CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 382

_id 7555
authors Brown, F., Cooper, G., Ford, S., Aouad, G., Brandon, P., Child, T., Kirkham, J., Oxman, R. and Young, B.
year 1995
title An integrated approach to CAD: modelling concepts in building design and construction
source Design Studies 16 (3) (1995) pp. 327-347
summary The ICON project is concerned with the creation of a generic information structure for the construction industry. A central feature of the information model is the use of object-oriented modelling techniques to allow information to be viewed from different 'perspectives' and at different levels of abstraction, according to the requirements of the user. This paper discusses the object modelling of concepts and information in the design area. Drawing on knowledge elicited from protocol analysis of the design activity, a series of interrelated object models has been developed, reflecting different perspectives and abstraction levels within the design domain. Three of these models (spatial design, physical design and structural design) are presented and their implications for the communication and sharing of information discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 940c
authors Brown, F.E. (et. al.)
year 1995
title An integrated approach to CAD: modelling concepts in building design and construction
source Design Studies, vol. 16
summary The ICON project is concerned with the creation of a generic information structure for the construction industry. A central feature of the information model is the use of object-oriented modelling techniques to allow information to be viewed from different `perspectives' and at different levels of abstraction, according to the requirements of the user. This paper discusses the object modelling of concepts and information in the design area. Drawing on knowledge elicited from protocol analysis of the design activity, a series of interrelated object models has been developed, reflecting different perspectives and abstraction levels within the design domain. Three of these models (spatial design, physical design and structural design) are presented and their implications for the communication and sharing of information discussed.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 42ad
authors Brown, Karen M. and Charles, Curtis B.
year 1995
title Computers in the Professional Practice of Design
source McGraw-Hill, New York
summary While CADD technology is becoming commonplace in most design firms today, the wherewithal to take full advantage of computer technology generally as a business tool is often missing. This book will give the reader that ``holistic'' information on how to integrate the CADD function with other common applications--from word processing of construction documents to creating project budget spreadsheets to project management to database management. The book will touch on examples of commonly used software packages and hardware platforms, but will otherwise treat those subjects generically.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8a1a
authors Burattini, Ernesto
year 1995
title Expert Systems and Hypertext: Can They Work Cooperatively?
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 315-322
summary In recent years two technologies, hypertext and expert systems, developed independently each other, drawn researcher´s attention since they seemed good tools to represent the knowledge and the reasoning process performed by human beings. These two technologies, until recently, had not too much intersection between them notwithstanding both were involved in representing the knowledge of experts of some domains and the domains itself. Also in the architecture field some expert systems and many hypertext products have been developed. Starting from some applications developed by our research team, in terms of expert systems and hypertext, we try here to give some suggestions about the possible interactions and the complementary use we may done of them.
series eCAADe
email ernb@sole.cib.na.cnr.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_38.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:21

_id 6378
authors Burry, M., Prentice, R. and Wood, P.
year 1995
title Walking Before Running: A Prelude to Multimedia Construction Information
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 257-266
summary An inherent problem with creating a multimedia application is generating the mass of information needed in order for it to be comprehensively useful. This is especially true when the subject is building construction for which any informative resource must cover the whole range of the material within its scope from the outset rather than merely be a sampler. Construction studies involve a large and diverse range of ´generic´ or ´model solutions´ which, in an ideal learning situation, are placed in context with historical and contemporary examples to aid a sense of critical evaluation. An obstacle, then, against creating resources dealing with detailed design is the risk that if it is not completed in its entirely there is no useful outcome. This paper also describes the problems and solutions involved in treating this material as data in a generic format so that its future usefulness is not compromised by current needs. It also outlines the programmes written to streamline an otherwise unwieldy process and deal with the inevitable non-conforming output from the participants.
series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_31.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:22

_id ff05
authors Butelski, Kazimierz
year 1995
title A Brief Note on Virtual Space
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 83-92
summary In its efforts to represent space, and then create architecture on the basis of this representation, humanity has taken three major steps. STEP 1. Representation of space in the form of a drawing or model; representations compared to the mental vision and then redrawn or remodelled, until the vision takes the shape of a finished building. This technology of design" followed different conventions, depending on the epoch. In the Middle Ages the method of approximation by triangles was introduced. The Renaissance used Projection, Elevation and Cross-Section. In order to construct a building, a flat, abstract representation is used, supplemented by a model showing spatial relations and a verbal description, impossible to convey graphically. STEP 2. Methods as in Step 1, but, beginning in the 1970s, with the use of computers, which allows also for the gradual integration of these methods in one program. Theoretically speaking, all necessary data can be now recorded, visualized, animated, etc., on a PC class computer. The design-aid software is based on the method of creating a 3D model of the whole building, and then generating the rest (projections, cross-sections) from it. STEP 3. The above step have - brought us to near- perfection in photorealistic representation of space, which remains, however only a 2D abstraction from 3D space. The next step, which is now taking place before (and in?) our very eyes, is to use systems which bring us directly into 3D space.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 05f7
authors Carrara, G., Confessore, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 1995
title Multimedia and Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 323-330
summary It appears by now fairly accepted to many researchers in the field of the Computer Aided Architectural Design that the way to realize support tools for these aims is by means of the realization of Knowledge Based Assistants. This kind of computer programs, based on the knowledge engineering, finds their power and efficaciousness by their knowledge base. Nowadays this kind of tools is leaving the research world and it appears evident that the common graphic interfaces and the modalities of dialogue between the architect and the computer, are inadequate to support the exchange of information that the use of these tools requires. The use of the knowledge bases furthermore, presupposes that the conceptual model of the building realized by others, must be made entirely understandable to the architect. The CAAD Laboratory has carried out a system software prototype based on Knowledge Engineering in the field of hospital buildings. In order to overcome the limit of software systems based on usual Knowledge Engineering, by improving architect-computer interaction, at CAAD Lab it is refining building model introducing into the knowledge base two complementary each other methodologies: the conceptual clustering and multimedia technics. This research will make it possible for architects navigate consciously through the domain of the knowledge base already implemented.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_39.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:27

_id 7a20
id 7a20
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title SHARED SPACE’ AND ‘PUBLIC SPACE’ DIALECTICS IN COLLABORATIVE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
source Proceedings of Collaborative Decision-Support Systems Focus Symposium, 30th July, 2002; under the auspices of InterSymp-2002, 14° International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, 2002, Baden-Baden, pg. 27-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2005/03/30 14:25

_id 6279
id 6279
authors Carrara, G.; Fioravanti, A.
year 2002
title Private Space' and ‘Shared Space’ Dialectics in Collaborative Architectural Design
source InterSymp 2002 - 14th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics (July 29 - August 3, 2002), pp 28-44.
summary The present paper describes on-going research on Collaborative Design. The proposed model, the resulting system and its implementation refer mainly to architectural and building design in the modes and forms in which it is carried on in advanced design firms. The model may actually be used effectively also in other environments. The research simultaneously pursues an integrated model of the: a) structure of the networked architectural design process (operators, activities, phases and resources); b) required knowledge (distributed and functional to the operators and the process phases). The article focuses on the first aspect of the model: the relationship that exists among the various ‘actors’ in the design process (according to the STEP-ISO definition, Wix, 1997) during the various stages of its development (McKinney and Fischer, 1998). In Collaborative Design support systems this aspect touches on a number of different problems: database structure, homogeneity of the knowledge bases, the creation of knowledge bases (Galle, 1995), the representation of the IT datum (Carrara et al., 1994; Pohl and Myers, 1994; Papamichael et al., 1996; Rosenmann and Gero, 1996; Eastman et al., 1997; Eastman, 1998; Kim, et al., 1997; Kavakli, 2001). Decision-making support and the relationship between ‘private’ design space (involving the decisions of the individual design team) and the ‘shared’ design space (involving the decisions of all the design teams, Zang and Norman, 1994) are the specific topic of the present article.

Decisions taken in the ‘private design space’ of the design team or ‘actor’ are closely related to the type of support that can be provided by a Collaborative Design system: automatic checks performed by activating procedures and methods, reporting of 'local' conflicts, methods and knowledge for the resolution of ‘local’ conflicts, creation of new IT objects/ building components, who the objects must refer to (the ‘owner’), 'situated' aspects (Gero and Reffat, 2001) of the IT objects/building components.

Decisions taken in the ‘shared design space’ involve aspects that are typical of networked design and that are partially present in the ‘private’ design space. Cross-checking, reporting of ‘global’ conflicts to all those concerned, even those who are unaware they are concerned, methods for their resolution, the modification of data structure and interface according to the actors interacting with it and the design phase, the definition of a 'dominus' for every IT object (i.e. the decision-maker, according to the design phase and the creation of the object). All this is made possible both by the model for representing the building (Carrara and Fioravanti, 2001), and by the type of IT representation of the individual building components, using the methods and techniques of Knowledge Engineering through a structured set of Knowledge Bases, Inference Engines and Databases. The aim is to develop suitable tools for supporting integrated Process/Product design activity by means of a effective and innovative representation of building entities (technical components, constraints, methods) in order to manage and resolve conflicts generated during the design activity.

keywords Collaborative Design, Architectural Design, Distributed Knowledge Bases, ‘Situated’ Object, Process/Product Model, Private/Shared ‘Design Space’, Conflict Reduction.
series other
type symposium
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2012/12/04 06:53

_id 67cd
authors Clibbon, K., Candy, L. and Edmonds, E.
year 1995
title A Logic-Based Framework for Representing Architectural Design Knowledge
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 91-102
summary This paper proposes a logic-based framework for representing and manipulating knowledge during Computer-Aided Architectural Design. The framework incorporates a meta-level architecture to represent declarative design knowledge and strategic knowledge used by the designer. It consists of an object layer, a design requirements layer and strategies for navigating through the design space. An extended first-order logic is described which has been used to represent some examples of architectural knowledge. This computational model is being implemented in KAUS (Knowledge Acquisition and Utilisation System), a general purpose knowledge-based system, founded in Multi-Layered Logic.
keywords Design Knowledge, Strategic Knowledge, Multi-Layered Logic.
series CAAD Futures
email L.Candy@lboro.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 44f6
authors Colajanni, Benedetto and Pellitteri, Giuseppe (Eds.)
year 1995
title Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4 / Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, 436 p.
summary The rapid development of the potentialities of multimedia imposes a reflection about its use in teaching architecture. Multimedia is multifaceted and each facet deserves a particular attention inasmuch as it can change the traditional approach to learning. A direct experience of an architectural work can be simulated with a impact far stronger than an experience trough photographs, drawings and books can do. But, as every positive fact can have in certain cases also some negative consequences. the intensity of the participation to an experience structured by someone else can leave less space to a personal approach to the object of the presentation. The same problem is posed if we consider the structure of an hypertext. The essence of the hypertext lies in the net of relationships between very different kinds of documents that it is able to manage in order to express the complexity of its theme. But who has to create the net, the teacher choosing the relationship that he thinks important or the learner to build a personal image of the hypertext matter. It is an old question about the two faces of teaching: transmitting knowledge or giving the learner the instruments to build by oneself his store of knowledge. Easy and trivial answer that both approaches can be useful. The accomplishment of a multimedial sequence of average complexity requires at present a lot of time. Hence, to be convenient, it is to be used many times, then by many students. The effectiveness of the tool partly depends on the rapidity with which it can be constructed. Speeding it up would allow to use this kind of tools with the same easiness than mare traditional means of representation. Besides those general considerations a check is to do on the peculiarities, if any, of the use of multimedia in the different disciplines of the formative curriculum of an architect. This is theme of our thirteenth conference. The programme has been articulated into sessions, dealing separately with history teaching, design teaching and research. Of course the sessions dealing with design are more numerous than the other, since design is the axis of teaching architecture. The presented paper cover a large arc of arguments, dealing with many facets of the proposed themes with plenty of examples and documentation on practical experiences. constituting a corpus of great usefulness for any operator in the field of architectural teaching.

series eCAADe
email bcolajan@biblio.unipa.it
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Home.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 13:04

_id eb51
authors Coyne, Richard
year 1996
title CAAD, Curriculum and Controversy
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 121-130
summary This paper brings some of the debate within educational theory to bear on CAAD teaching, outlining the contributions of conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics and pragmatism. The paper concludes by recommending that CAAD teaching move away from conservative concepts of teaching, design and technology to integrate it into the studio. In a highly illuminating book on education theory, Shaun Gallagher (1991) outlines four current views on education that correspond to four major positions in contemporary social theory and philosophy. I will extend these categories to a consideration of attitudes to information technology, and the teaching of computing in architecture. These four positions are conservatism, critical theory, radical hermeneutics, and pragmatism. I will show how certain issues cluster around them, how each position provides the focus of various discursive practices, or intellectual conversations in contemporary thinking, and how information technology is caught up in those conversations. These four positions are not "cognitive styles," but vigorously argued domains of debate involving writers such as Gadamer, Habermas and Derrida about the theory of interpretation. The field of interpretation is known as hermeneutics, which is concerned less with epistemology and knowledge than with understanding. Interpretation theory applies to reading texts, interpreting the law, and appreciating art, but also to the application of any practical task, such as making art, drawing, defining and solving problems, and design (Coyne and Snodgrass, 1995). Hermeneutics provides a coherent focus for considering many contemporary issues and many domains of practice. I outline what these positions in education mean in terms of CAAD (computer-aided architectural design) in the curriculum.

series eCAADe
email richard@caad.ed.ac.uk
more http://www.caad.ac.uk/~richard
last changed 1998/08/17 13:35

_id ae9f
authors Damer, B.
year 1996
title Inhabited Virtual Worlds: A New Frontier for Interaction Design
source Interactions, Vol.3, No.5 ACM
summary In April of 1995 the Internet took a step into the third dimension with the introduction of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as a commercial standard. Another event that month caused fewer headlines but in retrospect was just as significant. A small company from San Francisco, Worlds Incorporated, launched WorldsChat, a three dimensional environment allowing any Internet user to don a digital costume, or avatar, and travel about and converse with other people inhabiting the space. WorldsChat was appropriately modeled on a space station complete with a central hub, hallways, sliding doors, windows, and escalators to outlying pods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a84e
authors De Grassi, Mario and Giretti, Alberto
year 1995
title Applying Formal Methods to Multimedia Design Aid
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 283-296
summary In the last decade we assisted at an evolution of computer aided design systems from drafting, calculation and simulation utilities toward systems able to support the conceptual phase of the design process. Systems supporting conceptual design use knowledge about the design domain and assume a will defined model of the design activity. Their computational framework is usually built by means of a set of representational schemata which lack a formal semantics. This aspect causes a limitation on the applicability of their computational framework to different domains. In this paper we propose a formal knowledge representation language, that has been defined in order to represent the structural relationships of domain knowledge. On the basis of language structure we propose a number of inferences tailored to case-based conceptual design aiding. Finally we apply the representational framework to the implementation of a computational architecture for conceptual design aiding that integrates multimedia representation of design cases with symbolic information processing. The architecture combines a knowledge representation server and a multimedia server. The knowledge representation server processes both domain knowledge and design experiences according to the Case Based Reasoning paradigm. The multimedia server produces the required case representation.

series eCAADe
more http://dpce.ing.unipa.it/Webshare/Wwwroot/ecaade95/Pag_34.htm
last changed 2000/12/02 12:35

_id a56e
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 1995
title What's in a Diagram That a Computer Should Understand?
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 469-480
summary This paper reports on an experiment to test the feasibility of using a diagramming tool to access an architectural knowledge base. Our hypothesis is that designers only use a small set of conventional elements to make diagrams of architectural concepts. If this is true, then a scheme for retrieving information from computer knowledge bases using diagrams would work. Therefore we asked designers to make diagrams from texts, to interpret diagrams into texts, to pair diagrams and texts, and to comment on existing pairs from the case base. We found from the experiment that common features are shared between different designerís diagrams and texts.
keywords Architectural Diagrams, Graphic Interface, Knowledge Bases
series CAAD Futures
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 819d
authors Eiteljorg, H.
year 1988
title Computing Assisted Drafting and Design: new technologies for old problems
source Center for the study of architecture, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
summary In past issues of the Newsletter, George Tressel and I have written about virtual reality and renderings. We have each discussed particular problems with the technology, and both of us mentioned how compelling computer visualizations can be. In my article ("Virtual Reality and Rendering," February, 1995, Vol. 7, no. 4), I indicated my concerns about the quality of the scholarship and the level of detail used in making renderings or virtual worlds. Mr. Tressel (in "Visualizing the Ancient World," November, 1996, Vol. IX, no. 3) wrote about the need to distinguish between real and hypothetical parts of a visualization, the need to differentiate materials, and the difficulties involved in creating the visualizations (some of which were included in the Newsletter in black-and-white and on the Web in color). I am returning to this topic now, in part because the quality of the images available to us is improving so fast and in part because it seems now that neither Mr. Tressel nor I treated all the issues raised by the use of high-quality visualizations. The quality may be illustrated by new images of the older propylon that were created by Mr. Tressel (Figs. 1 - 3); these images are significantly more realistic than the earlier ones, but they do not represent the ultimate in quality, since they were created on a personal computer.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 33f3
authors Fujii, Haruyuki
year 1995
title Incorporation of Natural Language Processing and a Generative System - An Interactive System that Constructs Topological Models from Spatial Descriptions in Natural Language
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 205-218
summary The natural language processing technique and the spatial reasoning technique are incorporated to create a computational model representing the process of updating and maintaining the knowledge about spatial relations. An algorithm for the spatial reasoning is proposed. An interactive system that understands sentences describing spatial relations is implemented. The system determines the reference of an anaphoric or deictic expression from the literal meaning of the input and the implicit meaning derived from the literal meaning. The consistency of the spatial relations is maintained. The correct topological representations of the spatial relations are generated from well-formed descriptions.
keywords Natural Language Processing, Discourse Analysis, Artificial Intelligence, Architecture, CAD
series CAAD Futures
email hfujii@arch.titech.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id b04c
authors Goerger, S., Darken, R., Boyd, M., Gagnon, T., Liles, S., Sullivan, J. and Lawson, J.
year 1996
title Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from Maps and Virtual Environments in Complex Architectural Space
source Proc. 16 th Applied Behavioral Sciences Symposium, 22-23 April, U.S. Airforce Academy, Colorado Springs, CO., 1996, 6-10
summary It has often been suggested that due to its inherent spatial nature, a virtual environment (VE) might be a powerful tool for spatial knowledge acquisition of a real environment, as opposed to the use of maps or some other two-dimensional, symbolic medium. While interesting from a psychological point of view, a study of the use of a VE in lieu of a map seems nonsensical from a practical point of view. Why would the use of a VE preclude the use of a map? The more interesting investigation would be of the value added of the VE when used with a map. If the VE could be shown to substantially improve navigation performance, then there might be a case for its use as a training tool. If not, then we have to assume that maps continue to be the best spatial knowledge acquisition tool available. An experiment was conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to determine if the use of an interactive, three-dimensional virtual environment would enhance spatial knowledge acquisition of a complex architectural space when used in conjunction with floor plan diagrams. There has been significant interest in this research area of late. Witmer, Bailey, and Knerr (1995) showed that a VE was useful in acquiring route knowledge of a complex building. Route knowledge is defined as the procedural knowledge required to successfully traverse paths between distant locations (Golledge, 1991). Configurational (or survey) knowledge is the highest level of spatial knowledge and represents a map-like internal encoding of the environment (Thorndyke, 1980). The Witmer study could not confirm if configurational knowledge was being acquired. Also, no comparison was made to a map-only condition, which we felt is the most obvious alternative. Comparisons were made only to a real world condition and a symbolic condition where the route is presented verbally.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 94cd
id 94cd
authors Heintz, J.L.
year 1995
title DESIGN KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR THE INTELLIGENT ARCHITECT; ARCHITECTURAL DOMAIN DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS
source Oxman, R.M., Bax, M.F.Th., Achten, H.H. (eds.) Design research in the Netherlands, 71-87
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN1995_Heintz.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:15

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