheduler, named CasePlan, that automates the planning and scheduling process through the use of experience encoded in cases. CasePlan enables a contractor to specify a facility design using a product model, describe the relationships between product components and parts of a schedule (e.g., activity subnetworks, construction crews), and store this information as a case. As a decision support tool, CasePlan enables the contractor to search for cases whose facility designs are similar to that of a new project. The similarity assessment is based on the relative importance values that the contractor assigns to the components and their attributes in the product model. As an automation tool, CasePlan creates the schedule of a new project by reusing parts of the schedules whose associated designs are most similar to that project's design. The result is a schedule in which construction alternatives are chosen from those used in previous cases based on the new project scheduling constraints. The contractor / system-user can interact with CasePlan during its operation or modify the resulting schedule to add detail needed for executing the schedule in the field. Two types of construction projects have been studied for the development of CasePlan. One is the Kit-of-Parts post offices, in which designs are made by reusing design modules defined as Parts. The other is the boiler erection for fossil-fueled power plants, in which the design process is standardized and component configurations are similar across designs. These projects were chosen because their schedules are similar within each project type, which suggested that practitioners had a high incentive and were likely to reuse schedules. CasePlan's similarity assessment for boiler erection projects was validated using a survey. CasePlan's schedules and usability was subjectively evaluated also by the interviewed professionals.
series thesis:PhD
email rjdzeng@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 24fa
authors Gero, J., Damski, J, and Jun, H.
year 1995
title Emergence in CAAD Systems
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 423-438
summary Emergence is the process of making properties which were not explicitly represented in a computational system explicit. This paper presents two approaches to graphical emergence suitable or implementation in a CAAD system. It presents processes for shape emergence - the interpretation of shapes which were not intentionally placed there by the designer - and shape semantics emergence - the interpretation of patterns of shape into structures which were not intentionally there by the designer. Examples of both processes and their use are given.
keywords Shape Emergence, Shape Semantics Emergence, Shape Representation
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c681
authors Gero, J.S. and Kazakov, V.
year 1995
title Evolving building blocks for design using genetic engineering: A formal approach
source J.S. Gero and F. Sudweeks (eds), Advances in Formal Design Methods for CAD , IFIP-University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 29-48
summary This paper presents a formal approach to the evolution of a representation for use in a design process. The approach adopted is based on concepts associated with genetic engineering. An initial set of genes representing elementary building blocks is evolved into a set of complex genes representing targeted building blocks. These targeted building blocks have been evolved because they are more likely to produce designs which exhibit desired characteristics than the commencing elementary building blocks. The targeted building blocks can then be used in a design process. The paper presents a formal evolutionary model of design representations based on genetic algorithms and uses pattern recognition techniques to execute aspects of the genetic engineering. The paper describes how the state space of possible designs changes over time and illustrates the model with an example from the domain of two-dimensional layouts. It concludes with a discussion of style in design.
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/06 05:29

_id da78
authors Hajduk, Piotr
year 1995
title Spirit 5.6
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 105-119
summary SPIRIT is an independent, technical program which aids an architecture design. It has been created for architects and specialists of related trades. This program is divided into three functional parts: threedimensional functions, two-dimensional functions and a module part. The communication between these parts is devoid of problems. Rich and light to develop data bases which include information about walls, windows, doors, furnitures and others elements are the integral part of this program. Elements are connected to libraries of symbols. A two-dimensional drawing does not stray to methods knowing from other CAD-programs. An interesting set of functions helping by drawing views is ARCH2D. It lets drawing walls with selected thickness and inserting openings like windows and doors. Three dimensional elements are made from simple masses like a plate, a sphere, a cylinder, a torus. Every object can be seen from whichever perspective you like. Most helpful is there a shader function which creates coloured view including light and shadow. Every three-dimensional object can be converted to vectorial, two-dimensional drawing which can be plotted or enlarged.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id ddssup9609
id ddssup9609
authors Hall, A.C.
year 1996
title Assessing the Role of Computer Visualisation in Planning Control: a recent case study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary In papers to previous DDSS Conferences, and elsewhere, the author has developed an argument concerning the use of computer visualisation in the planning process. In essence, it proposes that: • visualisation can enable lay persons to play a more effective role and this can result in different and more effective decisions; • the level of realism employed should result from the basic requirements necessary to resolve the issue minimising the cost of production of the images. These points have been tested in repeated examples. The latest one concerns a new site that Anglia Polytechnic University has established in the centre of Chelmsford, UK. A computer model of the new campus showing both the existing and proposed buildings was commissioned from the author by the University for a visit by HM the Queen in June 1995. This model was subsequently adapted for use in the process of obtaining planning consent and the marketing of floorspace for the next building to be constructed. For this purpose, a higher level of realism was requested. The experience of achieving it confirmed the results of the previous research indicating the strong link between realism and cost. It also contributed new insights into the varying expectations of different professionals concerning the role of such a visualisation. The requirement of the architect for demonstrating all aspects of the design required a high level of realism than that required for planning and marketing purposes and was considerably more expensive. The low cost of use for planning purposes should be stressed but surprisingly, the lower level of realism implied may be easier for the lay person than the professional to accept.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id maver_090
id maver_090
authors Harrison C., Grant, M., Granat, M., Maver, T. and Conway, B.
year 2000
title Development of a Wheelchair Virtual
source 3rd International Conference on Disability, VR and Associated Technologies, Sardinia, (Ed. P Sharkey) ICDVRAT2000, 1-8
summary In the UK the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 aims to end discrimination against disabled people. Importantly the Act gives the disabled community new employment and access rights. Central to these rights will be an obligation for employers and organisations to provide premises which do not disadvantage disabled people. Many disabled people rely on wheelchairs for mobility. However, many buildings do not provide conditions suited to wheelchair users. This project aims to provide instrumentation allowing wheelchair navigation within virtual buildings. The provision of such instrumentation assists architects in identifying the needs of wheelchair users at the design stage. Central to this project is the need to provide a platform which can accommodate a range of wheelchair types, that will map intended wheelchair motion into a virtual world and that has the capacity to provide feedback to the user reflecting changes in floor surface characteristics and slope. The project represents a collaborative effort between architects, bioengineers and user groups and will be comprised of stages related to platform design, construction, interfacing, testing and user evaluation.
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:01

_id 51fd
authors Harrison, Steve and Minneman, Scott
year 1995
title Studying Collaborative Design to Build Design Tools
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 687-697
summary This paper outlines the way in which studying designers at work on real problems can inform the development of new computer aided architectural design systems. From a number of studies of designers in various domains, supporting the communications of designers is re-conceptualized into one of transmitting and storing process ephemera, rather than normalizing representations. After characterizing process ephemera, an example from one of the studies is described in detail. The paper concludes with implications for the design of collaborative CAAD systems.
keywords Collaboration, Design Communications, Telepresence, Media Space, Process Ephemera, Virtual Design Studio
series CAAD Futures
email steverharrison@yahoo.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2115
authors Ingram, R. and Benford, S.
year 1995
title Improving the legibility of virtual environments
source Second Euro graphics Workshop on Virtual Environments
summary Years of research into hyper-media systems have shown that finding one's way through large electronic information systems can be a difficult task. Our experiences with virtual reality suggest that users will also suffer from the commonly experienced "lost in hyperspace" problem when trying to navigate virtual environments. The goal of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a technique which is currently under development with the aim of overcoming this problem. Our approach is based upon the concept of legibility, adapted from the discipline of city planning. The legibility of an urban environment refers to the ease with which its inhabitants can develop a cognitive map over a period of time and so orientate themselves within it and navigate through it [Lynch60]. Research into this topic since the 1960s has argued that, by carefully designing key features of urban environments planners can significantly influence their legibility. We propose that these legibility features might be adapted and applied to the design of a wide variety of virtual environments and that, when combined with other navigational aids such as the trails, tours and signposts of the hyper-media world, might greatly enhance people's ability to navigate them. In particular, the primary role of legibility would be to help users to navigate more easily as a result of experiencing a world for some time (hence the idea of building a cognitive map). Thus, we would see our technique being of most benefit when applied to long term, persistent and slowly evolving virtual environments. Furthermore, we are particularly interested in the automatic application of legibility techniques to information visualisations as opposed to their relatively straight forward application to simulations of the real-word. Thus, a typical future application of our work might be in enhancing visualisations of large information systems such the World Wide Web. Section 2 of this paper summarises the concept of legibility as used in the domain of city planning and introduces some of the key features that have been adapted and applied in our work. Section 3 then describes in detail the set of algorithms and techniques which are being developed for the automatic creation or enhancement of these features within virtual data spaces. Next, section 4 presents two example applications based on two different kinds of virtual data space. Finally, section 5 presents some initial reflections on this work and discusses the next steps in its evolution.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4169
authors Iodo, Irina A.
year 1995
title The Search for the Logical Algorithm of the Town-planning Process
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 275-282
summary The creation of such models of material and spatial environment that can guarantee the most efficient passing of the virtual processes is considered to be one of the main goals for the town planning. But sometimes this goal is not achieved because of the far-fetched space organization accepted in the model, that does not always coincide with the real processes of vital activity. This report does not focus particularly on the damage which is caused by the realization of such defective models. But it is very important to find out the way for complete elimination of the reasons mentioned above. We should also take into account that means of cognition available at the moment are among the basic determiners, which define that "shear" of reality and also that comprehension level of objective laws governing this stage of social development. That is why our conception of the town-planning processes is in constant development and improvement: it gradually approximates to the truth, but, certainly, does not entirely perceive it.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id e3db
authors Ismail, Ashraf Lotfy R.M.
year 1995
title Singularity and Pluralism in Multimedia: A Key Theoretical Approach to the Multimodel
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 331-340
summary Contemporary multimedia research address the possibilities and consequences of integrating various techniques to produce single user based applications (singularity). There is a need for utilising current multimedia techniques; to explore the potential of multi-models (theoretically) to generate modelling information that could be shared simultaneously. The problems are confined to understanding and managing the issues that influence the so-called ´target and product models´. This paper introduces and elaborates on such problems. It provides a theoretical and another practical framework, the 3D-CAD Modelling Paradigm, based upon completed results of modelling. There is a suggested evidence that there might be advantages in standardising the process of modelling and knowledge representation. The paper stresses that the composition of a model should differ from another to reflect its unique characteristics (singularity). Though, it is essential that such models should conform and respond to the well defined and shared criteria (pluralism).
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_40.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

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