CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 392

_id 276c
authors Breen, Jack
year 1995
title Dynamic Perspective: The Media Research Programme
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary This paper focuses on the Research Programme of the Media Sector at the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. The media research objectives for the coming years have been brought together with an overall project: “Dynamic Perspective”. The “dynamic” quality may be interpreted both as movement (visual displacement and registration) and as change (the effects of different options).

The four projects which together make up this research programme deal with perception (understanding) and conception (designing and imaging) of urban space: “the architecture of the city”. Specific aspects are the effects of primary and secondary spatial boundaries and the systematic structuring of simulation of visual information. The programme will further concentrate on the development and implementation of relevant techniques (besides “traditional” ones such as the drawing and the architectural model, on multimedia techniques such as endoscopy, computer visualization and development of virtual reality systems), both in education and in design practice.

By means of analysis, the creation of visual models of choice and the setting up of experiments, the programme aims at the furthering of theoretical knowledge and at acquiring better insights into the effects of design decisions at an urban level, both for designers and for other participants in the design process. Further development of existing laboratory facilities towards a comprehensive Design Simulation Laboratory is an important aspect of the programme.

Within the media research process the Aspern location master plan has been considered as a case study, the findings of which will be presented separately in the workshop sessions.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 600e
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1999
title Architecture of the Virtual Place
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 418-423
summary The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London (UCL), set up the first MSc in Virtual Environments in the UK in 1995. The course aims to synthesise and build on research work undertaken in the arts, architecture, computing and biological sciences in exploring the realms of the creation of digital and virtual immersive spaces. The MSc is concerned primarily with equipping students from design backgrounds with the skills, techniques and theories necessary in the production of virtual environments. The course examines both virtual worlds as prototypes for real urban or built form and, over the last few years, has also developed an increasing interest in the the practice of architecture in purely virtual contexts. The MSc course is embedded in the UK government sponsored Virtual Reality Centre for the Built Environment which is hosted by the Bartlett School of Architecture. This centre involves the UCL departments of architecture, computer science and geography and includes industrial partners from a number of areas concerned with the built environment including architectural practice, surveying and estate management as well as some software companies and the telecoms industry. The first cohort of students graduated in 1997 and predominantly found work in companies working in the new market area of digital media. This paper aims to outline the nature of the course as it stands, examines the new and ever increasing market for designers within digital media and proposes possible future directions for the course.
keywords Virtual Reality, Immersive Spaces, Digital Media, Education
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
more http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/ve/
last changed 2002/11/22 18:44

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c05a
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1995
title Design Precedents for Virtual Worlds
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 293-302
summary The usual precedents cited in relation to Cyberspace are William Gibson's book "Neuromancer" and Ridley Scott's film. "Bladerunner". This paper argues that, whilst literature and film are appropriate precedents, there are more suitable sources to refer to when designing virtual worlds. The paper discusses the use of computer modelling in exploring architectonic concepts in three-dimensional space. In doing so it draws on the philosophy of simulation and gives examples from alternative film and literature sources but concludes that one of the most appropriate metaphors is widely available in the form of the television soap opera.
keywords Design Simulation, Space, Time, Virtual Reality
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 07de
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1995
title Linking the Virtual to Reality: CAD & Physical Modeling
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 303-311
summary Using both study models and digital models for schematic design allows us to take advantage of the strengths of each. Models constructed manually benefit from spontaneous juxtapositions and serendipitous interactions with light and gravity. Converting these models into the digital realm allows the computer to take over in areas that it does best: geometric transformation, rigorous analysis, elaboration and co-ordination of details and complexity. As a project develops, CAD/CAM methods can generate forms or components for verifying the virtual representation. The paradigm of porting data to appropriate software tools needs to be extended to exporting out of and into the physical realm. Connecting to models in real space allows us to use senses that are not yet completely addressed by digital models.
keywords Modeling, Representation, Design
series CAAD Futures
email nywc@uoregon.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4169
authors Iodo, Irina A.
year 1995
title The Search for the Logical Algorithm of the Town-planning Process
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 275-282
summary The creation of such models of material and spatial environment that can guarantee the most efficient passing of the virtual processes is considered to be one of the main goals for the town planning. But sometimes this goal is not achieved because of the far-fetched space organization accepted in the model, that does not always coincide with the real processes of vital activity. This report does not focus particularly on the damage which is caused by the realization of such defective models. But it is very important to find out the way for complete elimination of the reasons mentioned above. We should also take into account that means of cognition available at the moment are among the basic determiners, which define that "shear" of reality and also that comprehension level of objective laws governing this stage of social development. That is why our conception of the town-planning processes is in constant development and improvement: it gradually approximates to the truth, but, certainly, does not entirely perceive it.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 2a99
authors Keul, A. and Martens, B.
year 1996
title SIMULATION - HOW DOES IT SHAPE THE MESSAGE?
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4], pp. 47-54
summary Architectural simulation techniques - CAD, video montage, endoscopy, full-scale or smaller models, stereoscopy, holography etc. - are common visualizations in planning. A subjective theory of planners says "experts are able to distinguish between 'pure design' in their heads and visualized design details and contexts like color, texture, material, brightness, eye level or perspective." If this is right, simulation details should be compensated mentally by trained people, but act as distractors to the lay mind.

Environmental psychologists specializing in architectural psychology offer "user needs' assessments" and "post occupancy evaluations" to facilitate communication between users and experts. To compare the efficiency of building descriptions, building walkthroughs, regular plans, simulation, and direct, long-time exposition, evaluation has to be evaluated.

Computer visualizations and virtual realities grow more important, but studies on the effects of simulation techniques upon experts and users are rare. As a contribution to the field of architectural simulation, an expert - user comparison of CAD versus endoscopy/model simulations of a Vienna city project was realized in 1995. The Department for Spatial Simulation at the Vienna University of Technology provided diaslides of the planned city development at Aspern showing a) CAD and b) endoscopy photos of small-scale polystyrol models. In an experimental design, they were presented uncommented as images of "PROJECT A" versus "PROJECT B" to student groups of architects and non-architects at Vienna and Salzburg (n= 95) and assessed by semantic differentials. Two contradictory hypotheses were tested: 1. The "selective framing hypothesis" (SFH) as the subjective theory of planners, postulating different judgement effects (measured by item means of the semantic differential) through selective attention of the planners versus material- and context-bound perception of the untrained users. 2. The "general framing hypothesis" (GFH) postulates typical framing and distraction effects of all simulation techniques affecting experts as well as non-experts.

The experiment showed that -counter-intuitive to expert opinions- framing and distraction were prominent both for experts and lay people (= GFH). A position effect (assessment interaction of CAD and endoscopy) was present with experts and non-experts, too. With empirical evidence for "the medium is the message", a more cautious attitude has to be adopted towards simulation products as powerful framing (i.e. perception- and opinion-shaping) devices.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 55e0
authors Liggett, R, Friedman, S, and Jepson, W.
year 1995
title Interactive Design/Decision Making in a Virtual Urban World: Visual Simulation and GIS
source Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual ESRI User Conference. Palm Springs, CA, (May)
summary Researchers at UCLA have developed an Urban Simulator which links virtual reality technology with traditional two-dimensional Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases. This paper discusses the data structure and interface requirements necessary to integrate a real-time three-dimensional visual simulation system with a GIS system. Potential uses of the integrated system are illustrated with a set of current projects in the Los Angeles area.
series other
email rliggett@ucla.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id dc71
authors Liggett, R., Friedmann, S. and Jepson, W.
year 1995
title Interactive Design/Decision Making in a Virtual Urban World: Visual Simulation and GIS
source Proceedings of the Fifteenth 1995 ESRI User Conference, Palm Springs, CA, May, 1995
summary Researchers at UCLA have developed an Urban Simulator which links virtual reality technology with traditional two-dimensional Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases. This paper discusses the data structure and interface requirements necessary to integrate a real-time three-dimensional visual simulation system with a GIS system. Potential uses of the integrated system are illustrated with a set of current projects in the Los Angeles area.
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
more http://www.aud.ucla.edu/%7Erobin/esripaper/p308.html
last changed 2003/02/24 09:56

_id 7670
authors Sawicki, Bogumil
year 1995
title Ray Tracing – New Chances, Possibilities and Limitations in AutoCAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 121-136
summary Realistic image synthesis is nowadays widely used in engineering applications. Some of these applications, such as architectural, interior, lighting and industrial design demand accurate visualization of non-existent scenes as they would look to us, when built in reality. This can only be archived by using physically based models of light interaction with surfaces, and simulating propagation of light through an environment. Ray tracing is one of the most powerful techniques used in computer graphics, which can produce such very realistic images. Ray tracing algorithm follows the paths of light rays backwards from observer into the scene. It is very time consuming process and as such one could not be developed until proper computers appeared, In recent years the technological improvements in computer industry brought more powerful machines with bigger storage capacities and better graphic devices. Owing to increasing these hardware capabilities successful implementation of ray tracing in different CAD software became possible also on PC machines. Ray tracing in AutoCAD r.12 - the most popular CAD package in the world - is the best of that example. AccuRender and AutoVision are an AutoCAD Development System (ADS) applications that use ray tracing to create photorealistic images from 3D AutoCAD models. These ,internal"' applications let users generate synthetic images of threedimensional models and scenes entirely within AutoCAD space and show effects directly on main AutoCAD screen. Ray tracing algorithm accurately calculates and displays shadows, transparency, diffusion, reflection, and refraction from surface qualities of user-defined materials. The accurate modelling of light lets produce sophisticated effects and high-quality images, which these ray tracers always generates at 24-bit pixel depth,"providing 16,7 million colours. That results can be quite impressive for some architects and are almost acceptable for others but that coloured virtual world, which is presented by ray tracing in AutoCAD space in such convincing way, is still not exactly the same as the real world. Main limitations of realism are due to the nature of ray tracing method Classical ray tracing technique takes into account the effects of light reflection from neighbouring surfaces but, leaves out of account the ambient and global illumination arising out of complex interreflections in an environment. So models generated by ray tracing belong to an "ideal" world where real materials and environment can't find their right place. We complain about that fact and say that ray tracing shows us "too specular world", but (...) (...) there is anything better on the horizon? It should be concluded, that typical abilities of today's graphics software and hardware are far from exploited. As was observed in literature there have been various works carried along with the explicit intention of overcoming all these ray tracing limitations, These researches seem to be very promising and let us hope that their results will be seen in CAD applications soon. As it happens with modelling, perhaps the answer will come from a variety of techniques that can be combined together with ray tracing depending on the case we are dealing with. Therefore from the point of view of an architects that try to keep alive some interest on the nature of materials and their interaction with form, "ray tracing" seems to be right path of research and development that we can still a long way follow, From the point of view of the school, a critical assimilation of "ray tracing" processes is required and one that might help to determinate exactly their distortions and to indicate the correct way of its development and right place in CAAD education. I trust that ray tracing will become standard not only in AutoCAD but in all architectural space modelling CAD applications and will be established as a powerful and real tool for experimental researches in architectural design process. Will be the technological progress so significant in the nearest future as it is anticipated?
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b633
authors Tan, Milton and Teh, Robert (Eds.)
year 1995
title The Global Design Studio [Conference Proceedings]
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, 779 p.
summary 1995 marks the 10th anniversary of the CAAD Futures series of international conferences which is dedicated to "promoting (...) the advancement of computer-aided architectural design in the service of those concerned with the quality of the built environment". It also marks the first time this important forum is held in Asia; hosted by the School of Architecture, National University of Singapore. This proceedings is a compilation of the sixty nine papers which were selected by an International Review Committee and presented at the conference in Singapore on 24-26 September 1995. The Chapters are organised according to the themes covered by the conference -Electronic Design Media, Environmental Simulation & Decision Support, Generative Systems, Scene and Product Modelling, Virtual Reality, Information Delivery Systems & Geographic Information Systems, Shape Grammar, Recognition & Emergence, Precedence & Prototypes, Case-based Reasoning, and Cooperative Design.
series CAAD Futures
email miltontan@mac.com
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e613
authors Kardos, Peter
year 1995
title The Role of Spatial Experience Anticipation in Architectural Education and Urban Design
source The Future of Endoscopy [Proceedings of the 2nd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-114-4]
summary Space and its matter substance are the main subjects of urban design, in which an architect, by setting in order the functional-operating relationships and the matter-dimensional manifestations of the formed structure, operates with the aim to achieve general harmony, functional and expressive complexity. Demanding a process, which coordinates relationships in all space dimensions, requires flexible openness of the work documentation during the conception period. Experience proved that such requirements are satisfactorily accomplished by the method of space-modeling, where the creative process happens on the working model.

The reality, though diminished in a simplified form, is in advance, i.e. in an anticipated way. By adapted periscope the endoscopic method develops the method of spatial modeling in new media dimension and enriches it towards creativeness by enabling the simulated space to be percepted on a traditional artificial model in natural horizon of a man. To secure the anticipation by visual simulation of spatial experience on the monitor in a trustworthy manner with respect to real reality, according to relevant aspects of the conception, the visual simulation must respect the rules of sensory perception of a man in real environment. From the procedural point of view of perception the most significant fact for the psyche is the sequence dynamics of the subject and the movement of the perceiver in space. This means that in the mind of the perceiver the most emotionally reflected is the dynamic spatial experience.

Despite the known disadvantages and technical circumstances of model building the method of spatial endoscopy proved itself in didactics, mainly in the approval phase of the aims of urbanistic composition and shaping of an urban space, especially because it enables to carry out by interactive means the sequence research and evaluation of the simulated space on the working model, directly in the studio or in laboratory conditions with relatively low expenses, and with the possibility of immediate correction and subsequent evaluation of the effect. Similarly, its audiovisually elaborated media outputs may simultaneously complete the identical model presentation within evaluating and approving continuations in professional gremiums or in making the results of urban and architectonic solutions popular in the layman public. According to an informal public opinion research on the effect of both CAD and endoscopy simulations, the later one is more popular. Is is, however, a matter of subjective evaluation and experience or a matter of commercial application.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Real Environments
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 0c8e
authors Ager, Mark Thomas and Sinclair, Brian R.
year 1995
title StereoCAD: Three Dimensional Representation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 343-355
summary Concepts of stereoscopic vision have been around for more than two thousand years. Despite this long history, its application to the field to architecture and design seems relatively unexplored. Synthesis of two technologies, the stereoscope and the computer, was the focus of the present study. The goal of the research was to determine if computer-generated stereoscopic pairs hold value for architectural design. Using readily available computer technology (Apple Macintosh) the research team modelled and rendered an existing project to verify the degree of correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant rendered stereo-paired representation. The experiments performed in this study have shown that producing stereo-paired images that highly correlate to reality is possible using technology that is readily available in the marketplace. Both the technology required to produce (i.e., personal computer and modelling/rendering software) and view (i.e., modified stereoscope) the images is unimposing. Both devices can easily fit in a studio or a boardroom and together can be utilized effectively to permit designers, clients and end-users to experience proposed spaces and projects. Furthermore, these technologies are familiar (clients and end-users have already experienced them in other applications and settings) and assume a fraction of the cost of more dynamic, immersive virtual reality systems. Working from this base, limitations of the process as well as future applications of computer-generated stereoscopic images are identified.
keywords Stereovision, Representation, Computers, Architects, Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e100
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1995
title Architecture in Digital Space: Actual and Potential Markets
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 405-423
summary As both the skepticism and 'hype' surrounding electronic environments vanish under the weight of ever increasing power, knowledge, and use of information technologies, the architectural profession must prepare for significant expansion of its professional services. To address the issue, this paper offers a survey of the professional services architects and designers do and may provide in digital space, and who the potential clients are. The survey was conducted by interviews with software developers, gaming companies, programmers, investigators, practicing architects, faculty, etc. It also included reviews of actual software products and literary research of conference proceedings, journals, books and newspapers (i.e. articles, classified ads, etc.). The actual and potential markets include gaming and entertainment developments, art installations, educational applications, and research. These markets provide architects the opportunity to participate in the design of 3D gaming environments, educational software, architecture for public experience and entertainment, data representation, cyberspace and virtual reality studies, and other digital services which will be required for this new world. We will demonstrate that although the rapidly growing digital market may be seen by some to be non-architectural and thus irrelevant to our profession, it actually represents great opportunities for growth and development. Digital environments will not replace the built environment as a major architectural market, but they will significantly complement it, thus strengthening the entire architectural profession.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id d7eb
authors Bharwani, Seraj
year 1996
title The MIT Design Studio of the Future: Virtual Design Review Video Program
source Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 1996 p.10
summary The MIT Design Studio of the Future is an interdisciplinary effort to focus on geographically distributed electronic design and work group collaboration issues. The physical elements of this virtual studio comprise networked computer and videoconferencing connections among electronic design studios at MIT in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Mechanical Engineering, the Lab for Computer Science, and the Rapid Prototyping Lab, with WAN and other electronic connections to industry partners and sponsors to take advantage of non-local expertise and to introduce real design and construction and manufacturing problems into the equation. This prototype collaborative design network is known as StudioNet. The project is looking at aspects of the design process to determine how advanced technologies impact the process. The first experiment within the electronic studio setting was the "virtual design review", wherein jurors for the final design review were located in geographically distributed sites. The video captures the results of that project, as does a paper recently published in the journal Architectural Research Quarterly (Cambridge, UK; Vol. 1, No. 2; Dec. 1995).
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8955
authors Donath, Dirk and Regenbrecht, Holger
year 1995
title VRAD (Virtual Reality Aided Design) in the Early Phases of the Architectural Design Process
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 313-322
summary With this paper we are introducing a system which supports the early phases of the architectural design process. The system consists of two main components: the software solution ìvoxDesign" and the physical environment "platform". Our aims are: to formulate, develop, and evaluate an architectural design system through the use of VR (virtual reality)-space. The exploration and development of design intentions is supplemented by a new method of three dimensional sketching.
keywords Virtual Reality, Architectural Design, Human Computer Interfaces, Design Techniques
series CAAD Futures
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 819d
authors Eiteljorg, H.
year 1988
title Computing Assisted Drafting and Design: new technologies for old problems
source Center for the study of architecture, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
summary In past issues of the Newsletter, George Tressel and I have written about virtual reality and renderings. We have each discussed particular problems with the technology, and both of us mentioned how compelling computer visualizations can be. In my article ("Virtual Reality and Rendering," February, 1995, Vol. 7, no. 4), I indicated my concerns about the quality of the scholarship and the level of detail used in making renderings or virtual worlds. Mr. Tressel (in "Visualizing the Ancient World," November, 1996, Vol. IX, no. 3) wrote about the need to distinguish between real and hypothetical parts of a visualization, the need to differentiate materials, and the difficulties involved in creating the visualizations (some of which were included in the Newsletter in black-and-white and on the Web in color). I am returning to this topic now, in part because the quality of the images available to us is improving so fast and in part because it seems now that neither Mr. Tressel nor I treated all the issues raised by the use of high-quality visualizations. The quality may be illustrated by new images of the older propylon that were created by Mr. Tressel (Figs. 1 - 3); these images are significantly more realistic than the earlier ones, but they do not represent the ultimate in quality, since they were created on a personal computer.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 0128
authors Engeli, M., Kurmann, D. and Schmitt, G.
year 1995
title A New Design Studio: Intelligent Objects and Personal Agents
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 155-170
summary As design processes and products are constantly increasing in complexity, new tools are being developed for the designer to cope with the growing demands. In this paper we describe our research towards a design environment, within which different aspects of design can be combined, elaborated and controlled. New hardware equipment will be combined with recent developments in graphics and artificial intelligence programming to develop appropriate computer based tools and find possible new design techniques. The core of the new design studio comprises intelligent objects in a virtual reality environment that exhibit different behaviours drawn from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life (AL) principles, a part already realised in a tool called 'Sculptor'. The tasks of the architect will focus on preferencing and initiating good tendencies in the development of the design. A first set of software agents, assistants that support the architect in viewing, experiencing and judging the design has also been conceptualised for this virtual design environment. The goal is to create an optimised environment for the designer, where the complexity of the design task can be reduced thanks to the support made available from the machine.
keywords Architectural Design, Design Process, Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Personal Agents
series ACADIA
email maia@enge.li
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

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