CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 61 to 80 of 393

_id d7f7
authors Jeng, Hoang-Ell
year 1995
title A Dialogical Model for Participatory Design; A Computational Approach to Group Planning
source Delft University of Technology
summary In participatory design, design concepts are generated collectively through discussion, dialogical interactions, in which the interchange of normative and supporting factual descriptions builds a collective design discourse. The goal of this research is to develop a method for participatory design to support this collective, face-to-face design problem-solving, in order to increase the acceptability of the design product. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an important movement towards increasing the participation of citizens in determining their built environment. At first, the movement was associated with social-political ideologies and rhetoric. By the end of the 1970s, participatory design had become an accepted component of professional practice. The objectives of the movement became more pragmatically and more modestly focused on exchanging practical information, resolving conflicts, and supplementing design. Today, participatory design is in a new phase. Traditional participatory design methods are seen as insufficient to fulfill an increasing demand for dialogue. The point of departure of the study is the assumption that new information technologies can satisfy this demand. The method includes: (1) a group-reasoning model, (2) a dialogical system and (3) a framework for participation-based design guidelines. The group-reasoning model formulates the process of knowledge acquisition, the learning and sharing of belief systems, the generation of design alternatives and design evaluations--by which reasoning takes place dialogically. The dialogical system provides a clear description of how the information should be processed, what aspects should be paid attention to, what results can be anticipated, and when and how to control the process. The framework for participation-based design guidelines guides and structures the design process. It facilitates a reconstruction of the implicit cognitive structure which underlines dialogue and is generated through the discussion of a group.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 1778
authors Jo, Jun H. and Gero, John S.
year 1995
title Representation and Use of Design Knowledge in Evolutionary Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 189-203
summary This paper describes an approach to knowledge representation for an evolutionary design process. The concept of design schemas is introduced to provide the representational framework for design knowledge. Two kinds of design schemas, the design rule schema and the design gene schema, are proposed to formulate design knowledge and interpret the knowledge into genetic codes. A design problem which is used to exemplify this approach is that of a large office layout planning problem.
keywords Representation, Design Knowledge, Genetic Codes
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 807c
authors Kellett, Ronald
year 1996
title MEDIA MATTERS: NUDGING DIGITAL MEDIA INTO A MANUAL DESIGN PROCESS (AND VICE VERSA)
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 31-43
summary This paper reports on a media class offered during the 1995-96 academic year at the University of Oregon. This course, a renovation of an existing 'manual' media offering targeted intermediate Ievel graduate and undergraduate students who, while relatively experienced design students, were relatively inexperienced users of digital media for design. This course maintained a pedagogical emphasis on design process, a point of view that media are powerful influences on design thinking, and an attitude toward experimentation (and reflection) in matters of media and design process. Among the experiments explored were fitting together digital with manual media, and using digital media to collaborate in an electronic workspace. The experience offers opportunity to consider how digital media might be more widely integrated with what remains a predominantly 'manual' design process and media context for many architecture schools and practices.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kellett@interchange.ubc.ca
last changed 2006/03/15 21:34

_id d8ea
authors Kumar, Subodh and Manocha, Dinesh
year 1995
title Efficient rendering of trimmed NURBS surfaces
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27 (7) (1995) pp. 509-521
summary An algorithm for the interactive display of trimmed nurbs surfaces is presented. The algorithm converts the nurbs surfaces to Bézier surfaces, and nurbs trimming curves toBézier curves. It tessellates each trimmed Bézier surface into triangles, and renders them using the triangle rendering capabilities common in current graphics systems. Itmakes use of tight bounds for the uniform tessellation of Bézier surfaces into cells and it traces the trimming curves to compute the trimmed regions of each cell. Thisoperation is based on the tracing of trimming curves, intersection computation with the cells, and triangulation of the cells. The resulting technique also makes use of spatialand temporal coherence between successive frames for cell computation and triangulation. Polygonization anomalies such as cracks and angularities are avoided as well. Thealgorithm can display trimmed models described using thousands of Bézier surfaces at interactive frame rates on high end graphics systems.
keywords Trimmed Nurbs, Bezier Surfaces, Rendering
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 2e3b
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1997
title Is Design Really Social
source Creative Collaboration in Virtual Communities 1997, ed. A. Cicognani. VC'97. Sydney: Key Centre of Design Computing, Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney, 8 p.
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell’s assertion that “the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process.” [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants; that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided; therefore; must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We think it essential to examine the foundations and assumptions on which software and environments are designed to support collaborative design communication. Of particular interest to us in this paper is the assumption about the “social” nature of design. Early research in computer-assisted design collaborations has jumped immediately into conclusions about communicative models which lead to high-bandwidth video connections as the preferred channel of collaboration. The unstated assumption is that computer-supported design environments are not adequate until they replicate in full the sensation of being physically present in the same space as the other participants (you are not there until you are really there). It is assumed that the real social process of design must include all the signals used to establish and facilitate face-to-face communication; including gestures; body language and all outputs of drawing (e.g. Tang [1991]). In our specification of systems for virtual design communities; are we about to fall into the same traps as drafting systems did?
keywords CSCW; Virtual Community; Architectural Design; Computer-Aided Design
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id ab9c
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1999
title Is Design Really Social
source International Journal of Virtual Reality, 4:1
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell's assertion that "the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process." [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants, that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided, therefore, must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We see a danger here, a pattern being repeated which may lead us into less than useful activities. As with several (popular) architectural design or modelling systems already available, however, computer system implementations all too often are poor imitations manual systems. For example, few in the field will argue with the statement that the storage of data in layers in a computer-aided drafting system is an dispensable approach. Layers derive from manual overlay drafting technology [Stitt 1984] which was regarded as an advanced (manual) production concept at the time many software engineers were specifying CAD software designs. Early implementations of CAD systems (such as RUCAPS, GDS, Computervision) avoided such data organisation, the software engineers recognising that object-based structures are more flexible, permitting greater control of data editing and display. Layer-based systems, however, are easier to implement in software, more familiar to the user and hence easier to explain, initially easier to use but more limiting for an experienced and thoughtful user, leading in the end to a lesser quality in resultant drawings and significant problems in output control (see Richens [1990], pp. 31-40 for a detailed analysis of such features and constraints). Here then we see the design for architectural software faithfully but inappropriately following manual methods. So too is there a danger of assuming that the best social interaction is that done face-to-face, therefore all collaborative design communications environments must mimic face-to-face.
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 4a1a
authors Laird, J.E.
year 2001
title Using Computer Game to Develop Advanced AI
source Computer, 34 (7), July pp. 70-75
summary Although computer and video games have existed for fewer than 40 years, they are already serious business. Entertainment software, the entertainment industry's fastest growing segment, currently generates sales surpassing the film industry's gross revenues. Computer games have significantly affected personal computer sales, providing the initial application for CD-ROMs, driving advancements in graphics technology, and motivating the purchase of ever faster machines. Next-generation computer game consoles are extending this trend, with Sony and Toshiba spending $2 billion to develop the Playstation 2 and Microsoft planning to spend more than $500 million just to market its Xbox console [1]. These investments have paid off. In the past five years, the quality and complexity of computer games have advanced significantly. Computer graphics have shown the most noticeable improvement, with the number of polygons rendered in a scene increasing almost exponentially each year, significantly enhancing the games' realism. For example, the original Playstation, released in 1995, renders 300,000 polygons per second, while Sega's Dreamcast, released in 1999, renders 3 million polygons per second. The Playstation 2 sets the current standard, rendering 66 million polygons per second, while projections indicate the Xbox will render more than lOO million polygons per second. Thus, the images on today's $300 game consoles rival or surpass those available on the previous decade's $50,000 computers. The impact of these improvements is evident in the complexity and realism of the environments underlying today's games, from detailed indoor rooms and corridors to vast outdoor landscapes. These games populate the environments with both human and computer controlled characters, making them a rich laboratory for artificial intelligence research into developing intelligent and social autonomous agents. Indeed, computer games offer a fitting subject for serious academic study, undergraduate education, and graduate student and faculty research. Creating and efficiently rendering these environments touches on every topic in a computer science curriculum. The "Teaching Game Design " sidebar describes the benefits and challenges of developing computer game design courses, an increasingly popular field of study
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 0ddb
authors Linzer, H., Schmidinger, E., Voigt, A. and Walchhofer, H.P.
year 1995
title Computer Integrated Building-up Planning (CIBP)
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 259-265
summary Building-up planning holds a prominent position within the planning- and realization process due to its closeness to the constructional-spatial translation. Based on spatial analysis, spatial characteristics and the elaboration of marginal conditions of spatial development within the framework of building-up planning, building volumina, building density, manner of building-up and storeyheights amongst others are to be defined and analyzed as to their spatial impact prior to their realization. The present project has presented possibilities for improvement of planning quality as well as of optimizing clearness and comprehension of the legally binding marginal conditions of building-up planning. Based on the wording of the Austrian Law governing Area Planning building-up planning constitutes an integral part of Urban and Regional planning. Building-up planning is the planning instrument considered right next to putting into reality the effects of which becoming immediately visible in the constructional transfer of frame conditions of spatial development. As a legal instrument it is - due to its overpacked nature - complicated in its practical application and disposes of only a small degree of flexibility concerning its consequences. Thus, a major goal of the research project aims at the development of a building-up plan of a prohibitory - (mandatory) plan acting as an instrument for designing public space.
series plCAD
email linzer@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id f4d7
authors Madrazo, L.
year 1995
title The Concept of Type in Architecture: An Inquiry into the Nature of Architectural Form
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the meaning of the concept of Type in the field of architectural theory. Even though the use of the term type by architectural theorists is a relatively recent phenomenon, which can be traced back to Quatremère de Quincy in the early nineteenth century, the idea of Type, as opposed to the explicit use of this term by theorists, has pervaded much of architectural theory ever since Vitruvius. In fact, many theorists have been concerned with issues which convey a notion of Type, like the origins of architectural form, the systematization of architectural knowledge and the understanding of the process of creativity. A basic premise of this work is that to understand the true significance of the idea of Type in architecture, it is necessary to overcome certain traditional views that have associated Type with the work of specific authors at a given time like, for example, Quatremère de Quincy and Semper in the nineteenth century, or Rossi in the twentieth. Only a comprehensive study of the most relevant ideas formulated in the field of architectural theory -beginning with Vitruvius and finishing with contemporary design methodologists- can reveal the essential meaning, or meanings, of Type. This work attempts to provide such a comprehensive study. To derive the fundamental meanings of the concept of Type from the body of the architectural tradition, it has been necessary to proceed, simultaneously, along two different lines: one diachronic, the other synchronic. From a diachronic point of view, the aim has been to trace the evolution of the theories of Type from one author to another, for example from Laugier to Quatremère de Quincy. From a synchronic point of view, the goal has been to disclose the common ideas that lie behind theories formulated at different times, for instance, between Vitruvius' theory of the origins of architectural form and the artistic theory developed after the advent of Gestalt psychology. In recent times, the term type has been used by architectural writers as synonymous with typology. Unfortunately, establishing this identity between type and typology has served to undermine some of the essential meanings conveyed by Type. In the overall context of the architectural tradition, the idea of Type has much deeper implications than those that are confined to the classification and study of building forms. Type embraces transcendental issues of aesthetic, epistemological and metaphysical character; issues that have to do with the most generic problem of Form. Certainly, the essential meaning of Type is intimately related with the more transcendental problem of Form. To explore the relation between the idea of Type and the historical evolution of architectural form, has also been the purpose of this research. As this work attempts to show, the variety of meanings that Type has adopted through history are inseparably connected to the evolution undergone by architectural form. For that reason, this work, although primarily a study of the concept of Type, it is, at the same time, an investigation on the nature of architectural form.
series thesis:PhD
email madrazo@salleURL.edu
last changed 2003/05/10 03:42

_id 3f1d
authors Mahalingam, Ganapathy
year 1995
title The Application of Object-Oriented Computing In The Development of Design Systems for Auditoria
source University of Florida
summary This dissertation has a two-part theoretical basis. The first part is that architectural entities like spatial enclosures can be modeled as computational objects in object-oriented design systems. The second part is that spatial forms of auditoria can be generated from acoustical, functional and programmatic parameters. The method used to establish the theoretical basis is the application of the concepts of object-oriented computing in the development of design systems for auditoria. As a practical demonstration of the theoretical basis, two object-oriented design systems for the preliminary spatial design of fan-shaped and rectangular proscenium-type auditoria were developed. In the two systems, the concept of acoustic sculpting is used to convert acoustical, functional and programmatic parameters into architectural parameters used in the spatial design of the auditoria. Statistical, analytical and mathematical methods are used to generate the spatial forms of the auditoria based on the various parameters. The auditoria are modeled as parametric computational objects. The implementation of the systems is described in detail. The systems are true design systems because they involve the creation of spatial information from nonspatial information. The application of acoustic sculpting in the implemented systems is tested with case studies. The results are presented and discussed. These systems serve as indicators of the potential of object-oriented design systems in architecture. The dissertation concludes with a projection of how the object-oriented computing paradigm can benefit the creation of design systems in architecture. Future directions for research and development are outlined.
series thesis:PhD
email ganapathy.mahalingam@ndsu.nodak.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 9577
authors Matalasov, Michail E.
year 1995
title About Videocomputer Technologies at the Moscow Architectural Institute
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 303-308
summary Historically mock-up projecting turned out to be one of the bases of architectural education in the Moscow Architectural Institute. In spite of the fact, that technical progress did not pass over this Institute, introducing elements of computer techniques into the process of education, traditional methods do still prevail. In some sense it is a positive phenomenon, which does not allow this Institute to become ,one of the many typical ones", though in the epoch of global scientific and technical progress here this situation is forced. Under the economic conditions, established in this country, it is impossible to ensure such computer equipment, which would make the process of teaching students up-to-date methods of computer-aided design possible and really general, and make frontal employment of computers for solving complex design problems quite real. Now we can speak only about selective - optional teaching students mastering computer methods on the modern level. At the same time it was noted repeatedly, that essential defects are common to the traditional designing, especially when it concerns education; these defects are connected with a great degree of abstracting the model of the projected object (by the way this concerns also computer models), realized in the form of a small-scale mock-up. This is due to the representation of the projected object separated from the real environment as well as difference in the scales of the observer and the observed object. Mistakes in perception and appreciation caused in this way affect the efficiency of training disastrously. Luckily the available variety of sufficiently simple and cheap technical devices allows to overcome the mentioned defects to a considerable degree and combining these devices with personal computers makes it possible to enlarge their possibilities considerably. And at the same time due to the specific character of the employment it becomes unnecessary to have a lot of computers and the employed technologies turn out to be more "friendly" to the architect practically not demanding him to have complicated special knowledge. We mean special videocomputer technologies ("multimedia"), including the employment of periscope devices (environmental simulator or "telemaketoscope").
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id c449
authors Millard, Lesley
year 1995
title A Strategic Approach to Climate Responsive Design Using Computer Based Learning
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 177-182
summary Existing computer software to support the teaching of environmental issues to architecture students is mainly based on energy calculation methods or packages of information split into subject areas. Neither approach seems to adequately support the early stages of the design process. The paper explores the construction of a model for a computer based learning system to teach the development of environmental strategies. Different strands of educational theory were used to develop teaching principles based around consideration of the subjective quality of knowledge influenced by ideas and theories from different sources, the importance of learning a "language" consisting of methods and theories of a subject and their application in context and the suggestion that "deep" learning requires conceptual changes. A suitable framework for the development of environmental strategies is suggested and its implementation using multi-media software as a method of integrating different types of information and learning materials is proposed. The paper concludes that the process of analysis is a key part of the system and should be made the focus of the structure and contents.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_23.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:53

_id dc94
authors Mullens, M.A., Armacost, R.L. and Swart, W.W.
year 1995
title The role of object oriented CAD in a generic simulator for the industrialized housing industry
source Automation in Construction 4 (1) (1995) pp. 29-43
summary This paper describes a simulator-based decision support tool for manufacturers of prefabricated homebuilding components. The Generic Industrialized Housing Manufacturing Simulator (GIHMS) serves as an experimental factory, capable of simulating factory performance under various product design, factory design, and operations management scenarios. GIHMS strength lies in its user-friendly, icon-based, point-and-click user interface. The interface allows the user to configure a factory and specify home designs for production without simulation language programming. The heart of the user interface is a specialized object oriented CAD system. This paper describes the GIHMS structure, focusing on the specialized CAD system, and demonstrates its functionality by describing the development of a structural foam panel factory model.
keywords Generic simulators; Object oriented CAD; Prefabrication; Housing
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/06/02 07:38

_id 23bd
authors Oloufa, A.A. and Ikeda, M.
year 1995
title An automated environment for soils- and terrain-dependent applications
source Automation in Construction 4 (2) (1995) pp. 139-146
summary This paper explains the development of an integrated information environment that is designed specifically for applications dependent on information related to soil types and terrain of the project site. This covers a wide variety of applications such as shallow and deep foundations, trenching, earthmoving and tunneling. The design of this environment takes into consideration the typical requirements of the project team with an emphasis on integrating requirements for both design and construction. The environment reported here is comprised of three main modules, a relational database for the storage and display of soil borelog information, a geographic information system that displays the geographical locations of soil studies, and a module that is used to develop a three-dimensional profile of the soil layers between any number of borelogs. The user may also develop cross sections of soil layers in any direction. This paper reports on the hardware and software used and concludes with a discussion of future extensions to the system.
keywords Soil Database; GIS; Three-dimensional Soil Layers; Visualization; Integrated Environment; Terrain-Depen-dent Applications
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 12:42

_id d935
authors Pasko, A.A., Adzhiev, V.D., Sourin, A.I. and Savchenko, V.V.
year 1995
title Function representation in geometric modeling: concepts, implementation and applications
source The Visual Computer, 11 (8) 429-446
summary Geometric modeling using continuous real functions of several variables is discussed. Modeling concepts include sets of objects, operations and relations. An object is a closed point set of n-dimensional Euclidean space with a defining inequality f x x xn ( , ,..., ) 1 2 0 °Ÿ . Transformations of a defining function are described for the set-theoretic operations, blending, offsetting, bijective mapping, projection, Cartesian product and metamorphosis. Inclusion, point membership and intersection relations are described. In the implemented interactive modeling system, we use highlevel geometric language that provides extendibility of the modeling system by input symbolic descriptions of primitives, operations and predicates. This approach supports combinations of representational styles, including constructive geometry, sweeping, soft objects, voxel-based objects, deformable and other animated objects. Application examples of aesthetic design, collisions simulation, NC machining, range data processing, and 3D texture generation are given.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id cd81
authors Petrovic, Ivan K.
year 1995
title A FRAMEWORK FOR COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES OF COMPUTER DESIGN AGENTS
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 171-186
summary The paper presents a progress report on a project investigating the possible application of a framework for cooperative-activities of computer design agents in the conceptual phase of architectural design. A process leading to definition of the expected performances of design agents is desribed, and some possible applications illustrated. The framework includes not only the objective, but also, the "subjective" agents. It is expected that the framework would offer an insight into the intricacies of CAAD in an educational environment, and provide the exploration paths and an efficient production of alternative solutions in an office.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email aivan@EUnet.yu
last changed 2006/03/14 20:17

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id cea2
authors Roe, Sharon L.
year 1995
title Investigations into the Production of Form
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 371-382
summary Computers have exploded into the world of the architect, yet architects have only begun to explore the role of computers in the creative process or the effects of particular applications on design projects. Likewise, educators are seeking methods for investigating the computer as a tool which may or may not effect the thing produced. Is it a tool for representation (copying), or a key player in the generation of ideas—a tool for the production of form? This paper describes the theoretical foundations and results of a series of exercises developed for beginning design students. In three investigations students consider: Algorithms (the fundamental logic of a computer application) using Building blocks (reductive entities that act as the origins of form) by Collaging and making assemblies (techniques for experimentation and exploration). The purpose of these exercises (called ABC exercises) is to explore the relationship between the computer as a tool and the production of form and type in architecture.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 15:40

_id 7670
authors Sawicki, Bogumil
year 1995
title Ray Tracing – New Chances, Possibilities and Limitations in AutoCAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 121-136
summary Realistic image synthesis is nowadays widely used in engineering applications. Some of these applications, such as architectural, interior, lighting and industrial design demand accurate visualization of non-existent scenes as they would look to us, when built in reality. This can only be archived by using physically based models of light interaction with surfaces, and simulating propagation of light through an environment. Ray tracing is one of the most powerful techniques used in computer graphics, which can produce such very realistic images. Ray tracing algorithm follows the paths of light rays backwards from observer into the scene. It is very time consuming process and as such one could not be developed until proper computers appeared, In recent years the technological improvements in computer industry brought more powerful machines with bigger storage capacities and better graphic devices. Owing to increasing these hardware capabilities successful implementation of ray tracing in different CAD software became possible also on PC machines. Ray tracing in AutoCAD r.12 - the most popular CAD package in the world - is the best of that example. AccuRender and AutoVision are an AutoCAD Development System (ADS) applications that use ray tracing to create photorealistic images from 3D AutoCAD models. These ,internal"' applications let users generate synthetic images of threedimensional models and scenes entirely within AutoCAD space and show effects directly on main AutoCAD screen. Ray tracing algorithm accurately calculates and displays shadows, transparency, diffusion, reflection, and refraction from surface qualities of user-defined materials. The accurate modelling of light lets produce sophisticated effects and high-quality images, which these ray tracers always generates at 24-bit pixel depth,"providing 16,7 million colours. That results can be quite impressive for some architects and are almost acceptable for others but that coloured virtual world, which is presented by ray tracing in AutoCAD space in such convincing way, is still not exactly the same as the real world. Main limitations of realism are due to the nature of ray tracing method Classical ray tracing technique takes into account the effects of light reflection from neighbouring surfaces but, leaves out of account the ambient and global illumination arising out of complex interreflections in an environment. So models generated by ray tracing belong to an "ideal" world where real materials and environment can't find their right place. We complain about that fact and say that ray tracing shows us "too specular world", but (...) (...) there is anything better on the horizon? It should be concluded, that typical abilities of today's graphics software and hardware are far from exploited. As was observed in literature there have been various works carried along with the explicit intention of overcoming all these ray tracing limitations, These researches seem to be very promising and let us hope that their results will be seen in CAD applications soon. As it happens with modelling, perhaps the answer will come from a variety of techniques that can be combined together with ray tracing depending on the case we are dealing with. Therefore from the point of view of an architects that try to keep alive some interest on the nature of materials and their interaction with form, "ray tracing" seems to be right path of research and development that we can still a long way follow, From the point of view of the school, a critical assimilation of "ray tracing" processes is required and one that might help to determinate exactly their distortions and to indicate the correct way of its development and right place in CAAD education. I trust that ray tracing will become standard not only in AutoCAD but in all architectural space modelling CAD applications and will be established as a powerful and real tool for experimental researches in architectural design process. Will be the technological progress so significant in the nearest future as it is anticipated?
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

For more results click below:

show page 0show page 1show page 2this is page 3show page 4show page 5show page 6show page 7show page 8... show page 19HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_404532 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002