CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 30d7
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1995
title Childishly Honest Associate of the Trickery
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 209-219
summary Perspective is a method of presentation of 3- dimensional space on the 2-dimensional surface. It can only approximately express the complexity of the authentic perception of reality. During the centuries canons of presentation varied in different epochs. It is quite possible that conventions of presentation considered today as exact expressions of reality may seem for the future generations as untrue as the ancient Egypt paintings seem for us. Our mind plays the major role in all kinds of presentation. During the whole life we learn to perceive the surrounding reality. We have formed also ability to ,see" the perspective. The linear perspective is not so easy in perception without factors of colour and light. These factors play a very important role in perception of the distance. The perception of perspective is not always unmistakable. Introduction of light and shadow is one of the measures to limit the ambiguity. Objects shown in perspective with appropriately chosen colouring and light-and-shade effects reveal impression of the distance inside the flat picture. Illusions of perspective are most astonishing when one can assume deep-rooted expectations and suppositions of the addressee. The computer monitor, like the picture, has only one plane on which our project can be presented. The major feature of architecture programs is both the possibility of creating various architecture spaces and the possibility to examine how (in our opinion) the created space would affect the addressee. By means of computer programs we are able to generate drawings and objects of two kinds: first - being the ideal projection of reality (at least in the same measure as the photograph), and the second - being the total negation of perspective rules. By means of CAD programs enabling 3-dimensional job we can check how all sorts of perspective tricks and artifices affect our imagination. The program cooperates with us trying to cheat the imperfect sense of sight. The trickeries can be of various type, starting from play of lights, through the elements changing the perception of perspective, and terminating with objects totally negating the rules of sound construction of solids. The knowledge contained in these programs is an encyclopaedic recapitulation of all sorts of achievements in the field of perspective and application of colour and light effects. All that remains to the users is to exploit this tremendous variety of capabilities.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 2068
authors Frazer, John
year 1995
title AN EVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE
source London: Architectural Association
summary In "An Evolutionary Architecture", John Frazer presents an overview of his work for the past 30 years. Attempting to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature's processes of evolution and morphogenesis. Frazer's vision of the future of architecture is to construct organic buildings. Thermodynamically open systems which are more environmentally aware and sustainable physically, sociologically and economically. The range of topics which Frazer discusses is a good illustration of the breadth and depth of the evolutionary design problem. Environmental Modelling One of the first topics dealt with is the importance of environmental modelling within the design process. Frazer shows how environmental modelling is often misused or misinterpreted by architects with particular reference to solar modelling. From the discussion given it would seem that simplifications of the environmental models is the prime culprit resulting in misinterpretation and misuse. The simplifications are understandable given the amount of information needed for accurate modelling. By simplifying the model of the environmental conditions the architect is able to make informed judgments within reasonable amounts of time and effort. Unfortunately the simplications result in errors which compound and cause the resulting structures to fall short of their anticipated performance. Frazer obviously believes that the computer can be a great aid in the harnessing of environmental modelling data, providing that the same simplifying assumptions are not made and that better models and interfaces are possible. Physical Modelling Physical modelling has played an important role in Frazer's research. Leading to the construction of several novel machine readable interactive models, ranging from lego-like building blocks to beermat cellular automata and wall partitioning systems. Ultimately this line of research has led to the Universal Constructor and the Universal Interactor. The Universal Constructor The Universal Constructor features on the cover of the book. It consists of a base plug-board, called the "landscape", on top of which "smart" blocks, or cells, can be stacked vertically. The cells are individually identified and can communicate with neighbours above and below. Cells communicate with users through a bank of LEDs displaying the current state of the cell. The whole structure is machine readable and so can be interpreted by a computer. The computer can interpret the states of the cells as either colour or geometrical transformations allowing a wide range of possible interpretations. The user interacts with the computer display through direct manipulation of the cells. The computer can communicate and even direct the actions of the user through feedback with the cells to display various states. The direct manipulation of the cells encourages experimentation by the user and demonstrates basic concepts of the system. The Universal Interactor The Universal Interactor is a whole series of experimental projects investigating novel input and output devices. All of the devices speak a common binary language and so can communicate through a mediating central hub. The result is that input, from say a body-suit, can be used to drive the out of a sound system or vice versa. The Universal Interactor opens up many possibilities for expression when using a CAD system that may at first seem very strange.However, some of these feedback systems may prove superior in the hands of skilled technicians than more standard devices. Imagine how a musician might be able to devise structures by playing melodies which express the character. Of course the interpretation of input in this form poses a difficult problem which will take a great deal of research to achieve. The Universal Interactor has been used to provide environmental feedback to affect the development of evolving genetic codes. The feedback given by the Universal Interactor has been used to guide selection of individuals from a population. Adaptive Computing Frazer completes his introduction to the range of tools used in his research by giving a brief tour of adaptive computing techniques. Covering topics including cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems and artificial evolution. Cellular Automata As previously mentioned Frazer has done some work using cellular automata in both physical and simulated environments. Frazer discusses how surprisingly complex behaviour can result from the simple local rules executed by cellular automata. Cellular automata are also capable of computation, in fact able to perform any computation possible by a finite state machine. Note that this does not mean that cellular automata are capable of any general computation as this would require the construction of a Turing machine which is beyond the capabilities of a finite state machine. Genetic Algorithms Genetic algorithms were first presented by Holland and since have become a important tool for many researchers in various areas.Originally developed for problem-solving and optimization problems with clearly stated criteria and goals. Frazer fails to mention one of the most important differences between genetic algorithms and other adaptive problem-solving techniques, ie. neural networks. Genetic algorithms have the advantage that criteria can be clearly stated and controlled within the fitness function. The learning by example which neural networks rely upon does not afford this level of control over what is to be learned. Classifier Systems Holland went on to develop genetic algorithms into classifier systems. Classifier systems are more focussed upon the problem of learning appropriate responses to stimuli, than searching for solutions to problems. Classifier systems receive information from the environment and respond according to rules, or classifiers. Successful classifiers are rewarded, creating a reinforcement learning environment. Obviously, the mapping between classifier systems and the cybernetic view of organisms sensing, processing and responding to environmental stimuli is strong. It would seem that a central process similar to a classifier system would be appropriate at the core of an organic building. Learning appropriate responses to environmental conditions over time. Artificial Evolution Artificial evolution traces it's roots back to the Biomorph program which was described by Dawkins in his book "The Blind Watchmaker". Essentially, artificial evolution requires that a user supplements the standard fitness function in genetic algorithms to guide evolution. The user may provide selection pressures which are unquantifiable in a stated problem and thus provide a means for dealing ill-defined criteria. Frazer notes that solving problems with ill-defined criteria using artificial evolution seriously limits the scope of problems that can be tackled. The reliance upon user interaction in artificial evolution reduces the practical size of populations and the duration of evolutionary runs. Coding Schemes Frazer goes on to discuss the encoding of architectural designs and their subsequent evolution. Introducing two major systems, the Reptile system and the Universal State Space Modeller. Blueprint vs. Recipe Frazer points out the inadequacies of using standard "blueprint" design techniques in developing organic structures. Using a "recipe" to describe the process of constructing a building is presented as an alternative. Recipes for construction are discussed with reference to the analogous process description given by DNA to construct an organism. The Reptile System The Reptile System is an ingenious construction set capable of producing a wide range of structures using just two simple components. Frazer saw the advantages of this system for rule-based and evolutionary systems in the compactness of structure descriptions. Compactness was essential for the early computational work when computer memory and storage space was scarce. However, compact representations such as those described form very rugged fitness landscapes which are not well suited to evolutionary search techniques. Structures are created from an initial "seed" or minimal construction, for example a compact spherical structure. The seed is then manipulated using a series of processes or transformations, for example stretching, shearing or bending. The structure would grow according to the transformations applied to it. Obviously, the transformations could be a predetermined sequence of actions which would always yield the same final structure given the same initial seed. Alternatively, the series of transformations applied could be environmentally sensitive resulting in forms which were also sensitive to their location. The idea of taking a geometrical form as a seed and transforming it using a series of processes to create complex structures is similar in many ways to the early work of Latham creating large morphological charts. Latham went on to develop his ideas into the "Mutator" system which he used to create organic artworks. Generalising the Reptile System Frazer has proposed a generalised version of the Reptile System to tackle more realistic building problems. Generating the seed or minimal configuration from design requirements automatically. From this starting point (or set of starting points) solutions could be evolved using artificial evolution. Quantifiable and specific aspects of the design brief define the formal criteria which are used as a standard fitness function. Non-quantifiable criteria, including aesthetic judgments, are evaluated by the user. The proposed system would be able to learn successful strategies for satisfying both formal and user criteria. In doing so the system would become a personalised tool of the designer. A personal assistant which would be able to anticipate aesthetic judgements and other criteria by employing previously successful strategies. Ultimately, this is a similar concept to Negroponte's "Architecture Machine" which he proposed would be computer system so personalised so as to be almost unusable by other people. The Universal State Space Modeller The Universal State Space Modeller is the basis of Frazer's current work. It is a system which can be used to model any structure, hence the universal claim in it's title. The datastructure underlying the modeller is a state space of scaleless logical points, called motes. Motes are arranged in a close-packing sphere arrangement, which makes each one equidistant from it's twelve neighbours. Any point can be broken down into a self-similar tetrahedral structure of logical points. Giving the state space a fractal nature which allows modelling at many different levels at once. Each mote can be thought of as analogous to a cell in a biological organism. Every mote carries a copy of the architectural genetic code in the same way that each cell within a organism carries a copy of it's DNA. The genetic code of a mote is stored as a sequence of binary "morons" which are grouped together into spatial configurations which are interpreted as the state of the mote. The developmental process begins with a seed. The seed develops through cellular duplication according to the rules of the genetic code. In the beginning the seed develops mainly in response to the internal genetic code, but as the development progresses the environment plays a greater role. Cells communicate by passing messages to their immediate twelve neighbours. However, it can send messages directed at remote cells, without knowledge of it's spatial relationship. During the development cells take on specialised functions, including environmental sensors or producers of raw materials. The resulting system is process driven, without presupposing the existence of a construction set to use. The datastructure can be interpreted in many ways to derive various phenotypes. The resulting structure is a by-product of the cellular activity during development and in response to the environment. As such the resulting structures have much in common with living organisms which are also the emergent result or by-product of local cellular activity. Primordial Architectural Soups To conclude, Frazer presents some of the most recent work done, evolving fundamental structures using limited raw materials, an initial seed and massive feedback. Frazer proposes to go further and do away with the need for initial seed and start with a primordial soup of basic architectural concepts. The research is attempting to evolve the starting conditions and evolutionary processes without any preconditions. Is there enough time to evolve a complex system from the basic building blocks which Frazer proposes? The computational complexity of the task being embarked upon is not discussed. There is an implicit assumption that the "superb tactics" of natural selection are enough to cut through the complexity of the task. However, Kauffman has shown how self-organisation plays a major role in the early development of replicating systems which we may call alive. Natural selection requires a solid basis upon which it can act. Is the primordial soup which Frazer proposes of the correct constitution to support self-organisation? Kauffman suggests that one of the most important attributes of a primordial soup to be capable of self-organisation is the need for a complex network of catalysts and the controlling mechanisms to stop the reactions from going supracritical. Can such a network be provided of primitive architectural concepts? What does it mean to have a catalyst in this domain? Conclusion Frazer shows some interesting work both in the areas of evolutionary design and self-organising systems. It is obvious from his work that he sympathizes with the opinions put forward by Kauffman that the order found in living organisms comes from both external evolutionary pressure and internal self-organisation. His final remarks underly this by paraphrasing the words of Kauffman, that life is always to found on the edge of chaos. By the "edge of chaos" Kauffman is referring to the area within the ordered regime of a system close to the "phase transition" to chaotic behaviour. Unfortunately, Frazer does not demonstrate that the systems he has presented have the necessary qualities to derive useful order at the edge of chaos. He does not demonstrate, as Kauffman does repeatedly, that there exists a "phase transition" between ordered and chaotic regimes of his systems. He also does not make any studies of the relationship of useful forms generated by his work to phase transition regions of his systems should they exist. If we are to find an organic architecture, in more than name alone, it is surely to reside close to the phase transition of the construction system of which is it built. Only there, if we are to believe Kauffman, are we to find useful order together with environmentally sensitive and thermodynamically open systems which can approach the utility of living organisms.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/22 12:12

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designeré─˘s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designeré─˘s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designeré─˘s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designeré─˘s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designeré─˘s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id e75d
authors Achten, H., Dijkstra, J., Oxman, R. and Bax, Th.
year 1995
title Knowledge-Based Systems Programming for Knowledge Intensive Teaching
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 139-148
summary Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered us a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge through the medium of Knowledge-Based Systems programming. It demonstrates how Knowledge-Based Systems offer an appropriate structure for analysing the knowledge required to implement typological design. The class consists of third-year undergraduate students with no extensive previous programming experience. The implementation language is AutoLISP which operates in the AutoCAD environment. The building type used in the course is the office building. in order to become acquainted with both building type and programming in AutoLISP, information and instructions have been gathered and prestructured, including a worked out analysis and AutoLISP code. Office plans are generated through use of the Knowledge-Based System. They are encoded in the form of frames. At the end of the course the students will have learned the basics of Knowledge-Based Systems, have been introduced to programming these systems, have analysed and reflected upon the design process, and gained insight into a specific building type.
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_18.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a927
authors Amirante, Isabella and Bosco, Antonio
year 1995
title Hypertext Between Research and Teaching: An Experience in a Didactic Building Technology Laboratory
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 3-12
summary IPER (hypertext for the knowledge of building patrimony) is the result of a research developed with C.N.R. (National Research Institute). The aim of IPER is to provide the knowledge, the description and the management of one or more historical buildings for public or private institutions. IPER allowed us to improve our methodology of building analysis, covering various disciplinary fields, in two different systems. (1.) the first one, synthetic and suitable for a group of historical buildings, (2.) the second one, complex and particularly made for monumental buildings. // This experience is related to the new regulation of teaching architecture in Italy made in 1993. The main novelty is the introduction of the laboratories with the contemporary presence of two or three teachers of different disciplines, working together with the students on the same project with different approaches. This opportunity allowed us to introduce the "knowledge engineer" as a teacher in the laboratory of building technology. IPER is given to the students with the aim of experimenting and solving the theoretical and practical difficulties that students of different years may encounter in the knowledge and representation of buildings and in the organisation of all the data from the case study.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_1.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c642
authors Andersen, T. and Carlsen, N.V.
year 1995
title Software design of maintainable knowledge-based systems for building design
source Automation in Construction 4 (2) (1995) pp. 101-110
summary Identifying and establishing a basic structure for knowledge representation is one of the keys to successful design of knowledge-based computer systems. In Building Design and Construction, this initial knowledge structure can be achieved by utilizing a query driven approach to software engineering. As (user) queries reflect the user's demand for in/output, it is natural to link the overall user dialogue with key elements in the knowledge base direct connections between user screen and objects in the knowledge base support prototyping and testing the application during development. However, the price for pursuing this approach in its pure form can be high, as needs for later maintenance and augmentation of the system can be very hard to fulfill. To overcome these problems, a strict user interlace, software separation strategy must be. introduced at early stages of software design. and implemented as a global control module as independent of the knowledge processing as possible.
keywords Knowledge-based; Query driven: Software design; User interlace: Separation; Maintainable systems
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/06/02 07:35

_id df4b
authors Angulo Mendivil, Antonieta Humbelina
year 1995
title On the Conceptual Feasibility of a CAAD-CAAI Integrated Decision Support System: A Computer Aided Environment for Technical Decision Making in Architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This document addresses two questions: What are the ultimate means of design support we can offer to the architect, and how can we devise them? We are not the first ones to address these questions, neither the first ones to point our finger in the direction of Decision Support Systems for such purposes. Nevertheless, we may be among those scholars that understanding 'Decision Support" in terms of "Learning Support", are willing to explore the implications that such an understanding assumes for the concept of Decision Support Systems. Our exploration in such regards has shown us that knowledge application and knowledge acquisition cycles describe a continuum, and that such cycles, encapsulated in our "Practice Based Learning" and "Continuing Professional Development" dynamics are present in both our instructional and professional environments. From such a perspective, our scope regarding feasible Decision Support Systems is not restricted to the use of CAAD instrumental resources, but expanded into a context of CAAD-CAAI integration. Throughout this document we conceive a system that blends CAAD and CAAI resources looking forward to the creation of a Support Environment that seeks to motivate a reflective attitude during design, in such a way, upgrade our capability for acquiring as well as applying knowledge in design. In instrumental terms, this document explains how mainstream CAAD developments in the field of "Intelligent Front End Technology" and CAAI developments in the field of "Knowledge-based Curricular Networks" can complement each other in the establishment of a Decision Support System of trans-environmental relevancy. As an application framework for the concept and instrumental base described above, this document presents an image of the kind of decision-making model that it will intend to support, the kind of task support model it will look forward to implement, and the kind of general instrumental layout it will require. On the basis of such an instrumental layout, the system that is hereby outlined can be regarded as a "CAAD-CAAI Integrated", "Intelligent", and "User-Oriented" Interface System.
series thesis:PhD
email angulo@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 5236
authors Arciszewski, T., Michalski, R.S. and Dybala, T.
year 1995
title STAR methodology-based learning about construction accidents and their prevention
source Automation in Construction 4 (1) (1995) pp. 75-85
summary This paper presents the results of a feasibility study concerning the application of STAR-methodology-basedmachine learning to construction accidents and their prevention. A ten-stage knowledge acquisition process is presented and its individual stages described. Knowledge about construction accidents was acquired using a collection of 225 examples, based on actual accidents records. Inductive learning with a system based on the STAR-methodology was employed. This system was used in both the generalization and specialization modes of operation. The decision rules obtained are complex, but their interpretation is clear and they seem to be consistent with the present understanding of causal relationships between accident results and various factors affecting them. Also, the rules were verified using average overall and omission empirical error rates, which were calculated as average for three randomly determined sequences of examples. These error rates were calculated for all seven steps in the machine learning process, and were used to construct learning curves for both error rates. The relationships between error rates and the number of examples used for learning are analyzed, and coefficients of linear regression given and discussed. The 225 examples used were found to be grossly insufficient to produce reliable knowledge about accidents and therefore a large study is postulated which would involve the collection of a larger number of construction accident records. In general, our study demonstrated the feasibility of machine learning in acquiring knowledge about construction accidents.
keywords Construction accidents and their prevention; Knowledge acquisition; Machine learning; Multi-stepmachine learning process
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/06/02 07:31

_id 8378
authors Arlati, Ezio
year 1995
title Patriarch: A Hypermedia Environment for the Support of Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 187-198
summary This paper reports on current research in the field of architectural design and knowledge- based systems, through the conception and implementation of two software tools operating as a part of an integrated hypermedia environment denominated PatriArch. Main concern of this set of tools operating in PatriArch is the support of design since the very beginning, in that phase of not yet correctly explored or interpretated constraints and of scarcely specified goals, in which an initial solution model - provisionally composed of fragments of supposed fitting ideas - for the design theme has to take place. The creative activity of the designer is assumed as an 'intentional planning activity' that represents the acquired level of knowledge of the network of connections defining the nature, function, shape in the space etc. of the increasingly integrated solution-model: the final design will be an evolution of this - and other competitive and concurrent - models. PatriArch is meant to be the environment containing and allowing the representation of this evolution through its ability of linking the fragments of designers' knowledge, supported by an integrated relational data base: Sysinfo. These works were conceived inside an educational software development program for architecture students.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_25.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b914
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander and Asanowicz, Katarzyna
year 1995
title Designing, CAD and CAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 181-192
summary The general aim of our discussion is to analyze what has been changed in design process according to introducing the computers technology. For the better understanding of the design process evolution, we should precisely define start point - the traditional design process.Let's treat it as an iteration game between a designer and user. If we assume that the designing base is a reductive strategy, we can define six stages of it: 1.) To define a need; 2.) To formulate a task; 3.) To synthesize a design proposals; 4.) To analyze and optimize; 5.) To make a presentation. // The last stage - the presentation of designing proposals is the main factor of using computers in design process and creating definition of CAD as Computer Aided Drafting. According to this interpretation CAD has included four groups of activities: A.) Geometrical modelling; B.) Analysis; C.) Revision and estimation of design proposals; D.) Technical drawing preparing. // Unfortunately it has no connections with another meaning of CAD - Computer Aided Design because concerns every stage of design process except of creation of architectural form. On the other hand, computer enables us to improve the design process by permanent perception of designing forms and dynamic control over the transforming structure. Nowadays thanks to full-function sketching workstation and software like Fractal Design Painter a computer can be useful from the moment when the first line is drawing. It is possible, that the new generation of CAD software - CAD with Personality which connects computer models with picture transformation will enable CAD to be Computer Aided Design.
series plCAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 2a49
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1995
title Multimedia Versus Ugliness of the City
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 389-394
summary This paper presents a method of using multimedia techniques in order to solve problems of visual pollution of city environment. It is our observation that human - inducted degradation of city environmental results not only from neglect and vandalism but also from well - intentioned but inappropriate preservation actions by uninformed designers and local administrations. Very often, a local municipality administration permit to erect an ugly, bad-fitting surroundings houses. It is usually connected with lack of informations about certain areas of a city, its features, characteristic and about present and earlier buildings. Therefore there was an experiment - a complex programme aiding the decision process as a part of the CAMUS system (Computer Aided Management of Urban Structure) which is created at Faculty of Architecture TUB. One of the integral parts of it is a block, which has been called "How would it be like to be nice around". One of the basic elements of that system is a town data base consisting of the independent knowledge - based systems, working together in a distributed computing environment. City administration will have access to each information from multimedia data-base. Multimedia is also having and impact on the effectiveness of decision process in urban planning and in our fight with ugliness of the city.

series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_46.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 00ae
id 00ae
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1995
title Building A Computer Aid for Teaching Architectural Design Concepts
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 187-208
summary Building an aid for teaching architectural design concepts is the process of elaborating topics, defining problems and suggesting to the students strategies for solving those problems. I believe students in Environment and Behavior (E&B) courses at Georgia Tech can benefit greatly from a computer based educational tool designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the course (outside lectures) is devoted to applying concepts taught in the course to the studio projects. The tool I am proposing provides students with an opportunity to critique architectural environments (both simple examples and previous projects) using a single concept, "affordances". This paper describes my current progress toward realizing the goal of designing a tool that will help the students to understand particular concepts and to integrate them into their designs. It is my claim that an integrative and interactive approach - creating a learning environment and making both the students and the environment mutually supportive- is fundamentally more powerful than traditional educational methods.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:41

_id f8f0
authors Bakhtari, Shirin and Oertel, Wolfgang
year 1995
title DOM: An Active Assistance System for Architectural and Engineering Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 153-162
summary This article delineates an active design assistance system for conceptual design, called DOM which is the abbreviation for Domain Ontology Modelling. The intention of our work is to endorse the role of modelling a common and shared platform of design knowledge as well as to address the crucial task of representing design decisions and engineering judgements in order to evaluate design layouts and to support layout construction from scratch.The prerequisites and assumptions for an appropriate role of an active design assistance system are explained. The presented paper contains both a conceptual and a technical exploration of the DOM system.
keywords Design Ontology, Decision Making, Analysis, Synthesis
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c3fa
authors Barnanente, A., Cuscito, A.P. and Maiellaro, N.
year 1995
title Expert System and Hypertext for Development Control
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 347-354
summary The paper deals with an interactive system based on expert system and hypertext interaction in order to meet the demands of support for local government officials' activity in building-application inspection. Also described are the planning departments context and the problem related to eliciting knowledge in building-inspection process.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_42.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e100
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1995
title Architecture in Digital Space: Actual and Potential Markets
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 405-423
summary As both the skepticism and 'hype' surrounding electronic environments vanish under the weight of ever increasing power, knowledge, and use of information technologies, the architectural profession must prepare for significant expansion of its professional services. To address the issue, this paper offers a survey of the professional services architects and designers do and may provide in digital space, and who the potential clients are. The survey was conducted by interviews with software developers, gaming companies, programmers, investigators, practicing architects, faculty, etc. It also included reviews of actual software products and literary research of conference proceedings, journals, books and newspapers (i.e. articles, classified ads, etc.). The actual and potential markets include gaming and entertainment developments, art installations, educational applications, and research. These markets provide architects the opportunity to participate in the design of 3D gaming environments, educational software, architecture for public experience and entertainment, data representation, cyberspace and virtual reality studies, and other digital services which will be required for this new world. We will demonstrate that although the rapidly growing digital market may be seen by some to be non-architectural and thus irrelevant to our profession, it actually represents great opportunities for growth and development. Digital environments will not replace the built environment as a major architectural market, but they will significantly complement it, thus strengthening the entire architectural profession.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aab6
authors Bermudez, Julio
year 1995
title Designing Architectural Experiences: Using Computers to Construct Temporal 3D Narratives
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 139-149
summary Computers are launching us into a representational revolution that fundamentally challenges the way we have hitherto conceived and practiced architecture. This paper will explore one of its fronts: the simulation of architectural experiences. Today's off-the-shelf softwares (e.g. 3D modeling, animations, multimedia) allow us for first time in history to depict and thus approach architectural design and criticism truly experientially. What is so appealing about this is the possibility of shifting our attention from the object to the experience of the object and in so doing reconceptualizing architectural design as the design of architectural experiences. Carrying forward such a phenomenological proposition requires us to know (1) how to work with non-traditional and 'quasi-immersive' (or subject-centered) representational systems, and (2) how to construct temporal assemblages of experiential events that unfold not unlike 'architectural stories'. As our discipline lacks enough knowledge on this area, importing models from other fields appears as an appropriate starting point. In this sense, the narrative arts (especially those involved with the temporal representation of audio-visual narratives) offer us the best insights. For example, principles of cinema and storytelling give us an excellent guidance for designing architectural experiences that have a structuring theme (parti), a plot (order), unfolding episodes (rhythm), and special events (details). Approaching architecture as a temporal 3D narrative does transform the design process and, consequently, its results. For instance, (1) phenomenological issues enter the decision making process in an equal footing to functional, technological, or compositional considerations; (2) orthographic representations become secondary sources of information, mostly used for later accurate dimensioning or geometrization; (3) multi-sensory qualities beyond sight are seriously considered (particularly sound, texture, and kinesthetic); etc.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id d79e
authors Boerner, Katy
year 1995
title Interactive, Adaptive, Computer-aided Design
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 627-634
summary A general framework of a system that supports building engineering is presented. It accounts for a set of desirable features. Among them are (1) graphical man-machine interaction, (2) high interactivity to facilitate the acquisition of the huge amount of knowledge necessary to support design, (3) incremental knowledge acquisition as the basis for incrementally increasing system support, and (4) adaptability to the tasks which are tackled, the distinctive features of the domain, and user preferences. This paper provides the underlying assumptions and basic approaches of the modules constituting this framework and sketches the current implementation.
keywords Graphical Interfaces, Incremental Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Organization, Case-Based Reasoning, Design Prototypes, Analogical Reasoning
series CAAD Futures
email katy@indiana.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c6bb
authors Bottelli, Valeria and Fogh, Christian
year 1995
title Galathea: A Case-Based Planning Tool for Knowledge Navigation in the Architectural Design Process
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 427-436
summary We report on an on-going Ph.D. research aimed at the analysis of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design and the development of a conceptual model for a case-based navigation tool for its support. We describe architectural design from a process viewpoint and assume it as a form of intentional planning, leading from an initial state configuration toward a desired situation, by means of an incremental specification of goals, constraints and involved variables. We consider the very essence of design and of the specific professional skill characterising designers as the continual recursive transformation of the initial solution model, in order to map the desired state onto the enacted one and the capability to govern a number of continually changing variables in this direction. On the basis of this general concept of the design process, we describe the model of Galathea, a case-based planning tool, aimed at progressively representing the enlarging space of acquired knowledge, and at supporting the designer┤s central role in the management of the design process.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_50.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 276c
authors Breen, Jack
year 1995
title Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: ôDynamic Perspectiveö. The ôdynamicö quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: ôthe architecture of the cityö. Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides ôtraditionalö ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 4931
authors Breen, Jack
year 1996
title Learning from the (In)Visible City
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 65-78
summary This paper focuses on results and findings of an educational project, in which the participating students had to develop a design strategy for an urban plan by using and combining endoscopic and computational design visualisation techniques. This educational experiment attempted to create a link between the Media research programme titled 'Dynamic Perspective' and an educational exercise in design composition. It was conceived as a pilot study, aimed at the investigation of emerging applications and possible combinations of different imaging techniques which might be of benefit in architectural and urban design education and potentially for the (future) design practice. The aim of this study was also to explore the relationship between spatial perception and design simulation. The point of departure for the student exercise was an urban masterplan which the Dynamic Perspective research team prepared for the workshop 'the (in)visible city' as part of the 1995 European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference in Vienna, Austria. The students taking part in the exercise were asked to develop, discuss and evaluate proposals for a given part of this masterplan by creating images through different model configurations using optical and computer aided visualisation techniques besides more traditional design media.The results of this project indicate that an active and combined use of visualisation media at a design level, may facilitate communication and lead to a greater understanding of design choices, thus creating insights and contributing to design decision-making both for the designers and for the other participants in the design process.
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/Media/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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